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who was to assist me in procuring the chief materials for the composition of my work. For it ^^ only by his means that I 
could reasonably hope to obtain the use of manuscripts in the libraries of mosques ; that is, by his borrowing those manuscripts 
as though for his own use : and one of the librarians showed himself to be desirous of urging any pretext in order to refuse the 
" loan of the work that I most needed. I therefore made my place of residence to be as far as I could from the quarters 
frequented by Franks, and conformed with such of the general usages of the Muslims as did not involve a profession of 
their religion. But my precautions did not suffice to secure me from every difficulty. Even the Viceroy, Mohammad 'Alee 
Pasha, though almost an absolute prince, could not enable me to overcome them. Hearing of my project, I know not how, 
he spontaneously informed me, by his Prime Minister, that he was desirous of showing his respect for my Patron by rendering 
me any assistance within his power. I replied that his Highness would very greatly aid me by granting me authority to 
demand the loan of certain manuscripts in the libraries of mosques. But it was feared that the wardens of the mosques would 
in this case urge the necessity of an order from the Sultan, or abstract considerable portions from those manuscripts and so 
defeat my plan. I could therefore only endeavour to obtain, according to the usual custom, through the sheykh my assistant, 
a small portion at a time of each of the required manuscripts : and even this I was unable to do until after the lapse of some 
weeks. In the mean time, however, I had the good fortune to acquire a large folio-volume, consisting of nearly the whole of 
the first tenth portion, of a copy of the great work to which I have alluded before as comprising in about one seventh part of 
its contents the whole of the celebrated Kamoos. This work, entitled "Tdj el-'Aroos" i^^jid\ «p.l3), a compilation from the best 
and most copious Arabic lexicons, in the form of a running commentary on the Kamoos, with necessary critical and other 
illustrations, original, and selected from various authors of high repute, fully justified my expectation. I found, from the 
portion before me, that it would of itself alone suffice to supply the means of composing an Arabic lexicon far more accurate 
and perspicuous, and incomparably more copious, than any hitherto published in Europe. But I should not have been satisfied 
with making use of it for such a purpose without being able to refer to several of the most important of the works from which 
it was compiled. 

Of these works, and others particularly deserving of notice, as well as of the Tdj el-' Aroos itself, and of the principles of 
Arabic lexicology, I must now endeavour to give a brief account. In doing this, I shall frequently have occasion to cite the 
"Muzhir" of Es-Suyootee, a compilation of the utmost value to students in general, and more especially to lexicographers, of the 
Arabic language. Its author died in the year of the Flight 911, a date to be borne in mind in perusing my extracts from it. 
I possess a most excellent copy of it, (written by a learned man, the sheykh Nasr El-Hooreenee, with the exception of a 
portion which, while he was sufiering from an attack of ophthalmia, was written for him by one of his disciples,) transcribed 
from the best that is known to exist in Cairo, (namely, that of Es-Seja'ee, in the library of the great mosque El-Azhar,) and 
enriched with copious marginal notes. 

What is called the classical language of Arabia, often termed by the Arabs "the language of Ma'add," and "the 
language of Mudar," is a compound of many sister-dialects, very little difiFering among themselves, which were spoken 
throughout nearly the whole of the Peninsula before the religion of Mohammad incited the nation to spread its conquering 
armies over foreign countries. Before that period, feuds among the tribes, throughout the whole extent of their territory, had 
prevented the blending of their dialects into one uniform language ; but this effect of disunion was counteracted in a great 
measure by the institution of the sacred months, in which all acts of hostility were most strictly interdicted, and by the annual 
pilgrimage, which had obtained from time immemorial, and the yearly fair held at 'Okddh, at which the poets of various 
tribes, during a period of about a century before the birth of Mohammad, or perhaps during a somewhat longer period, 
contended for the meed of general admiration.* 

• Respecting this fair, sec some extracts from the first of M. Fresnel's "Lettres sur THistoire des Arabes avant I'lslamisme*' in Note 18 to the 
first chapter of my Translation of the Thousand and One Nights. 

viii PREFACE. 

the older Arabic lexicons and other lexicological works by instances of the necessity of appeals "V^con temporary Arabs of the 
desert, respecting points of grammar, by learned men whose parents lived in the first century <y/tbe Flight. The celebrated 
lexicologist El-Asma'ee, who was born in the year of the Flight 123, and lived to the age of 92 or 93, was not a sound 
grammarian. (See De Sacy's " Anthol. Gr. Ar." p. 49 of the Arabic text.) And even Seebaweyh, who was contemporary, 
during the whole of his comparatively short life, with El-Asma'ee, appears to have erred in grammar. (See p. 133 of the 
present work.) Ibn-Seedeh says, in the "Mohkam," in art. ^j^, (voce itj-^,) that El-Asma'ee was not a grammarian: and in 
art. ^^, (voce v^^, as pi. of vj^O ^® remarks that Ibn-El-AarAbee (who calls vjj-^ P^- of 4>i) was ignorant of grammar. 
In short, not a single instance is known of any one's having acquired a perfect knowledge of the grammar of the classical 
Arabic otherwise than by being brought up among Arabs who retained that language uncorrupted. The Khaleefeh El-Weleed 
(who reigned near the close of the first century of the Flight), the son of 'Abd-El-Melik, spoke so corrupt a dialect that he 
often could not make himself understood by the Arabs of the desert. A ridiculous instance of the mistakes occasioned by 
his use of the simplified language which is now current is related by Abu-1-Fidi. The rapid progress of the corruption of 
the language among the learned is the more remarkable when it is considered that many of these, in the first and second 
centuries of the Flight, were very long-lived: for in a list of the most celebrated Arabic lexicologists and grammarians, 
in the 48th Section of the Muzhir, the first five whose lengths of life are defined attained the following ages : 92, 74, 93, 96 
or 97 or 98 or 99, and 92 or 93: the first of these (Yoonus) was bom in the year 90 of the Flight; and the last, in the year 
123; this being El-Asma'ee. This series of five is broken only by one, whose length of life is not known. In some 
few spots, the language of Ma'add long lingered; and it may perhaps even survive to the present day; as appears from the 
following curious statement in the Kdmoos (article j^): "'Akadis a certain mountain, near Zebeed, [a well-known city in 
the western seaboard of El- Yemen,] the inhabitants of which retain the chaste language:" to which is added in the TAj 
el-'Aroos, that they retain this language "to the present time [the middle of the eighteen^jfcentury] : and the stranger remains 
not with them more than three nights, [the period prescribed by the law for the entertainment of a stranger,] by reason of 
[their] fear for [the corruption of] their language." But instances of the corruption of the classical Arabic are related (in the 
44th Section of the Muzhir) as having occurred even in the life-time of Mohammad. 

Such being the case, it became a matter of the highest importance to the Arabs to preserve the knowledge of that 
speech which had thus become obsolescent, and to draw a distinct line between the classical and post-classical languages. 
For the former language was that of the Kur-an and of the Traditions of Mohammad, the sources of their religious, moral, 
civil, criminal, and political code: and they possessed, in that language, preserved by oral tradition, — for the art of writing, 
in Arabia, had been almost exclusively confined to Christians and Jews, — a large collection of poetry, consisting of odes and 
shorter pieces, which they esteemed almost as much for its intrinsic merits as for its value in illustrating their law. Hence 
the vast collection of lexicons and lexicological works composed by Arabs, and by Muslims naturalized among the Arabs; 
which compositions, but for the rapid corruption of the language, would never have been undertaken. In the aggregate of 
these works, with all the strictness that is observed in legal proceedings, as will presently be shown, the utmost care and 
research have been employed to embody everything that could be preserved or recovered of the classical language ; the result 
being a collection of such authority, such exactness, and such copiousness, as we do not find to have been approached in the 
case of any other language after its corruption or decay. 

The classical language they called, by reason of its incomparable excellence, ** el-loghah," or " the language :" and the 
line between this and the post-classical was easily drawn, on account of the almost sudden commencement, and rapid progress, 
of tie corruption. It was decided by common consent, that no poet, nor any other person, should be taken as an absolute and 
unquestionable authority with respect to the words or their significations, the grammar, or the prosody, of the classical 
language, unless he were one who had died before the promulgation of El-Isldm, or who had lived partly before and partly 
after that event; or, as they term it, unless he were a "Jdhilee" or a "Mukhadram," or (as some pronounce it) "Mukhadrim," 


or " Muhadram," or " Muhadrim." A poet of the class next after the Mukhadrams is termed an " Isldmee :" and as the 
corruption of the language had become considerable in his time, even among those who aimed at chasteness of speech, he is not 
cited as an authority absolutely and unquestionably like the two preceding classes. A poet of the next class, which is the last, 
is termed a " Muwelled :'' he is absolutely post-classical ; and is cited as an unquestionable authority with respect only to the 
rhetorical sciences. The commencement of the period of the Muwelleds is not distinctly stated : but it must have preceded 
the middle of the second century of the Flight ; for the classical age may be correctly defined as having nearly ended 
with the first century, when very few persons born before the establishment of El-Isldm through Arabia were living. Thus 
the best of the Isldmee poets may be regarded, and are generally regarded, as holding classical rank, though not as being 
absolute authorities with respect to the words and the significations, the grammar, and the prosody, of the classical language. 
The highest of all authorities, however, on such points, prosody of course excepted, is held by the Arabs to be the Kur-An. 
The Traditions of Mohammad are also generally held to be absolute authorities with respect to everything relating to the prose 
of the classical language; but they are excluded by some from the class of absolute authorities, because traditions may be 
corrupted in language, and interpolated, and even forged. Women are often cited as authorities of equal rank with men : and 
in like manner, slaves reared among the Arabs of classical times are cited as authorities equally with such Arabs, (See the 
word jjkVi in the present work ; and see also ^^V and J»^ik^ and J^'iCl and jJ^i.) 

The poetry of the Jahilees and Mukhadrams consists, first, of odes (termed jiui, plural of sju^), which were regarded 
as complete poems, and which were all designed to be chanted or sung : secondly, of shorter compositions, termed pieces 
(*ij, plural of aii^); many of which were also designed to be chanted or sung: and thirdly, oi couplets, or single verses. In 
the first of these classes are usually included all poems of more than fifteen verses : but few odes consist of much less than fifty 
verses or much more than a hundred. Of such poems, none has been transmitted, and none is believed to have existed, of an 
age more than a few generations (probably not more than three or four or five) anterior to that of Mohammad. It is said in 
the 49th Section of the Muzhir, on the authority of Mohammad Ibn-Seldm El-Jumahee, that "the pristine Arabs had no 
poetry except the few verses which a man would utter in his need : and odes (kaseedehs) were composed, and poetry made 
long, only [for the first time] in the age of 'Abd-El-Muttalib [Mohammad's grandfather], or Hilshim Ibn-'Abd-Mendf [his 
great-grandfather]." And shortly after, in the same Section of that work, it is said, on the same authority, that " the first 
who composed poems of this kind was El-Muhelhil Ibn-Eabee'ah Et-Teghlibee, on the subject of the slaughter of his brother 
Kuleyb :'' " he was maternal uncle of Imra-el-Keys* Ibn-Hojr El-Kindee." " Or, according to 'Omar Ibn-Shebbeh, each tribe 
claimed priority for its own poet; and not merely as the author of two or three verses, for such they called not a poem: the 
Yemdnees claimed for Imra-el-Keys; and Benoo-Asad, for 'Abeed Ibn-El- Abras ; and Teghlib, for [E1-] Muhelhil; and Bekr, 
for *Amr Ibn-Kamee-ah and El-Murakkish El-Akbar; and lyad, for Aboo-Du-dd: and some assert that El-Afwah El-Azdee 
was older than these, and was the first who composed kaseedehs : but these for whom priority in poetry was claimed were 
nearly contemporary ; the oldest of them probably not preceding the Flight by a hundred years, or thereabout. Thaalab says, i 
in his *Amdlee,' El-Asmaee says that the first of the poets of whom is related a poem extending to thirty verses is [E1-] 
Muhelhil: then, Dhu-eyb Ibn-Kaab Ibn-'Amr Ibn-Temeem Ibn-Damreh, a man of Benoo-Kindneh ; and El-Adbat Ibn-Kureya: 
and he says. Between these and El-Islam was four hundred years : and Imra-el-Keys was long after these.^ But this is 
inconsistent with the assertion of Ibn-Seldm mentioned above, made also by En-Nawawee in his " Tahdheeb el-Asma," p. 163, 
that El-Muhelhil was maternal uncle of Imra-el-Keys : and as the majority refer El-Muhelhil to a period of about a century 
before the Flight, we have a double reason for holding this period (not that of four hundred years) to be the more probably 

• This name is generally pronounced thus, or " Imr^el-Keys," by the j Keys ;" in the last instance without hemzeh, because (as is said in the 
learned among the Arabs in the present day; for most of them regard it as ' Tahdheeb and the Tdj el-'Aroos on the authority of El-Kis4-ee and El- 
pedantic to pronounce proper names in the classical manner. The classical Farr&) this letter is often dropped, 
pronunciation is "Imraii-l-J^^eys" and " Imruii-l-Keys" and Imru-1- ) 



CQrrect. According to Ibn-Kuteybeh, the time of Imra-el-Keys was forty years before that ol Mohammad ; as is stated in the 
OSlcutta edition of the Mo'allakdt. M. Fresnel contends that the honour commonly ascribed to £]-Muhelhil is due to Zuheyr 
Ibp-Jendb El-Kelbee, of whose poetry at least seventy-nine verses have been preserved, fragments of different poems, including 
a piece of fifteen verses, of which the first hemistich of the first verse rhymes with the second hemistich, according to rule. 
But this Zuheyr, during a portion of his life, is related to have been contemporary with El-Muhelhil. In a fragment ascribed 
to him, he represents himself (if the fragment be genuine) to have lived two hundred years : and one tradition assigns to him 


^ a life of two hundred and fifty years ; another, four hundred years ; and another, four hundred and fifty years !* — Upon the 
..M".^.^ whole, then, it seems that we may with probability refer the first kaseedeh to a period within a century and a half, at the 
utmost, before the Flight. 


Mohammad said, on being asked, " Who is the best of the poets 1" '' Imra-el-Keys will be the leader of the poets to 
Hell." And in the general estimation of the Arabs, he is the most excellent of all their poets. His Mo'allakah is most 
especially admired by them. Of the pagan and unbelieving poets who flourished before and during the time of Mohammad, El- 
Beyddwee sarcastically remarks (on chap. xxvi. verses 224 and 225 of the Kur-dn, in which, and in the verse that next follows, 
they are censured as seducers, bewildered by amorous desire, and vain boasters, ) " Most of their themes are unreal fancies, and 
their words chiefly relate to the description of the charms of women under covert, and amorous dalliance, and false arrogations 
or professions, and the rending of reputations, and the impugning of the legitimacy of parentages, and false threatening, and 
vain boasting, and the praise of such as do not deserve it, with extravagance therein." The like is also said in the Keshshdf, 
(on the same passage of the Kur-dn,) and in too large a degree we must admit it to be just ; but it is very far from being 
unexceptionable. The classical poetry is predominantly objective, sensuous, and passionate ; with little imagination, or fancy, 
except in relation to phantoms, or spectres, and to jinn, or genii, and other fabulous beings ; and much less artificial than 
most of the later poetry, many of the authors of which, lacking the rude spirit of the Bedawees, aimed chiefly at mere 
elegancies of diction, and plays upon words. Generally speaking, in the classical poetry, the descriptions of nature, of the life 
of the desert, of night-joumeyings and day-journeyings, with their various incidents, of hunting, and stalking, and lurking for 
game, of the tending of camels, of the gathering of wild honey, and similar occupations, are most admirable. And very curious 
and interesting, as will be shown by many citations in the present work, are its frequent notices (mostly by early Muslim 
poets) of the superstitions that characterized, in the pagan times, the. religion most generally prevailing throughout Arabia ; 
in which, with the belief in a Supreme Deity, with strange notions of a future state, and with angelolatry, astrolatry, and 
idolatry, was combined the lowest kind of fetishism, chiefly the worship of rocks and stones and trees, probably learned from 
Negroes, of whom the Arabs have always had great numbers as slaves, and with whom they have largely intermixed. 
Sententious language consisting of parallel clauses, like that of the so-called "poetical books" of the Bible, was probably often 
employed by the Arabs of every age. It seems to be almost natural to their race when excited to eloquence. But the 
addition of rhyme in this style of language appears to have become common in the later times. Mohammad Ibn-Et-Teiyib 
El-Fdsee says (in article ^-JU^ of his Annotations on the Kdmoos) that the oration termed alLI., in the Pagan and the early 
Muslim ages, was, in most instances, not in rhyming prose. The remains of classical prose are often used as authorities ; but 
being more liable to corruption, they are regarded as less worthy of reliance than the poetry .t 

* See the first and second and third of M. FresneFs "Lettres sur 
THistoire des Arabes avant I'lslamisme :" the second and third in the 
** Journal Asiatique," 3rd Series, vols. 3 and 6. 

+ Those who desire to pursue the study of the history of the classical 
Arabic beyond the limits to which I have here confined my remarks, 
together with that of its sister-languages, will find much learned and 
valuable information in M. Renan*s ^'Histoire Generale et Syst^me 
Compart des Langues S^mitiques ;" though his scepticism in relation to 

questions merely philological (as well as to sacred matters) is often, in 
my opinion, ill-grounded and unreasonable. I must particularly remark 
upon his erroneous assertion that the poems of the age anterior to El- 
Isldm make no allusion to the ancient religions of Arabia, and hence 
appear to have been expurgated by Muslims, so as to efiace all traces of 
paganism. Many of such allusions, by pagan poets, might be adduced 
from lexicons, grammars, and scholia ; and some examples of them will 
be found in the present work, in articles j^^ and jp and jy^ &c. ; the 




Such are the principal original sources from which the Arabic lexicons and lexicological works have been derived. 
Another source consisted of phrases and single words transmitted from the Arabs of classical times, or from those later Arabs 
of the desert who were believed (though they were not regarded as unquestionable authorities) to have retained the pure 
language of their ancestors. The earlier of these are often called, by the lexicologists, a^jUlt ^^\ ; as in the 1st Section of the 
Muzhir, where it is said that the transmission (jLii) should be " from such as a^jWf ^j^\j like [the descendants of] Kahtdn 
and Ma'add and 'Adndn ; not from those after them ; after the corruption of their language, and the varying of the 
Muwelleds." El-Jowharee, as will presently be seen, applies the appellation a^jU)) ^jjd\ even to desert-Arabs of his own time ; 
but in doing so, he deviates from the general usage of the lexicologists. As is said in the 6th Section of the Muzhir, the 
transmitter must be a trustworthy person ; but may be a woman, and may be a slave, as we have before stated. The degrees 
of credit to which the phrases and words thus transmitted are entitled are distinguished by ranging them in the following 
classes : 1 st, (as is stated in the 3rd Section of the Muzhir,) the term ^i^ is applied to that which has been transmitted by 

such a number of persons as cannot be supposed to have agreed to a falsehood : 2ndly, l\L\ (plural of Jl^f), to what have been 
transmitted by some of the lexicologists, but are wanting in that which is required to justify the application, thereto, of the 
former term; and what is thus transmitted is also termed ^^IL^: 3rdly, (as is said in the 5th Section,) l\^\ (plural of ^Ji), to 
what have been transmitted by only one of the lexicologists ; and what is thus transmitted, if the transmitter is a person of 
exactness, as Aboo-Zeyd and El-Khaleel and others, is admitted : 4thly, (as is said in the 15th Section,) Jk^jUi (plural of 
>jjju), to words known to be spoken only by one Arab. It was only when all other sources failed to supply what was wanted, 
that recourse was had, by the writers of lexicons and lexicological works, to contemporary Arabs of the desert ; and I do not 
find that much reliance was often placed upon these after the end of the third century of the Flight. El-Jowharee, who died 
near the close of the next century, states, in the short preface to his " Sihdh,^ that what he had collected in El-'Inlk for his 
lexicon he "rehearsed by lip to [those whom he terms] a^.U)) ^lii in their abodes in the desert (aJ^Ul) :" but this he seems to 
have done rather to satisfy any doubts that he may have had, and to obtain illustrations, than with the view of taking such 
persons as authorities for words or phrases or significations. It is related of Aboo-Zeyd, in the 7th Section of the Muzhir, that 
he said, "I do not say 'the Arabs say' unless I have heard it from these: Bekr Ibn-Hawdzin and Benoo-Kildb and Benoo- 
Hildl ; or from [the people of] the higher portion of the lower region, or [of] the lower of the higher :"♦ and that Yoonus used 
the expression "the Trustworthy (ii£ji) told me from the Arabs;" that being asked, ** Who is the Trustworthy T he answered, 
"Aboo-Zeyd;" and being asked, "And wherefore dost thou not name himi" he answered, "He is a tribe, so I do not 
name him.^'t 

Most of the contents of the best Arabic lexicons was committed to writing, or to the memories of students, in the latter 
half of the second century of the Flight, or in the former half of the next century. Among the most celebrated lexicological 

first of these from tlie Mo'alla^ah of Imra-el-l^ejs. It would have been 
strange, indeed, if this had not been the case : for, except the Kur-dn, 
nothing was so highly prized by the lexicologists as the pagan poetry : 
every fragment of it was most valuahle in their estimation, and most 
carefully sought afler and preserved ; and the intentional corruption of it 
they regarded as almost a crime. 

* << Aboo-'Amr said, ' The most chaste in speech, of men, are the 
higher [in respect of territory] of [the tribe of] Temeem, and the lower of 
[the tribe of] Keys :' and Aboo-Zeyd said, ' The most chaste in speech, of 
men, are [the people of] the lower portion of the higher region, and the 
hi^er of the lower,^ meaning the rear of [the tribe of] Haw&zin ; the 
people of the higher region being the people of El-Medeeneh, and those 
aroand it, and those next it, and those near it, whose dialect he held to be 
not the same as that [of Hawdzin]." (Muzhir, 49th Section.) According 
to the ]$[4moo6, the higher region (^U)1) is '' what is above Nejd, to the 

land of Tihimeh, to the part behind Mekkeh; and certain towns, or 
villages, outside El-Medeeneh." 

t The exclusion of post-classical words and significations in the best 
Arabic lexicons, or their specification as such when they occur therein, is 
of very great importance to us in the use that we are often obliged to 
make of those lexicons in interpreting the Hebrew Scriptures. Thus the 
triumph of El-Isldm, by occasioning the corruption of the Arabic language 
and the composition of such lexicons, has rendered us a most signal 
service. I have seldom noticed correspondences between the Arabic on 
the one side and the Hebrew and other Semitic languages on the other, 
because, though these are often illustrated by means of the incomparable 
copiousness of the Arabic, the Arabic is rarely illustrated by them, and 
because we have no such authorities for the interpretation of those 
lanoiiages as we have for the interpretation of the Arabic. 



works, general and special, of this period, are the " 'Eyn/' commonly ascribed to El-Khaleel, w^^r^^i/ed in the year of the Flight 
160 or 170 or 175 (aged 74); the "Nawddir'' of El-Kisd-ee, who died in 182 or 183 or 18^ Dr 192; the " Jeem" and the 
^^Nawddir'* and the work entitled "El-Ghareeb el-Musannaf of Aboo-'Amr Esh-Sheybdnee, who died in 205 or 206 or 213 
(aged 110 or 111 or 118); the "Nawddir" and the "Loghdt" of El-Farr^, who died in 207 (aged 67); the "Loghat" of 
Aboo-'Obeydeh, who died in 208 or 209 or 210 or 211 (aged 96 or 97 or 98 or 99); the "Nawddir" and the "Loghdt" 
of Aboo-Zeyd, who died in 214 or 215 or 216 (aged 93); the " Ajnds" of El-Asma'ee, who died in 215 or 216 (aged 92 or 
93) ; the work entitled "El-Ghareeb el-Musannaf" of Aboo-'Obeyd, who died in 223 or 224 or 230 (aged 67) ; and the 
" Nawddir'' of Ibn-El-Aardbee, who died in 231 or 233 (aged 81 or 83): all mentioned near the close of the 1st Section of 
the Muzhir. From these and similar works, either immediately or through the medium of others in which they are cited, and 
from oral tradition, and, as long as it could be done with confidence, by collecting information from Arabs of the desert, were 
composed all the best lexicons, and commentaries on the classical poets &c. The most authoritative of such works are the 
lexicons; and the most authoritative of these are, of course, generally speaking, the later, because every succeeding 
lexicographer profited by the critical research of his predecessors, and thus avoided or corrected errors committed by earlier 
authors. The commentaries on the poets and on the Traditions have contributed largely to the lexicons. They often present 
explanations that have been disallowed or questioned by eminent lexicographers ; and therefore their statements, when uncon- 
firmed by other authorities, must be received with caution : but in many cases their explanations are unquestionably accurate, 
and they afford valuable aid by giving examples of words and phrases of doubtful meanings. The danger of relying upon a 
single early authority, however high that authority may be, in any matter of Arabic lexicology, will be shown by innumerable 
instances in the present work. I here speak of errors of judgment. In addition to these, we have mistranscriptions. A 
word once mistranscribed is repeated in copy after copy ; and at length, from its having been found in several copies, is 
confidently regarded as correct.* The value of the larger and later and more esteemed lexicons cannot, therefore, be too 
highly rated. 

The first of the general lexicons is that which is commonly ascribed to El-Khaleel, entitled the " 'Eyn'' (ot*'' v^^)> 
and this has served in a great measure as the basis of many others. In it the words are mentioned according to their 
radical letters, as in all the best lexicons ; but the letters are arranged, with the exception of i and ^j^ which are classed with ^ 
for obvious reasons, nearly in the order of their places of utterance, as follows ; commencing with ^ (whence the title) : 

Under each of these letters, in the foregoing order, except the last three which are necessarily classed together, are mentioned 
all the words of which the roots contain that letter without any letter of those preceding it in this arrangement : first, the 
biliteral-radical words : then, the triliteral-radical ; of which are placed first the sound ; secondly the unsound in one letter ; 
and thirdly the unsound in two letters : next, the quadriliteral-radical : and lastly, the quinqueliteral-radical. Thus, under 
the letter ^ are mentioned all the words of which thq roots contain that letter: under ^, all the words of which the roots contain 
that letter without ^ : under «, all of which the roots contain that letter without c or *. : and so on. For instance, in the 
section of the letter J, we find, in the first division, first, ^ ; then, JU and ji ; and so on : and in the second division, first, ja* 

* For instance, M. Fresnel quoted (in the second of his " Lettres 
sur THistoire des Arabes avant rislamisrae," in the "Journal Asiatique," 
3rd Series, vol. iii. pp. 330 et seq.,) an extract from the " Kitdb el- 
Aghdnee," as containing, id the phrases •^^ u n'^^^-t tj^l^ yZ-J^^ U 
UgS a3^^, two words supposed by him, and by his and my learned friend 
the sheykh Mohammad 'Eiydd Et-Tantawee, (see pp. 324 et seq. of that 
letter,) to be wanting in all the Arabic dictionaries. One of these words 
is written U^, as above, in one of M. Fresnel's copies of the " Kitdb el- 
Aghdnee," three in number; in another copy, [juaJ ; and in the third 
copy, IjuoJ : the other is in all the copies U^^, as above : and they are 

explained in that work, on the authority of Abu-1-Yakdhdn El-Jo^ifee, 
as meaning uo^^JI J.J^ jyWI ^> ^ and d^\j J.J d^j p^^ ^t. 

The former word is correctly ImJ or ImJ, both infinitive nouns of 

\L*JL>by The other word is a mistranscription for U^. My lamented 
friend M. Fresnel was always glad to receive and admit a correction of 
any of his own rare mistakes ; and in his " Fourth Letter " he announced 
that the sheykh Mohammad had afterwards rectified these two errors. 

•j ^ 


Among other celebrated lexicons composed after the model of the 'Eyn, is the " Jemlz^ab " of Ibn-Dureyd, [who died in 
the year of the Flight 321, and is said to have lived 93 years.] Some say that it is one of the best of lexicons; and it has 
been taken as an authority by Aboo-'Alee El-Fdrisee and Aboo-'Alee El-Edlee and £s-Seerafee and other eminent authors. 
Ibn-Jinnee disparages it for faults similar to those of the 'Eyn : and Nif(aweyh, whom Ibn-Dureyd had satirized, pronounced 
it to be untrustworthy ; but without justice. 

The "Moheet" of the Sdhib Ibn-*Abbdd. [Ibn-Khillikdn states that he was born in the year of the Flight 326, and 
died in 385: and describes this work as "in seven volumes; arranged in the order of the letters of the alphabet; copious in 
words, but having few confirmatory examples :" thus resembling the Kamoos. Much has been drawn fi'om it in my own 

The " Mujmal " of Ibn-Faris, [who died in the year of the Flight 395.] He restricted himself, in his lexicon, to the 
mention of genuine words ; excluding the unfamiliar and ignored ; on the authority of oral tradition, and from books of good 
repute ; aiming, as he says, at abridgment and conciseness. [His work is highly esteemed. The arrangement is that of the 
usual order of the letters of the alphabet] 

The "SiMh," or, as some call it, "Sahdh," of El-Jowharee, [commonly, now, pronounced " El- J6haree,'' who died, 
according to Abu-1-Fida, in the year of the Flight 398, and "was from Fdrdb, a city of the country of the Turks, beyond the 
river," that is, beyond the Seyhoon : or, according to Ibn-Esh-Shihneh, he died in the year 397, as I find in two copies of his 
history in my possession*]. Et-Tebreezee says that it is commonly known by the title of the •-ULo, which is pi. of ••t-^; but 
that some call it the 9.UL0, which is synonymous with ^^m,^. As its title imports, the author restricted himself to the mention 
of genuine words, like Ibn-Fdris, his contemporary. [But his lexicon is far more comprehensive, and more excellent in every 
respect, than that 'of Ibn-Fdris.] As he says in his preface, he composed it in an order which none had before pursued, 
[mentioning each word according to the place of the last letter of the root, and then the first and second, in the usual order of 
the alphabet,] after collecting the contents in El-'Irdk, and rehearsing them by lip [as I have before mentioned] to [those 
whom he terms] a^jU)i ^Jii in their abodes in the desert (aJ^Ul). Eth-Tha'dlibee says that he was one of the wonders of the 
age. His lexicon, however, is not free from instances of inadvertence or mistakes, like all great books ; and such as cannot be 
attributed to the copyists. Ydkoot says, in the "Moajam el-Udabd," that the cause of the mistranscriptions in it was this : 
when he had composed it, it was read to him as far as [the section of] the letter ,^, and an evil suggestion occurred to his mind, 
in consequence of which he cast himself from a housetop, and died : so the rest of the book remained a rough draught, not 
pruned, or trimmed, nor fairly copied out; and his disciple Ibrdheem Ibn-Sdlih El-Warrdk made a fair copy of it, and 
committed mistakes in some places in it. Ibn-Barree wrote a commentary, or series of annotations, {j!>\yL^ plural of i^U-,) on 
the Sihdh, [an extremely valuable work,] in which he reached the middle [of the section] of the letter ^ ; and the sheykh 
'Abd- Allah Ibn-Mohammad El-Bustee completed it. [But I have invariably found passages from every part of it cited as the 
sayings of Ibn-Barree.] And Es-Saghdnee, or, as he is called by some, Es-Sdghdnee, wrote a Tekmileh (aJu£?, i. e. Supplement) to 
the Sihdh ; exceeding it in bulk. [Some further remarks on the Sihdh (my own copies of which have been already described) 
will be found in my account of the ?dmoos. The abridgment entitled " Mukhtdr es-Sihdh " is well known : it is too scanty 
to be of much use except to those who desire to commit to memory the most usual words and signifioations. A vei; 
superior abridgment is the "Jdmi"' of the seyyid Mohammad Ibn-es-seyyid-Hasan, which was finisbed, accor m 
to Hdjjee Khaleefeh, in the year of the Flight 854. It is copious, well digested, and enriched with aclditions Irom 
Mughrib of El-Mutarrizee, the Fdik of Ez-Zamakhsheree, the Nihdyeh of Ibn-El-Atheer, &c. Of this work I possess a ve 
good copy.] 

• Not (as D'Herbelot states) in 393. 



[" Verily Es-Saghdnee, who mastered the sciences and the doctrines of philosophy, the utmost * /^^ ^^^ ^^ jjj^g^^ j^g reached 
to^," which signifies " dumbness," &c, — Though a man of extensive learning, he was opii<i f^^fre, and addicted to unjust 
criticism of his superiors. A copy of the 'Obdb, and a copy of the same author s Supplement to the Sihdh, before mentioned, 
used by the author of the Tdj el-'Aroos, belonged to the library of the mosque of the Emeer Sarghatmish, in Cairo ; but on my 
causing an inquiry to be made for them, the librarian declared that they were no longer found there. They have probably 
been stolen ; or had not been returned by the author of the Tdj el- Aroos when he died ; on which occasion, it is said, his house 
was plundered of the books &c. that he left.] 

[The "Lisdn el-' Arab" of Ibn-Mukarram, who was bom in the year of the Flight 630, and died in 711. In the copy 
of his lexicon in the library of the collegiate mosque called the " Ashrafeeyeh," in Cairo, consisting of twenty-eight quarto- 
volumes, he is styled " Jemdl-ed-Deen Mohammad Ibn-esh-sheykh-el-imdm-el-marhoom-Jeldl-ed-Deen-Abi-l-'Izz-Mukarram Ibn- 
esh-sheykh-Nejeeb-ed-Deen-Abi-1-Hasan-El-Ansdree:'* but in the Tdj el-'Aroos, he is almost always called Ibn-Mandhoor 
(j^lkli ^>J0' I shall give an account of this great work in describing the Tdj el-' Aroos. j 

[The " Tahdheeb et-Tahdheeb" of Mahmood Et-Tanookhee, who died in the year of the Flight 723. It is a combination 
of the contents of the Mohkam and Tahdheeb (the former occupying the first place in each article) with a few additions from other 
sources. Thus it forms one of the best and most comprehensive of the Arabic lexicons, without any exceptions known to me but 
the Lisdn el-' Arab and the Tdj el-'Aroos. Of the original autograph copy of this work, in five full-paged, large quarto-volumes, 
I possess the last volume, consisting of 501 pages. I made a diligent search for the other volumes, but without success.] 

[The "MisbdV of El-Feiyoomee (Ahmad Ibn-Mohammad Ibn-'Alee El-Mukri). Its full title is "El-Misbdh el-Muneer 
fee Ghareeb esh-Sharh el-Kebeer." This is a lexicon similar to the Mughrib, above mentioned; but much more comprehensive; 
forming a most valuable companion and supplement to the larger lexicons. Notwithstanding its title, it comprises a very large 
collection of classical words and phrases and significations of frequent occurrence ; in many instances with more clear and full 
explanations than I have found elsewhere. I have therefore constantly drawn from it in composing my own lexicon ; possessing 
a very accurate copy of it, a full-paged quarto- volume of 742 pages. Its author states in it that he finished its composition in 
the year of the Flight 734.] 

[The " Mughnee," as it is commonly called, or " Mughni-1-Lebeeb," of the celebrated grammarian Ibn-Hishdm, who was 
bom in the year of the Flight 708, and died in 761 or the following year. A large work, whereof a little more than one half 
consists of an elaborate lexicon of the particles and similar words, for which it is my chief authority, as it was, also, that of the 
author of the Kdmoos, whose explanations of the particles are, however, very meagre and unsatisfactory, I am fortunate in 
possessing a most excellent copy of it, a quarto- volume of 609 pages.] 

The " Kdmoos " of El-Feyroozdbddee, [or, as some pronounce it, El-Feeroozdbddee, (from the city of Fer6zdbdd, or 
Feerdzdbdd, pronounced by the Arabs Feyroozdbdd, or Feeroozdbdd,) who was born in the year of the Flight 729, and died in 
816.*] This, after the Mohkam and the 'Obdb, is the greatest of the lexicological works composed since the age of the Sihah 
[to the time of the author of the Muzhir, of those known to him] : but none of these three [he adds] has attained to be as 
much used as the Sihdh ; nor has the rank of the Sihdh, nor its celebrity, been diminished by the existence of these ; because 
it is restricted to what is genuine, so that it is, among the books of lexicology, like the Saheeh of El-Bukhdree among the books 

* It is stated at the end of article j^^ in the Taj el-'Aroos that the 
author of the l^dmoos wrote atjthe end of the first volume of the second 
copy of that work made by his own hand, which volume ended with the 

article above mentioned, that he finished the transcription of that volume 
in Dhu-l-Hijjeh 768. 

xviii PREFACE. 

shown that the words from which this inference has been drawn really signify that the auth^^ //^g Ldmi' commenced (not that 
he completed) this work, and made it, as far as it extended, to surpass every other wort of a similar kind ; but that he 
imagined it would be, in sixty volumes, too large for students to acquire or read ; and, being requested to compose before it a 
concise lexicon, he applied himself to the composition of the KAmoos, and abridged the matter of which the Ldmi* was to have 
consisted, so as to comprise the essence of each thirty of the intended volumes in one volume. Thus the words in question are 
so far from being a proof of the completion of the Ldmi*, that their literal meaning indicates the very contrary of this. They 
are not, however, the only evidence that we have on this point : for the same eminent scholar to whose Annotations on the 
Kdmoos I have referred above quotes, from the biographical memoir of the author of the Ldmi' in the " Tabakdt en-Nohdh" of 
Es-Suyootee, the direct assertion that this work was never completed. He also states, as does likewise the author of the Tdj 
el-'Aroos, that more than one writer has transmitted, on the authority of the handwriting of its author, a proof of its non- 
completion : for they relate the fact of his having written upon the back of the Ldmi' that, if he had been able to complete it, 
it would have composed a hundred volumes, [of what size he does not give the least notion,] and that he completed five 
volumes of it. This, it should be observed, is not inconsistent with what has been said before : it appears that the work would 
have consisted of a hundred volumes, each of the size of one of the five volumes that were completed ; or would have composed 
sixty larger volumes. But I rather incline to think that its author roughly calculated, at one time, that the whole would 
consist of a hundred volumes; and at another time, that it would consist of sixty; and that both estimates are greatly beyond 
the truth. The non-completion of the Ldmi' is therefore certain; but this is not so much to be regretted as some persons 
might imagine from ite author's statement respecting it in his preface to the Kdmoos; for the work appears, from its title, to 
have been, as far as it extended, with respect to the words and significations, mainly a compilation uniting the contents of the 
Mohkam and the 'Obdb, and neither of these lexicons has been lost to the world. From a reference to it in article a53 of the 
Kdmoos, (in which the author asserts his having disproved an opinion respecting the signification of i^U without stating 
that El-Azheree had done so more than five centuries before,) it seems that the Ldmi' (seeing how small ^ a portion of it 
was completed) followed the order of the 'Eyn and the Mohkam ; for article 45^ is in the third of the main divisions of these 
two works, but in the last but two of those of the Kdmoos. Considering this fact, and that the main divisions of the 'Eyn and 
the Mohkam necessarily decrease in length from first to last, I suppose that the author of the five volumes of the Lami' wrote 
them, agreeably with a common practice, with large margins for additions, and calculated that, with these additions, each of 
the five volumes would form at least three. 

The " Tdj el-'Aroos," the enormous extent of which I have mentioned in the second paragraph of this preface, is said to 
have been commenced, in Cairo, soon after the middle of the last century of our era, by the seyyid Murtadi Ez-Zebeedee. At 
the end of a copy of it in his own handwriting, he states that it occupied him fourteen years and some days. According to 
the modern historian of Egypt, El-Jabartee, he was born A.D. 1732 or 1733 : came to Cairo A.D. 1753: finished the Tdj 
el-'Aroos A.D. 1767 or 1768 : and died A.D. 1791 (in the year of the Flight 1205). And the same historian says that 
Mohammad Bey Abu-dh-Dhahab, for the copy of that work which is in the library of his mosque, gave him a hundred 
thousand dirhems (or drachms) of silver. It is a compilation from the best and most copious of the preceding Arabic lexicons 
and other lexicological works, in the form of an interwoven commentary on the Kdmoos ; exhibiting fully and clearly, from the 
original sources, innumerable explanations which are so abridged in the latter work as to be unintelligible to the most learned 
men of the East; with copious illustrations of the meanings &c., corrections of mistakes in the Edmoos and other lexicons, and 
examples in prose and verse ; and a very large collection of additional words and significations, mentioned under the roots 
to which they belong. Of the works from which it is compiled, though I believe that it was mainly derived in the first 
instance from the Lisdn el-' Arab, more than a hundred are enumerated by the seyyid Murtadi in his preface. Among these 
are — 1. The " Sihdh," a copy in eight volumes, in the handwriting of Ydkoot Er-Roomee, with useful marginal notes 
determining the correct readings &c. by Ibn-Barree [and El-Bustee] and Aboo-Zekereeyi Et-Tebreezee ; in the library [of the 
collegiate mosque] of the Emeer Ez))ek. — 2. The " Tahdheeb" of El-Azheree, a copy in sixteen volumes. — 3. The "Mohkam'* 



not the genuinmess of the book (a matter of no importance except as affecting the ^eputaw^^^ ^f ^^ sejyid Murtadk*), but^ 
its authenticity. I was therefore obliged to make a most laborious collation of passages quotecf in it with the same passages in 
the works quoted : and in every instance I found that they had been faithfully transcribed Thus the authenticity of the 
Taj el-' Aroos was most satisfactorily established. But in comparing large portions of it with the corresponding portions of the 
Lisdn el-'Arab, I made the unexpected discovery that, in most of the articles in the former, from three-fourths to about nine- 
tenths of the additions to the text of the Edmoos, and in many articles the whole of those additions, existed verbatim in the 
Lisdn el-'Arab, I cannot, therefore, acquit the seyyid Murtadi of a want of candour, and of failing to render due honour to 


one of the most laborious of compilers, by not stating either that the Tdj el-' Aroos was mainly derived in the first instance 
from the Lisdn el-'Arab (which I believe to have been the case) or that the contents of the former are mainly found in the 
latter. This circumstance has induced me very often to compose articles of my lexicon principally from the Lisdn el-'Arab in 
preference to the Tdj el-'Aroos, comparing the contents afterwards with the latter ; and when they agreed, giving the latter as 
my authority in most instances (though not alwaysf) because I could only undertake to have the latter transcribed. The only 
copy of the Lisdn el-'Arab known to me is that which I have already mentioned. It was lent to me, in successive portions, 
from the library of the collegiate mosque called " the Ashrafeeyeh," in Cairo. It is written in several different hands, nearly 
resembling one another, of a peculiar cursive kind, which none can correctly read without studying sufficiently to understand 
thoroughly ; for which reason, if I had been able to obtain any copy made from it (for it bears statements of its having been 
several times partially or wholly transcribed some centuries ago) I could not have placed much reliance upon it. Since the 
time of the seyyid Murtadi, it has suffered much injury, chiefly from the rotting of the paper ; in many places, the whole of 
the written portion of a page having fallen out, the margin only remaining. 

Having fully satisfied myself of the authenticity of the Tdj el-'Aroos, as well as of its intrinsic value, my next object was 
to cause a careful transcription of it to be commenced without delay, although, while I remained in Cairo, I made use of copies 
belonging to the libraries of mosques. The following are all the copies of that work, or of portions thereof, respecting which I 
have been able to procure any information. — 1. The copy made use of by 'Asim Efendee in writing his Turkish Translation of 
the Kdmoos. This belonged, according to his own statement, made to me, to Yahya Efendee the Hakeem, who for many 
years composed the annual Egyptian Almanac published by order of the Government. He said that it was in the handwriting 
of the author, in two very large volumes ; which, though hardly credible, is not absolutely impossible ; for the handwriting of 
the seyyid Murtadi was small and compact : that the Grand Vezeer who was in Egypt during the contest between our own 
forceps in that country and the French borrowed it of him, and sent it to Constantinople without his permission : and that he 
had caused many inquiries to be made for it there, but never learned any tidings of it. — 2. A copy believed to have been 
in fourteen folio- volumes, in the handwriting of the author. Of this, the last volume and the last but two are in the library of 
the Riwdk of the Syrians in the great mosque El-Azhar. The rest of it seems to have been lost. It may be a portion of a 
copy which the author retained for himself When he died, his family kept his death secret for two days ; after which, the 
officers of the Government Treasury plundered his house of much property, among which, perhaps, was this copy ; and if so, it 
may have fallen into different hands ; one person taking a portion ; and another person, another portion. — 3. A copy sent by 
the author as a present to the King of San'a. So I was informed on the authority of a person living in Cairo, who asserted that 
he conveyed it for the author, and who must have attained to manhood some years before the author's death. He may perhaps 
be mistaken as to the work that he conveyed; but this is not probable. — 4. The copy in the library of the mosque of Mohammad 
Bey Abu-dh-Dhahab, before mentioned ; said to be in eight thick, full-paged folio-volumes ;X not in the author's handwriting, 

* By various other works, he earned a high reputation for learning ; 
and I believe that his ability to compose such a work as the Taj el-'Aroos 
was never called in question, 

t In the articles of which the last radical letter is 3, and in those of 
which the last is ), I have generally deviated from piy usual plan by 

indicating the authority of the Lisdn el-'Arab rather than that of the Tdj 
el-'Aroos in order to convey some notion of the value of the former work. 
t I was informed that the number of its volumes is eight ; but I was 
never allowed to see the whole copy, and, in the course of traQscription, I 
neglected to note where each volume ended. 

xxii PREFACE. 

of life, and to occupy myself first with what was most important. I therefore finally det^^^^jjied to divide my lexicon into two 
Books : the first to contain all the classical words and significations commonly known to the learned among the Arabs : the other, 
those that are of rare occurrence and not commonly known. And I have made such subdivisions as will enable the purchaser 
of a copy to bind it in the manner that he may deem most convenient : in two volumes, or in four, or in eight ; each to consist 
of a portion of Book I. with the corresponding portion of Book II. ; or so that all the words in Book I. of which the roots 
commence with one letter may be immediately followed by the words in Book II. of which the roots commence with the same 
letter. The Second Book will be small in comparison with the First, of which the Part to be first published (i to ^ inclusive) will 
form about one eighth. In order that it may be possible to bind the whole work in two volumes, I have chosen for it a thin paper. 

Nearly twenty years have now elapsed since I commenced this work. Had I foreseen that the whole labour of the 

composition must fall upon me or the project be abandoned, and had I also foreseen the length of time that it would require 

of me, unaided, I should certainly not have had the courage to undertake it, I had hoped that I should have at least one 

coadjutor: and I continued to hope for some years that such might be the case; but by no one have I been aided in the least 

degree, except, occasionally, in discussions of difficult points, by the sheykh Ibrdheem Ed-Dasookee; who has written the 

results of some of these discussions on the margins of pages of my copy of the Tdj el-'Aroos, generally in his own words, but 

often in words dictated by me. For seven years, in Cairo, I prosecuted my task on each of the work-days of the week, after 

an early breakfast, until within an hour of midnight, with few and short intervals of rest, (often with no interruption but that 

of a few minutes at a time for a meal, and half an hour for exercise,) except on rare occasions when I was stopped by illness, 

and once when I devoted three days to a last visit to the Pyramids : I seldom allowed myself to receive a visiter except on 

Friday, the Sabbath and leisure-day of the Muslims : and more than once I passed a quarter of a year without going out of 

my house. But I must not be supposed to claim much credit for the exercise of self-denial with respect to the pleasures of 

society ; for during those seven years passed in Cairo, I had my wife and sister and the latter's two sons residing with me. 

Nor would I here make mention of the severe labour which this work has cost me but for the purpose of guarding against the 

imputation of my having been wanting in energy or industry. To convey a due idea of the difficulties of my task would be 

impossible. While mainly composing from the Tdj el-'Aroos, I have often had before me, or by my side, eight or ten other 

lexicons, (presenting three different arrangements of the roots, and all of them diflering in the order, or rather disorder, of the 

words explained,) requiring to be consulted at the same time. And frequently more than a day's study has been necessary to 

enable me thoroughly to understand a single passage : for the strict rules of Arabic lexicology demand that every explanation 

be given as nearly as possible in the words in which some person of authority has transmitted it ; and many explanations 

perfectly intelligible when they were first given became less and less so in succeeding ages, and at length quite unintelligible 

to the most learned of living Arabs. Even Ibn-Seedeh often confesses, in the Mohkam, his inability to understand an 

explanation or some other statement that he has transmitted. Many explanations, moreover, present instances of what is 

termed •^CS ; and instances of a worse kind of license, termed Jjiui, are not of unfrequent occurrence : by the former term is 

meant a deficiency in what an author vn-ites relying upon the understanding of the reader; and by the latter term, a 

deficiency in what he writes without relying upon the reader's knowledge. Often, two synonymous words are used to explain 

each other. Numerous cases of this kind occur in the Kamoos : such, for instance, are iHf^ and oVi^, ij^C and l^li, S^v! 

and Jiifti, and pLJIi and ^^^^is : and in these cases I have not always found the information that I required by referring to 

other lexicons. More frequently, in lieu of an explanation, we find merely the word ijj^, meaning " well known :" and in a 

very large proportion of such cases, what was once "well known" has long ceased to be so. Still more frequently, significations 

are only indicated by the context : in many instances, as clearly as they could be expressed by any words of explanation : but 

in many other instances, very obscurely. Many words are rendered by others which are not elsewhere explained in the same 

lexicon ; many, by words meant to be understood in senses not elsewhere explained in that lexicon ; many, by words meant to 

be understood in tropical senses ; and many, by words meant to be understood in post-classical senses. In these last cases, I 

have often found in my knowledge of modern Arabic a solution of a difficulty : but without great caution, such knowledge would 

xxiv PREFACE. 

I must now add some explanations necessai7 to facilitate the use of my lexicon. 

The arrangement that I have adopted is, in its main features, the same as that of Golius : the words being placed 
according to their radical letters ; and the roots being arranged according to the order of their letters (commencing with the 
first of those letters) in the usual alphabet. 

Words of three different classes, in which the radical letters are the same, but different in number, I place in the same 
article. The first of these classes consists of words of two radical letters ; as jj : the second class, of reduplicative triliteral- 
radical words, in which the first and second radical letters are the same as those of the first class, and the third the same as 
the second of that class ; as jj and j^ and jij &c. : and the third class, of reduplicative quadriliteral-radical words, in 
which the first and third radical letters are the same as the first of the first class, and the second and fourth the same as the 
second of that class ; as J^ and i u^ and jCi^ &c. These three classes are included in the same article in all the best 
Arabic lexicons ; and two reasons may be given for my following the same plan. One reason is similarity of signification. 
Words of the first and second corresponding classes very seldom exhibit an alliance in signification ; but instances of such 
alliance in words of the first and third classes are less rare ; and instances of alliance in signification in words of the second 
and third classes are very numerous. The other reason is, that such words are generally held to be derived from the same 
root. Some of the Arabian lexicologists hold that a word of the class of Jj is a biliteral-radical word ; so that the letters of 
its root are represented by ai : but most of them regard it as, absolutely, a triliteral-radical word ; so that the letters of its 
root are represented by Jje. With respect to a word such as Jjb, the opinion held by El-Farri and others, and ascribed to 
El-Khaleel, is, that it is to be represented by jjJ^; so that the letters of its root are represented by ai: another opinion, 
ascribed to El-Khaleel and his followers among the Basrees and Koofees, is, that it is to be represented by jiJti ; so that the 
letters of its root are represented by jjii : another, ascribed to Seebaweyh and his companions, is, that it is originally a word 
to be represented by jjli, and that the third radical letter is changed, and made the same as the first; so that the letters of 
its root are represented by the same letters as if the word itself were to be represented by jiii : the opinion commonly 
obtaining among the Basrees is, that it is to be represented by jiii; so that the letters of its root are represented, in this case 
also, by Jjii ; and as the last of these modes of representing the word is the one most usual, I generally adopt this mode 
in my lexicon, except in quoting from an author who uses another mode. The triliteral root, in both of these classes 
of words, is that which is preferred in the Muzhir, where, in the 40th Section, not far from the commencement, these 
different opinions are stated. 

Agreeably with the same principle, quasi-quadriliteral-radical words (the conjugations and varieties of which will be 
found in a table inserted in this preface) I class with the triliteral-radical words from which they are derived by the Arabian 
lexicologists and grammarians. 

What is commonly called " the Verb of Wonder " I mention among the verbs. The Koofees say that it is a noun, 
meaning an epithet. (See ti!j -Jl^l u, in article •JU.) 

Dialectic variants, synonyms, and words nearly synonymous, from the same root, are mentioned and explained in one 
paragraph : but every word thus explained in a paragraph headed by another word is also mentioned by itself, or accompanied 
by a word or words nearly resembling it in form, with a reference to that paragraph. (In order to facilitate the reference, an 
arrow-head (t) is inserted to render conspicuous a word explained in a paragraph headed by another word.) Several obvious 
advantages result from this arrangement ; not the least of which is a considerable saving of room. In these cases, when I 
have found it possible to do so, I have placed the most common word first, or otherwise distinguished it from the rest : 
sometimes I have shown which words are more or less common by the authorities that I have indicated for them. 



the Sihdh or Rimoos or both, when not one word thereof, nor even an indication, is foiiJid in either of those originals :* and 
that much of what Freytag has given as from the Kdmoos is from the Turkish Translation of that lexicon, of which I have 
before spoken, a work of considerable learning, but of no authority when no voucher is mentioned in it.t I have myself 
occasionally cited the Turkish Translation of the Kdmoos, but only when I have not found what I wanted in any other work, 
and, in a case of this kind, only when I have felt confidence in its correctness, or when I have desired a confirmation of my 
own opinion. In very few instances have I adopted its explanations ; having often found them to be glaringly incorrect ; in 
some cases, from its author's having partially misunderstood what he had to translate ; but in more cases, from his having 
altogether failed to understand, and therefore having given literal renderings which are far from conveying the meanings 

Proper names of persons and of places, and post-classical words and significations, I have, with very few exceptions, 
excluded from my lexicon. A dictionary of words of the former class, such as would satisfy the wants of students, would of 
itself alone form a large volume ; for the sources from which it might be drawn are abundant, and not difficult of access. A 
dictionary of post-classical Arabic, worthy of being so called, could not be composed otherwise than by a considerable number 
of students in different cities of Europe where good libraries of Arabic manuscripts are found, and by as many students in 
different countries of Asia and Africa; partly from books, and partly from information to be acquired only by intercourse with 
Arabs ; and several of those who should contribute to its composition would require to be well versed in the sciences of the 
Muslims. In excluding almost all post-classical words and significations, I have followed the example of every one of the most 
esteemed Arabian lexicographers; and the limits that I have assigned to my labours have certainly been rather too wide than 
too narrow, as will be sufficiently shown by the fact that the quantity of the matter comprised in the first eighth part of my 
First Book (i to ^ inclusive) is treble the quantity of the corresponding portion of Freytag's Lexicon, although I leave rare 
words &c. for my Second Book. 

I have inserted nothing in my lexicon without indicating at least one authority for it, except interwoven additions of 
my own which I have invariably distinguished by enclosing them between square brackets. Throughout Part 1 of the First 
Book, I have generally made the indications of the authorities as numerous as I conveniently could ; but I have not thought 
it desirable to do so throughout, as these indications occupy much space, and what is most important is to note the oldest 
authority mentioned in any of my originals, with one or more of good repute to confirm it. A table of the authorities inserted 
in this preface wiU show which of them I have cited through the medium of the Tdj el-'Aroos or the Lisdn el-' Arab. Such 
authorities I have often indicated without any addition. J When two or more indications of authorities are given, it is to be 
understood that they agree essentially, or mainly ; but not always that they agree in words. When any authority is, in an important 
degree, less full, or less clear, than another or others by which it is accompanied, I distinguish it by an asterisk placed after the initial 

* By this remark, I may perhaps provoke the retort that, in composing 
an Arabic-English lexicon wholly from Arabic sources, I am myself 
doing what may be resolved into something like reasoning in a circle. 
But such is not the case ; for the words employed in explanations in the 
Arabic lexicons are generally still used in the senses in which they are 
there employed ; and the intended meanings of words that are not still 
used in such senses are, with few exceptions^ easily determined by 
examples in which they occur, or by the general consent of the learned 
among the Arabs in the present day. Of the exceptional difficulties of 
interpretation, I have already said enough ; and for my own sake^ as 
well as for the sake of truth, I by no means wish to underrate them. 

t In Freytag's first volume, the authorities are seldom indicated. — 

Sometimes explanations given by Golius as from the Sihdh or Kamoos or 
both, and not found in either of those works, are copied by Freytag without 
his stating such to be the case, and without his indicating the authorities 
or authority assigned by Golius : for example, three such instances occur 
in the short article ^y 

J In a few instances, in the Taj el-'Aroos, where its author has drawn 
from the Tahdheeb or the Mohkam through the medium of the Lisan 
el-' Arab, I have found the Tahdheeb erroneously named as his authority 
instead of the Mohkam, or the Mohkam instead of the Tahdheeb. — 
Sometimes an authority is mentioned by a surname borne by two or 
more, so that the person meant is doubtful. 



• • 

Accord., for according. 
Accua. cBiB&ffor accusatiye case, 

Act.,/or actiye, J^UU ^v^* or^^^JU^. 

II. — Table of Lexicological and Qrammatical Terms ^c. used in the following work. 

Pret., for preterite, ^U. 

^ J • 

Act. part. Tk.jfor active participial noun, A^Mj^miX. 


Adv. n., for adverbial noun, «.3p9, and some- 
times lk>o \ of place, ^l£« w^^ ; and of 

** J • r 

time, o^j «>-^^- 
• t 
Agent, J^U. 

a . 

Analogous, or regular, 4«wlf^ and 
Analogy, ,^^. 

• " 

^ jd^ 

* it ^ 

J • 


Anomalous, or irregular, ^^W^ and L^^t^d^, 

or \\Ji (see " Dev.")'or j^U (see " Extr."). 

Aor., far aorist, pjt^. 

Aplastic, applied to a noun and to a verb, 
App., ybr apparently. 
Appositive, x^U 

Attribute, or predicate, jiL-^^ and ji^ck. 
Broken pl.,ybr broken plural, j«Jc« ^^*- 
Coll. gen. n., for collective generic noun, 

^fl*^ (./"»^9 ^1^0 called a lexicological 

a xj • • X 

plural, jjf^ ^«i^. 
Complement of a prefixed noun, a^\ ^\Jxa, 

Complete, t. e, attributive, verb,>U Jjii. 

CoiA.jfor conjugation, ^l^. 

Conjunct, Jy^y^i conjunct noun, ^^j^^) Jy^y^' 

conjunct particle, ^^j^ J>^>^* 

Conjunction, wtUft ^-^>^ ^^^ ou^U «.js^. 

Coiitr.,ybr contrary. 

Conventional term, ».*jl.k ,>gt. ... Conventional 


language, ^j^. 
Corroborative, J4s£»U and j^^. 

Decl., for declinable, v>«-^ : perfectly decL, 

••'•' i^'*''. /.Ill "••' 
and u^^maJU : imperfectly decl., j^ 

J • X 

X • J j»^ 

• 5 ^ J 


Defective verb, t. e. having 3 or ^ for the last 
radical letter, ^^U JjU. 

Dev.,ybr deviating ; as in the phrase, Deviating 
from the constant course of speech (with 
respect to analogy, or rule, or with respect 

to usage), 3l£. (See " Extr.") 
Dial., for dialect, W. 
Dial. var. of, for dialectic variant of, ^ 2Jd. 

Dim., for diminutive, 

Enunciative, j^* 

Epithet, and epithetic phrase, wju and 

and iULtf. 

Ex., for example. 

Expl. by, for explained by. 

Expos., for exposition, «»^ wadj tf mJJ. 
Extr., for extraordinary (with respect to analogy 
or usage), j>0. (See « Dev.") 

Tern., for feminine, wJ>Vo. 

Fnt., for future, J ^ •. 

Gen. case, for genitive case, 

^0 ^ J » 

1, or 

Gen. n., for generic noun, (.,«;4^^,^«it< 
Hollow verb, ^y^\ Jjk^. 
Homonym, j^jZLt, for a^ JpU. 

• Qv y*'*' i<l®™ quod. 

deal (as opposed to real) subst., 

simply («<Jt«. 
mitative sequent, ^^3t. 

nchoative, tju*.«. 

ncomplete, t. «. non-attributive, verb, l/oSU Jjii, 

• ^ • • 

• ^ 

ndecL, ^br indeclinable, 

nf. n., for infinitive noun, jj^^. Inf. n. of 

^ A m. M *. ^ 

• ^ • 


unity, gj i1 j«x.4M : of modality, pyJJ. 
nstrumental noun, 3ii\ j^\, 

ntrans., for intransitive, juCU *«^ and>j*>). 

rreg., ^br irregular : see "Anomalous." 
Lit., for literally. 

Mahmooz verb, J>«t^ Jjk^. 

Mansoob Bov.jfor manf 00b aorist, ^^^Uo cj 

Masc, ybr masculine, j^Jc«. 

Measure, ^j^. 

Mejzoom blot., for mejzoom aorist, 

X J 

• J • ^ • ^ J 

Metaphor, SjljuLft. 
Metaphorical, ^jljuLft. 


• ' 

Metonymy, ^U£9. 

N.,ybr noun,^^»wt. 

N. un., ybr noun of unity, So^t^ and o^l^. 

Nom. cose, /br nominative case, jd>j. 

Objective complement of a verb, J>JiA<« or 

Part. n. : see " act. part, n." and " pass. part, n." 
Particle, w> 

" J » 

j» ^» 

j0'0 3 0^ ... 

Pass., /or passive, J y tiJJ ^Vf^ or Jj^^ >U. 


J 0^ 

• 0< 


• ft'' 

• - 5 


Pass. part, n., for passive participial noun, j^\ 

• ^ • <> 

Perfect pL, for perfect plural, ^Lt /t^i^; also 

• «' • ^ 
called a sound pL, 

Perfect verb, t. e, one which has not two radicals 

alike, nor has » nor ^ nor iC for one of its 
• ^ • ^ 

radicals, ^U Aj6, (See also " Sound verb." 

Pers., ybr person (of a verb). 

• •• 
PL, ybr plural, /t«*>* PI. of pauc, ybr plural of 

paucity, ^US ;t«*>. PI. of mult.,ybr plural of 

^9^ J ^ 
multitude, 5p& /^^^* P^- P'vy^'^ plural of 

" •» 

• .^ 

a plural. 
Possessive noun or epitliet (such as j^\3 and CH*!)), 
^%»Jt ^^ j^\ (a kind of relative noun). 

Postr classical, jJ^^o and w 

• ^ J 

Predicate : see " Attribute." 
Prefixed noun, 

t* * j0 ^ 

Prep., ybr preposition, ^^ o^, and sometimes 

Prov., ybr proverb, ji«. 

Q,*ffor quadriliteral-radical verb, i^^j J*^. 

Q* Q*9 fo^ quasi-quadriliteral-radical verb, JjiI 

wi ^i • ^ J 

Q. Y.ffor quod vide. 

Quasi-coordinate, jUJU : see art JUJ. 

Quasi-inf. n,,for quasi-infinitive noun, jj^^a^ .««il 
<'0^0«0 # 

and jj>in<U^^^«rft. 

Quasi-pass., ybr quasi-passive, P)Ux«. 

Quasi-pl. n.,ybr quasi-plural noun, x^i^^^^l. 
Quasi-sound verb, t. e. one having ^ or iC for its 

first radical letter, JUU Jjii. 
R. Q.,ybr reduplicative quadriliteral-radical verb, 

• ^ «» J fi ^J 9 

^ J 

Real (as oppo|^ to ideal) subst., y*>^ ^^t or 

,0 0^ ^j0 0^' 

simply ^;^, and w>t> j^\ or simply 0)3. 

••^ -1 
Receptacular noun, ^U^^^r**'^ 

I^g'*/^ regular: see " Analogous." 

-ni i. 1. • J»^ •» 4^0 

Rel. n.,ybr relative noun, ^^...JU^^^t, or ^l^w. 

Simple subst. (as opposed to inf. n.),^^1. 

Sing., ybr singular, ^jiu and j^tj). 
Sound pi., ybr sound plural : see " Perfect pi." 
Sound verb, t. e. one which is not of the class 
termed " perfect," but which has not ^ nor ^ 
for one of its radicals : or, as used in the 'Eyn 
and several other lexicons, one that has not two 
radicals alike, nor has ^ nor ^ nor • for one of its 

radicals: ».e^ J**. (See "Perfect verb.") 
Specificative, or discriminative, jtt^* 

State, denotative o^^ J^* 

Subject (as correlative of attribute or predicate), 
0^ • ^ J 



• ^» 

Subst,ybr substantive, ^^^t. 

Substitute, Jjk^. 

Syll. signs, ybr syllabical signs, J>^. 
Syn.ffor synonym and synonymous, o^U^ and 
^^\yUn Syn. with, for synonymous with, 

Trad., ybr tradition, »^%ja^. 

^ * * a • ^ 

Trans., ybr transitive, jaCU and sit^. 
Transposition, %,,JL$. Formed by transposition, 

^ ^ ^ ^ 

Tropical, jU*-« and ^jjU»*-«. 
Unsound verb, t. e. one having 3 or ^ for one 
of its radicals : or, as used in the 'Eyn and 

several other lexicons, one having ^ or ^ or » 

&^» I 
for one of its radicals: Jy^sLo Jji^. 


v., for verb, Jji^. 


Verbal noun, Jj6j^\. 

• ^ 

Pres., ybr present, JW. 

t means asserted to be tropical. 
II J J asserted to be doubly tropical. 
bu'^po^Ol by me to be tropical. 





III. — Chronological list of the more celebrated of the Lexicologists and Orammarians cited in thefoUomng WO^^^ extracted from the 48^A Section of 

the Muzhir : with some additions, which are marhed with an asterisk. 

Aboo-'Amr Ibn-El-'Alli: (•bora at Mekkeh, in the year of the Flight 70 or 68 or 65:) died in 

El-Khaleel: lived to the age of 74 : died in . . 

*E1-Leyth Ibn-Nasr Ibn-Seiyar El-KhurdsAnee : contemporary with, and companion of, EI-KhaleeL 

Yoonus : born in the year 90 : died in ..... . 

El-Kisd-ee : died in . . . . . . . 

Seebaweyh : lived 32 years or 40 and odd yeare : died in ... . 

Aboo-Mohammad El-Yezeedee : lived 74 years : died in .... 

En-Nadr Ibn-Shumeyl : died in . 

Kutrub ......... 

El-Farr^ : lived 67 years : died in . 

Aboo-'Obeydeh (•Maamar Ibn-El-Muthenn^ Et-Teymee): bora in 112: died in . 

Aboo-'Amr Esh-Sheybdnee : lived 110 (•or 111) or 118 years : died in . 

Aboo-Zeyd : lived 93 years : died in . , . 

El-Asma'ee : born in 123 : died in ...... 

•El-Lihy4nee : contemporary with El-BLisd-ee and Aboo-'Obeydeh and Aboo-Zeyd and El-Asma'ee. 

Abu-l-Hasan El-Akhfash : died in . 

Aboo-'Obeyd : lived 67 years : Aed in . 

Ibn-El-A^rdbee : born in 150: died in ...... 

•Shemir : contemporary with Ibn-El-A^irdbee. 

Ibn-Es-Sikkeet (*Ya^^:oob) : died in ..... . 

Aboo-Hatim Es-Sijistdnee : lived nearly 90 years : died in . 

Ibn-]^uteybeh: bora in 213: died in ...... 

El- Azheree (author of the '' Tahdheeb") : bora in 202 : died in . . . 

•Es-Sukkaree (author of an " Exposition of the Deewdn El-Hudhaleeyeen ") : bora in 212: died in 
•Aboo-Haneefeh Ed-Deenawaree (author of the " Book of Plants") : died in 
El-Mubarrad : bora in 210 : died in ...... 

Thaalab (•Abu-l-'Abbds Ahmad Ibn-Yahy^, author of the " Faseeh") : bora in 200 : died in 
Kiird^ : died in ........ 

Ez-Zejjdj ......... 

*Ibn-Dureyd (author of the "Jemharah") ...... 

•Ibraheem Ibn-Mohammad Ibn-'Arafeh (Niftaweyh) : born in 244 or 250 : died in 

•El-Fdrdbee : died in . 

Ibn-El-Kooteeyeh ........ 

Es-Seerdfee : bora before the year 270 : died in "... . 

Ibn-Khdlaweyh : died in . 

Aboo-'AIee El-Fdrisee ........ 

•Ibn-'Abbdd (the Sdhib, author of the " Moheet") : bora in 326 : died in 

Ibn-Jinnee (• Abu-1-Fet-h 'Othmdn) : bora before the year 330 : died in . 

Ibn-Fdris : died in . 

El-Jowharee (author of the "Sihdh") ...... 

El-Harawee (author of the " Ghareebeyn") ..... 

•Mohammad Ibn-Ja^far El-Kazzdz ...... 

El-Jawdleekee ........ 

•Ibn-Et-Teiyanee (author of the "Moo'ab") ...... 

Ibn-Seedeh (author of the " Mohkam") : lived about 60 years : died in 

El-Khateeb Et-Tebreezee : bora in 421 : died in .... . 

Ibn-El-Kattd^ : bora in 433 : died in . 

Ez-Zamakhsheree (•author of the " 'Asds " and " Keshshdf " &c.) : bom in 467 : died in 
El-Kemdl Ibn-El-Ambdree : died in . • ... 

•Es-Suheylee (author of the " Rowd") . . . . . . 

Ibn-Barree (•principal author of " Annotations on the Sihd^ ") . . . 

•Ibn-El-Atheer El-Jezeree, (Mejd-ed-Deen, author of the " Nihdyeh") 

•El-Mutarrizee (author of the " Mughrib") : bora in 536 : died in . 

Es-Saghdnee (•or Es-Sdghdnee, author of the " 'Obdb" and of the " Tekmileh fi-f.§ihdh") : bora in 677 : died in 

El- Jemdl Ibn-Mdlik : bora in 600 : died in .... . 

•Ibn-Mukarram (author of the " Lisdn el-' Arab") : bora in 630 : died in . 

*El-Feiyoomee (author of the "Misbdh," which he finished in 734). 

Aboo-Hciydn : born in 654 : died in ..... . 

•Ibn-Hishdm (author of the " Mughnee") : born in 708 : died in . 

El-Feyroozdbddee (author of the '^ j^dmoos" •and the '^ Basdir") : born in 729: died in 

151 or 159 

. 160 or 170 or 175 

182 -or 183 

. 182 or 183 or 189 or 192 

161 or 180 or 188 or 194 


203 or 204 

. 206 

. . 207 

. 208 or 209 or 210 or 211 

. 205 or 206 or 213 

214 or 215 or 216 

. 216 or 216 

. 210 or 215 or 221 

223 or 224 or 230 

231 or 233 

. 244 

. 248 or 250 or 254 or 255 

. 267 

. 270 

270 or 275 

. 282 

282 or 285 

. 291 

. cir. 310 

. 311 

. 321 

. 323 

. 343 

. 367 

. 368 

. 370 

. 377 

. 385 

. 392 

. 395 

•397 or 398 

. 401 

. 412 

. 426 

. 436 

. 458 

. 602 

. 616 

. 538 

. 677 

. 581 

. 682 

. 606 

. 610 

. 660 

. 692 

. . 711 

. 745 

761 or 762 


. . 816 


lY. — Indications of Autliorities, 

From all these authorities I have drawn through the medium of the TAj el-'Aroos or the Lisan el- 'Arab, except those 
distinguished by the mark J, which denotes those whence I have always drawn immediately: from many of them I have also 
drawn through the medium of some other lexicon than the two above named : and from those distinguished by the mark 1 1 have 
often, or generally, drawn immediately. What is meant by an asterisk placed after any indication of an authority in my lexicon 
has been explained in page xxvi. 


A A, 
































The " Asds " of Ez-Zamakhsheree. 

Aboo-'Amr Ibn-EI-'AI&, and Aboo-'Amr Esh-Sheybanee : 

each being cited simply by the name of '' Aboo-'Amr." 
Aboo-'Alee El-Farisee. 
Aboo-Hdtim Es-Sijistdnee. 
Aboo-Haneefeh Ed-Deenawaree, author of the ''Book of 

Aboo-Manf oor (same as Az). 

El-Azheree (same as AM), author of the " Tahdheeb." 
The ''Basdir," by the author of the " ?:dmoos." 
El-Beyddwee's " Exposition of the ^ur-dn." 

The Calcutta edition of the ** ]^dmoo8." 

The "Exposition of the Mo*alla^dt," printed at Calcutta. 
El-Feyroozdbddee, author of the " Kdmoos." 
El-Feiyoomee, author of the " Mif bdh." 

The " Faseeh " of Tha^lab. 
The " Exposition of the Hamdseh/' (" Hamasae Carmina,") 

by Et-Tebreezee. 
El-Hareeree*s " Ma^mdt," the Commentary on ; 2nd edit 

of Paris. 
Ibn-'Alj:eers " Exposition of the Alfeeyeh of Ibn-Mdlik/' edited 

by Dr. Dieterici. 
Ibn-El-Atheer El-Jezeree, (Mejd-ed-Deen,) author of the 

Ibn-Barree, author of the '' Annotations on the §itid^," with 

Ibn-Dureyd, author of the " Jemharah" &c. 
Ibn-Fdris, author of the "MuimaL" 
Ibn-Hishdm, author of the " Mughnee." 
I bn- Jinnee. 
Ibn-Mukarram, (commonly called in the Tdj el-'Aroos " Ibn- 

Mandhoor,") author of the " Lisdn el-' Arab." 

Ibn-Seedeh, author of the ''Mohkam." 
Ibn-Shumeyl (En-Nadr). 
Ibn-Es-Sikkeet (Ya^koob). 
Ibrdheem Ed-Dasooljiee. 
El-Jowharee, author of the " Sihdh." 
A MS. supposed to be the " Jdmi'" of El-Karmdnee: a lexicon 

founded upon tlie '* 'Eyn," with additions from the 

" Tekmilet el-'Eyn" of El-Khdrzenjee. 
The " Jami' " of the 8ey\'id Mohammad. 
The ** Exposition of the JSIur-dn " by the Jeldleyn. 




































The " Jemharah " of Ibn-Dureyd. 

The " Kdmoos." 

The \i4ee 'lyd^. 

The " Kenz el-Loghah/' of Ibn-Ma^roof ; an Arabic-Persian 

The " Kitdb et-Ta^reeftt" 
The " Kifdyet el-Mutahaffidh." 
El-Khaleel, commonly supposed to be the author of the 

" 'Eyn." 
Kurd^, author of the " Munjid." 

The <' Keshshdf" of Ez-Zamakhsheree. 

The « Kulleeydt" of Abu-l-Bal^. 
The « ?Cur4n." 
The " Lisdn el-'Arab." 
El-Leyth Ibn-Nasr Ibn-Seiydr, held by El-Azheree to be the 

author of the*" 'Eyn," which he calls " Kitdb Leyth." 
The " Mohkam." 

The '' Mul^addamet el-Adab " of Ez-Zamakhsheree 
Mohammad Ibn-Et-Teiyib El-Fdsee, author of "Annotations 

on the Igkdmoos.'^ 
The " Mukhtdr ef-Sihd^." 

El-Meyddnee's " Proverbs." 
The " Mughrib " of El-Mutarrizee. 
The " Mujmal " of Ibn-Fdris. 
The " Mi^bd]^ " of El-Feiyoomee. 
El-Mufarrizee, author of the " Mughrib." 
The " Mughni-l-Lebeeb " of Ibn-Hishdm. 
The " Muzhir " of Es-Suyootee. 
The "Nihdyeh" of Ibn-El-Atheer El-Jezeree (Mejd ed- 


The " 'Obdb " of Es-8aghdnee. 
The " Persian Translation of tlie Sihdh." 
The " Rowd" (" Er-Rowd el-Unuf "j of Es-Suheylee. 
The « §ihdh." 

The seyyid Murtad^, author of the " Tdj el-' Aroos." 
Seebaweyh . 
Es-Saghdnee, author of the " 'Obdb" and of the " Tekmileh 

' fi-s-Si^dt." 
Es-Sukkaree, author of an " Exposition of the Deewdn EI- 

Es-Suheylee, author of the " Rowd." 
The " Tahdheeb " of El-Azheree. 
The " Tdj el-'Aroos." 

The " Turkish Translation of the Igldmoos." 
The " Tekmileh fi-s-Sihdh " of Es-Saghanee. 
The " Tahdheeb et^Tahdheeb." 
Tha^lab, author of the " Fa§eeh." 
El-Wahidee's " Exposition of the Deewdn of El-Mutanebbee," 

edited by Dr. Dieterici. 

Ez-Zubeydee, author of an "Abridgment of the 'Eyn." 

xxxii PREFACE. 

I have now, to the best of my ability, supplied all the necessary apparatus for the use of ray lexicon, except, only, such 
inforraation as I suppose the student to have acquired from other sources. 

The Arabic title ,^^U)I ^ (which the Arabs in general, in the present day, the learned as well as the unlearned, would 
pronounce "Medd el-Kdmoos," as they deem it pedantic to pronounce the titles of books in the classical manner,) I have 
adopted in imitation of that given to his lexicon by El-Feyroozdbddee. It has two meanings: "The Flow of the Sea" and 
" The Extension of the Kdmoos." 

Not only the main expenses incurred in the composition of this work, but also the cost of the printing, and that of the 
Arabic type, have been defrayed by the munificence of His Grace the Duke of Northumberland. The Arabic characters have 
often been considerably altered by the Arabs themselves and by other Easterns ; and still more by Europeans, to adapt them to 
the purpose of printing. For this purpose, I have myself innovated a modification of one medial form and one final form, a^ 
andf-. My Nephew, Mr. Edward Stanley Poole, who possesses unusual skill in Arabic caligraphy, designed, under my 
superintendence, the whole of the Arabic type employed for this work ; and has also assisted me occasionally in the collation of 
the proofs, previously to my own examination and correction of them ; and often in other afiairs connected with the printing 
of my lexicon. 

E. W. L. 

December, 1862. 

[Book I.] 

7^ fir»t Utter of the alphabet [according to the 
order in which the letters ore now commonly 
dispoeed ; and also accMtrdhig to the original 
order, which see in art. j.^.^!]: called t^l. 
[This name, like most of the other names of 
Arabic leUere, is traceable to the Phoenician 
language, in which it signifies "an ox;" the 
ancient Phoenician form of the letter thus called 
being a rude representation of an ox's head.] It 
IB, of all the letters, that which is most frequent 
in speech : and some say that, in ^1, in the ^uf 
[ch. ii. &c.], it is a name of God. (TA.) Its 
name is properly fern., as is also that of every 
other letter ; [and hence its pi. is CiUJt;] but It 
may be made maac. : so says Ks : Sb says that 
■11 the lettera of the alphabet are masc. and fern., 
like as O*"?" ^ masc. and fem. (M.) As a letter 
of the alphabet, it is abbreviated, [or short, and is 
written t, as it also is generally when occurring in 
a word, except at the end, when, in certain cases, 
it is written ^,] and is pronounced with a pause 
after it: and it is also prolonged: (S, ^,* TA:) 
[in the latter case, it is written II; and] this is the 
case when it is made a subst. : and when it is not 
called a letter, [i.e. when one does not prefix to 
it the word fij^j] it is [properly] fem. (^,) Its 
dim. is left, meaning an *! mritten tmalt, or 
obteure, (6, IB,) according to those who make 
it fem. and who say, l^lj >S/^ and "^li ^-*ii ; but 
2^\ according to those who say, l^lj O^. 
(IB.)HHbA)i [properly so called]is (Mt«o^tA« lettern 
of prolongatum and of loftneu and of augrnenta- 
tion; the letters of augmentation being ten, which 
are comprised in the saying, vLjS j,^ [" to-day 
thou wilt forget it"]. (?.) There are two species 
of tJJI; namely, O^ [or tofi^, and id>j^l» [or 
movent}; the former of which ia [properly] called 
JSlI; and the latter, l>^; (§, TA;) which is a 
&tu^ letter, pronounced in the furthest part of 
the &ncea [by a sudden emission of the voice after 
a total snppreseion, so that it resembles in sound 
a feebly-uttered •, whence the form of the cha- 
racter (.) whereby it is represented]: but this 
latter is sometimes tropically called iJUl; andbotli 
[as shown above] are of the letters of augmenta- 
tion. (^ in art. jl, and TA.) There are also two 
other species of oUt; namely, J-oj i_«)l [the alif 
of conjunction or con/texion, or the cor^uncttve or 
eotmexive alif]; and ^tS ^\ [the alif of dt»}unc- 
tion, or the ditjunctive alif]; every one that is 
permanent in the conne^on of words being of the 
latter species ; and that which is not permanent, 
[L e. which is not pronounced, unless it is an alif 
of prolongation,] of the former species; and this 
n without exception augmentative; [butitissome- 
finiea a aabatituto for a suppressed radical letter, 
«Min ^xl, (^ginally ^ ory^ ;] whereas the alif of 

disjunction is sometimes augmentative, as in the 
case of the interrogative alif [to be mentioned 
below, and in other cases] ; and sometimes radical, 
as in ii.1 and j^l: (§, TA:) or, according to 
Alunad Ibn-¥ahy& and Mohammad Ibn-Yezeed, 
(T, TA,) the primary oUll are three ; tiie rest 
being subordinate to these: namely, X^L^I tJUl 
[radicai alif], (T, ^, TA^ as in JjlandJ^I 
(T) and jXl; (^;) and ji^»k} Ji\ [dt^unctive 
alif], as in j^l (T, %.) and '^\ (T) and 
J>l^t; (T,^;) and '^^'^ tJlt [cotyuncHve or 
connexive alif], (T, J^,) as in '^ijlilT (T) and 

Ijlill". (T, K.) The ,Ji\ wMch is one of the 

letten of prolongation and of softness is called 
aSjl^t >^^l ['A« quieKentalif,aaAiA'LJ\ Ji-^\, 
which signifies the same]: (MF, TA:) it is an 
aerial letter, (Mughnee, MF, TA,) merely a 
sound of prolongation after a fet-^ah; (T, TA;) 
and cannot have a vowel, (IB, Mughnee, MF,) 
wherefore it cannot commence a word; (Mugh- 
nee;) when they desire to make it movent, if it 
is converted firom j or ^, they restore it to its 
original, as in \ii\y^» and o^jr ^"'^ '^ 't is not 
converted from j or ^, they eubstitote for it hem- 
zeh, as in jHCtj, in which the hemzeh is a sub- 
stitute for the I in [the sing.] ai'li^^. (IB.) IJ 
holds that the name of this letter is ^, [pro- 
nounced id or U, without, or with, im&leh, like the 
similar names of other letters, as 1^ and U and U 
&c.,] and that it is the letter which is mentioned 
[next] before ^^ in reckoning the letters ; the J 
being prefixed to it because it cannot be pro- 
nounced at the beginning of its name, as other 
letters can, as, for instance, ,jo and ^; and he 
adds that the teachers [in schools] err in pro- 
nouncing its name t_all >'9. (Mu^inee.)_The 
grammarians have other particular appellations 
for alifs, which will be here mentioned. (T, TA.) 
"jl^ ," \Ji')\ [7%e unhrumm alif] is such as 
that in J«U [or J*l*] and Jjsl*; i. e., every 1, 
(T, 5,) of those having no original [fi«m which 
(hey are converted, not being ori^nally t nor j 
nor ^, but being merely a formative letter, and 
hence, app., termed "unknown"], (T,) inserted 
for the purpose of giving fulness of sound to the 
fet-hah in averb and in a noun; (T,]^;) and this, 
when it becomes movent, becomes j, as in the 
case of ^t^ and^l^, becoming j in this case 
because it is movent, and followed by a quiescent 
I, which I is the I of the pi., and is also li^^wt «■■ 
(T.)_OlJjlOUl1 [Tlie alifs of prolonffotiont] 
are such as those [which are inserted for the same 
purpose of giving fulness of sound to the fet-^ah] in 
Jia4, for J£££>, and ^UU., for J5U., and Jb'b , 
for i>il>. (T, ^.) In like manner, j is inserted 
afleradammeh, as iuji^iiJI; and (^ after a kesreh, 

in JU«A- (TA.) An alif of this species is 
to called' fl^^l tJUl [?%« alif a^ed to give 
fulness of sound to a fet-hah preceding it] : and so 
is the alif in \L» used in imitation [of a noun in 
the accns. case ; as when one says, "^-i^j <^1j (pro- 
nounced ^^j) " I saw a man," and the person 
lo whom these words are addressed says, tl« 

mioml). (Mughnee.) all)! Jit [The alif of 

annexation, or the annexed olt/j] is that which is 
nn annex to the fet-hah of a rhyme, (T, $,) and to 
that of the fem. pronoun U: in the former case as in 

- U^l V^ i^l) J^ CJ^ * 

in which I is made an annex to the fet-hah of the 
c [of the rhyme]; and in the saying in the l^ur 
[xsxiii. 10], Uj^t Jb\i CpyJU> in which the I 
aSier the last ^ is an annex to the fet-^tah of that 
ij; und in other instances in the final words of 
verses of the ^ur-6n, as Ij^l^ and ^LcfUU [in 
Ixxvi. 15 and 18]: in the other case as in V^;-^ 
and \^ ^JLt*' C^') '^^ diflTerenoe between it and 
J-e^\ ijii is, that the latter is in the beginnings 
of noims and verbs, and the fonner is in the end- 
inga of nouns [and verbs]. (T, ?.) It is also 
called 3^Nt JUt [Thealif of unbinding, because 
the vowel endinga rhyme prevents its being j,^, 
i. e. "bound" by the preceding consonant]: 
(Mughnee;) and aL>U)l JUI [the alifofthejinal 
word of a verse of poetry or of a verse of the 
Kur-iin or of a clause of rhyming prote]. (TA.) 
[This last appellation must not be confounded 

with that which here next follows.] iLtflilt Ju^l 

[The separating alif] is the I which is written after 
the J of the pi. to make a separation between that 
3 and what follows it, as in ljj££ (T, ^) and 
tj^A^, and in the like of \yj»i and Ijcj^ [and 
\y^ji]; but when a pronoun is affixed to the verb, 
this 1, being needless, does not remain: (T:) also 
the I which makes a separation between the ^ 
which is a sign of the fem. gender and the heavy 
[or doubled] o [>" ^^ corroborated form of the 
aor. and imperative], (T, I^,) because a triple 
combination of j^j is disliked, (T,) as in [^UlJUy 
and jCiiiS and] o*i^l (T. 5) <™'J oUliuS. 
(T.)_iie*«iJI oyJluil [The alif of t/^ light, OT 
fiiiffle, noon in the contracted corroborated form 
of the aor. and imperative], as in the phrase in 
the Kur [xcvi. 15], S^OJl/ txLj [explained in 
art. ^], (T, 5,) and the phrase [in xiL 32], 
^^lI)I ,>• U^j [And he shaU anuredly be 
of those in a state of vileneu, or ignominy], 
in both of which instances the pause is made with 
t [only, without tenween, so that one says tjuL-d 
and CJQ, and this seems to be indicated in Expo- 
sitions of the 5'"'"^ "* ^^ proper pronunciation 
of these two words in the phrases here cited, the 
former of which, and the first word of tiie latter. 

I find thus written in an excellent copj of the 
Mughnee, with a fet-^ah only instead of tenween^ 
though I find them written in copies of the ]^ur-dn 
and of the ]^ with tenween, and for this reason 
only I have written them therewith in the first 
places above], this t being a substitute for the 
light ^y which is originally the heavy ^ : and 
among examples of the same is the saying of 

[And praise not thou the opulent, but Ood do 
thou praise'], the poet meaning ^«x«^U, but 
pausing with an 1 : (T :) and accord, to 'Ikrimeh 
Ed-Dabbee^ in the saying of Imrarel-l^eys^ 

• j>u, s,-«* iSj^i cyj)^\ii 

[what is meant is, Do thou pause that we may 
weep by reason of the remembrance of an object 
of love, and of a place of abode, for] the poet 
means ^>4S, but substitutes I for the light ^; 
(TA ;) or, accord, to some, US is in this case [a 
dual] addressed to the poet's two companions. 

(£M p. 4.) u^yOt Jj!\ [The alif of eacchange] 

is that which is substituted for the ten ween (T, ^) 
of the accus. case when one pauses upon it, (T,) 
as in Ij^ c^tj (T, ^ [and so in the copy of the 
Mughnee mentioned above, but in the copies of 
the T I find lj[^j,]) and \^ JJii and the like. 

(T.) — ^Uai Jjl [The alif of inabUity to ex- 

press what one desires to say], (T,) or ^U:3t UUI 

[the alif of feigning negligence or Jieedlessness], 
(^,) [but the former is evidently, in my opinion, 
the right appellation,] is that which is added when 

one says ji^ ^t, and then, being unable to finish 

his saying, pauses, saying \j^ ^j\, [in the Cl^ 

^j^f] prolonging it, desiring to be helped to the 
speech that should reveal itself to him, (T, ^,) 

and at length saying J>Xk;.#, meaning to say, if 

he were not unable to express it, JUoyU j^ ^j\ 

rogative \, which see below.] In this case it is 
only added to give fulness of sound to the vowel ; 
for you say, »^X^I [What! the manl for 

«»^JU»P \ I,] after one has said '^ The man stood ; " 

•"•**' .•.-'fit., 

and d^l^i^^t in the accus. case ; and AeJUi-^Jt m the 

[Verily 'Omar is going away], (T.) The I in a 

case of this kind is [also] said to be js^XS^ [for 
the purpose of endeavouring to remember]', and 
in like manner, 3, when one desires to say, 
juj >yh!, and, forgetting j^ij, prolongs the sound 
in endeavouring to remember, and says y^^> 
(Mughnee in the sections on t and y) It is also 
added to a curtailed proper name of a person called 
to, or hailed, as in U^ l^ for j^ l^j [which is an 

ex. contrary to rule, as j^ is masc. and consists 

of only three letters]. (T.)..a^Jljt J^\ [The alif 

of lamentation], as in ^sSiJ t^ [Alas, Zeyd!], 
(T, ]^,) i. e. the I after the > ; (T ;) and one may 

^0 ^ 

say t J41J I3, without the d of pausation. (Alfeeyeh 
of Ibn-Mdlik, and I 'A^ p. 272.) j\S^^\ J)t 

[The alif of disapproval], (T,) or jlS^ J)^\ 
[which means the same}, (Mughnee,) is similar to 
that next preceding, as in d}j^ yf\ \ [What! Aboo- 
'Omar?] in reply to one who says, " Aboo-'Omar 
came;" the d being added in this case after the 
letter of prolongation like as it is in dU^jU I3 said 
in lamentation. (T.) [The ex. given in the 

Mughnee is aI/^ t, as said in reply to one who 
says, " I met 'Amr j" and thus I find it written, 
with 1; but this is a mistranscription of die inter- 

gen, case. (Mughnee in the section on y [But 
in my copy of that work, in these instances, the 
incipient 1, which is an I of interrogation, is written 

r.]) ailiNl Sj oi iiuljl Ju^t [The alif that 

is converted from the affixed pronoun \j;], as in 
J^\\^'^\i[0 my boy, advance thou,]ioT^*j^\i', 

(TA in art. j^;) [and jjjj W^ <i (I 'A^ 
p.271) O my wonder at Zeyd! for j^ vje%^ ^;] 
and in Ujf Vj for J^\ W, and U^ ij for ,^3 ij, 
and Wl ^ and l\^ <i for ^t^ ij. (T and TA in 
art^.) [This is sometimes written ^5, but pre- 
ceded by a fet-hah.] aj^l^^t sJ^^^S [The trans- 

muted alif, in some copies of the ^ ^3^ pM uUI, 
which, as MF observes, is put for the former,] is 
every I that is originally 3 or ^^ (T, ^C) movent, 
(T,) as in J15 [originally J>5], and clj [originally 

^'],(T,?:,) and t> [originally i>], and ^ 
[originally yyi3], and the like of these. (T.).— 
S^J^S wi)t [The alif of the dual, or rather, ofduali- 
zation], (T, 5,) in verbs, (TA,) as in JUJ^ 
and oW^9 (^i \y) and in nouns, (T,) as in 

OtJ^t (T, B:) and dC^\ ; (T;) [i. e.] the \ 
which in verbs is a dual pronoun, as in ^ILni and 

^ ^ ^ 

^^bU^, and in nouns a sign of the dual and an 
^ ^ » * 

indication of the nora. case, as in O^^J* (?•)—- 
It is also indicative of the accus. case, as m wutj 
^U [I saw his mouth]. (S.) — g^t J)! [The 
alif of the plural, or of pluralization] , as in ji»l. .o 

and JL^ (T, J^) and o^J^ and J^ty. (T.) 

i^^Ut i^t [Hie alif denoting the fern, gender], 

as in iJl«^ (Mughnee, Ti^ and ^/i^ [in which 
it is termed Ijyd^ shortened], and the meddeh 
in ^T^ Off!) and f^ and CJu [in which it is 
termed 5>3J1^ fen^<Aen«<|. (TA.) JUJ-^I Jjl 

[The alif of adjunction, or qttasi-coordination ; 
t/iat which renders a word an adjunct to a par- 
ticular class, i. e. qwisi-^oordinate to another 
word, of which the radical letters are more in 
number than those of the former word, (see the 

sentence next following,)], (Mughnee, TA,) as 

0t f 0t 

in \hj\ (Mughnee) [or ^^j^; and the meddeh 

in t^jU &c.]...>e:^t J)( [The alif ofmuUipli- 

cation, i. e. that merely augments the number of 

the letters of a word without making it either 

fern, or quasi-coordinate to another, unaugmented, 

^ ^0 * ^ 
word^, as in ^J^^^ (Mughnee, TA) [correctly 

\^y^], in which the t [here written ^] is not 
to denote the fem. gender, (S and ]^ in art.jJtjiJf,) 

because its fem. is ISyjt^, as Mbr. sa3rB ; (Ip and 
TA in that art. ;) nor to render it quasi-coordi- 
nate to another word, (EL and TA in that art.,) 
as is said in the Lubdb, because there is no noun 
of six radical letters to which it can be made to be 

[Book I. 

so; but accord, to Ibn-Mdlik, a word is some> 

times made quasi-coordinate to one comprising 

^ * ^0 ^^0^0 

augmentative letters, as ^^ iw&\^ is Vij^^y^\. (TA 

* i ^ t 
in that art)HH A« Jl oWt [The alifs of conjunct 

tion or connexion, or the conjunctive or connexive 
alifs], (T, ^,) which are in the beginnings of 
nouns, (T,) [as well as in certain well-known 

9 000 %J9t0 

cases in verbs,] occur m ^\ (T, ]bl) and^^t (K) 

and iXi\ and Q\ij\ and ^UJt and ^j^\ and iU^S 

• •<• 9 0t0 

and jfmf\ and c^m.^!^ (T, ]^,) which have a kesreh 

to the I when they commence a sentence, [or occur 
alone, i. e., when immediately preceded by a 
quiescence,] but it is elided when they are con- 
nected with a preceding word, (T,) [by which term 
'' word" is included a particle consisting of a single 

letter with its vowel,] and v>«^t and^l [and 
variations thereof, which have either a fet-hah or 
a kesreh to the t when they commence a sentence, 


or occur alone], (]^,) and in the article Jt, the I 
of which has a fet-hah when it commences a sen- 

tence. (T.)aB uJUt ^\ [The alif of di^unction, 

or the disfunctifje alif,] is in the beginnings of 

sing, nouns and of pi. nouns : it may be known 

by its permanence in the dim., and by its not 

J ^ $ 
being a radical letter : thus it occurs in v>*M^t, of 

J • - 1 
which the dim. is ^.ne^t : (I Amb, T :) in pis. 

it occurs in olV ^ ^^^ frhj^ (^ Amb, T, ]^) and 
iimJ\ [&c.]: (I Amb, T:) [it also occurs in verbs 
of the measure Jjt^t, as j^j^\ ; in which cases it 
is sometimes ^JLJJ, i. e. privative, (like the 
Greek alpha,) as in Jmi^Ji ** he did away with in- 
justice," which is termed h^^ andvLJi, inf. ns. 
of luJ :] it is distinguished from the radical (, as 
shown above: (I Amb, T:) or it is sometimes 
augmentative, as the interrogative ( [to be men- 
tioned below] ; and sometimes radical, as in J^\ 

and ja\ ; and is thus distinguished from the con- 
junctive \, which is never other than augmentative. 

(S.) ^^^.olSt^ y^t/^^ iJ|f [The alif denoting 

excess and deficiency, i. e., denoting the compara^ 

ttve and superlative degrees], as in jbj:^\ ^^ 
dlu [Stich a one is more generous, or noble, than 

thou], (T, ]§1,*) and «£U« >^)1 [more ungenerous, 
or ignoble, than thou], (T,) and ^^wl Jv»-t [the 
most ignorant of men], (T, K.*)..SjUsOt i^l 
[The alif of signification]^ (T, ^,) as though, 
(T,) or because, (TA,) significant of the speaker. 

i ^ 

(T, TA,) also caUed aJUU)t [the operative], as in 
'Jb\'jilcLA u{ [/ beg forgiveness of God], (T, K,) 

andlji» Jiliuf [/A) thus].(T.) j^^^\ ^f 

[The alif of interrogation, or the interrogative 
alif], (T, §, Msb in art. j^, Mughnee,) as in 

^15 jLijl [Is Zeyd standing?], (Mughnee,) and 

90^ 0t ^*0 %0*t _ __ 
yy^j^ Jj^ J^* [-" Zeyd with thee, or iU thine 

abode, or Amr?], (S,) and juj J\i\ [Did Zeyd 
stand?], said when the asker is in ignorance, and 

to which the answer is ^) or ^^ ; (Msb ;) and in 

^ 0^ 0^t 
a negative phrase, as 9^j^ j^\ [Did we not dilate, 

or enlarge? in the Ji^ur xciv. 1]. (Mughnee.) 

Book I.] 

When this is followed by another hemzeh, an \ is 
interposed between the two hemzehs, [so that 70a 

BBj entity also written C^H,] as in the saying 
of Dhu-r-Rummeh, 

[O <Aott doe^azelle of JSl-Waasd between Jddjil 
and ike oblong gibbous hiU of sand, is it thou, or 
Umm-Sdlim?]; (T, ^;) but some do not this. 

(T.) [It is often conjoined with ^t, as in the 



» » » 

\\a zii. 90, yJJJ iJ^ ii^l Art thou indeed 

Joseph ?] It is sometimes used to make a person 
acknowledge, or confess, a thing, (T, Msb in 
art J^, Mughnee,) and to establish it, (Msb,) as 

in the phrase in the ^ur [v. 116], ,^du cJB cJlt 

crS^lDidst thou say to WM?n?],(T,)andlji3^( 
[explained above], (Msb in art. >^,] and in 

Ij^ C«(^^l or C^j^ CJM [Bidst thou beat 
Zeyd?], and Oy^ \juj\ [Zeyd didst thou beat?]. 
(Mughnee.) And for reproving, (T, Mughnee,) 

as in the phrase in the ^ur [xxxvii. 153], ^J^^S 

i*>ey I (^ OUi^t [Hath He chosen daughters in 
preference to sons?], (T,) [but see the next sen- 
tence,] and [in the same ch., verse 93,] U 0^j»^\ 
i^ y 5fc» ' 3 [Do ye worship what ye hew out?], 
(Mughnee.) And to express a nullifying denial, 
as in [the words of the j^ur xvii. 42,] J^\k^\i\ 

UUI a»5Wt O^ J-BJI3 Oif^\j^2 [^^^ then 
your Lord preferred to give unto you sons, and 
gotten for himself, of the angels, daughters?], 
(Mughnee.) And to denote irony, as in [the Ji^ur 

xi. 89,] UJW) JuJiif U Jp o^ ^y»^ ^t^JUt [Do 
thy prayers enjoin thee that we should leave what 

our fathers worshipped?]. (Mughnee.) And to 

00 ^0% 
denote wonder, as in [the IJlur xxv. 47,] ^^t 

Jjyt jL« u^ «2X^ ^t [Hast thou not considered 

the work of thy Lord, how He hath extended the 

shade?]. (Mughnee.) And to denote the deeming 

a thing slow, or tardy, as in [the l^nr Ivii., 15,] 
»09» a L> 00$ 

'V^^ CH^ OW j^^ [Hath not the time yet come 
000 •' 

far those who have believed?]. (Mughnee.) And 
to denote a command, as in [the l^^ur iii. 19,] 

AS, meanmg t^JUt [Enter ye into the reli- 

J 00 

gum of El-Isldm]. (Mughnee, and so Jel.) And 

to denote equality, occurring after l\ya and ^JVjt U 

#f " • §0 

and ^jy U and |J>a^ C^, and the like. 

, as m 
__ .... ^» '00' »i$ 0*0 000000$ 000 ,0 
[the ?ur kiii. 6,] ^ >l^ ^jkiC^S^^y^ t\^ 

0»0 0^0 " 

j^ jkkHmJ [It will be equai to them whether thou 

beg forgiveness for them or do not beg forgiveness 

000 0t 0jt 0% 
far them], and m Ojji3 J^ C^l ^^^l^ [I care 

not whether thou stand or sit] : and the general 
role is this, that it is the hemzeh advening to a 
phrase, or proposition, of which the place may be 
supplied by the inf. n. of its verb ; for one may 

»»000 J 00 0*m*m J 000 000-0 

flay, Ai«j^3 j^iiS^J^X jtY^ ^^y^ [Equal to them 

will be the begging of forgiveness and the not doing 

000 0% 

jd], and a«j^^ ^tdVjJl^ ^K^S U [I care not for 

thy standing and thy not doing so]. (Mughnee.) 

..ftU^t wit [The alif of calling, or vocative alif], 

(T, $,^ Mughnee,* ^,) as in j^l, meaning j^ l^ 

[O Zeyd], (T, jgl,) and in jjl ^\ [O Zeyd, 

advance], (1^,) used in calling him who is near, 
(8, Mughnee,) to the exclusion of him who is 

distant, because it is abbreviated. (8.) I, with medd, 

is a particle used in calling to him who is distant, 

• 0$ *00f* 
(Mughnee, K,) as in J^l jl»jI [Ho there, or soho, 

or holla, Zeyd, advance]. (TA.) Az says. You 
say to a man, in calling him, ^J^\ and ^yjj!\ and 
CiU l^r (TA) or \il (§ and is: in art 1^1.) 

l«« I Mf0 

4b\\, for dS)\^ ^( : see ^U ... In a dial, of some 

of the Arabs, hemzeh is used in a case of pausing 
at the end of a Terb, as in their saying to a 

• J 10 J 

woman, ^^ [Say thou], and to two men, ^M 

" 0j J 

[Say ye two], and to a pi. number, p^ [Say ye] ; 

but not when the verb is connected with a word 

following it : and they say also ^, with a hemzeh, 

[for *>),] in a case of pausation. (T.) But A^mad 
Ibn-Yahy^ says, All men say that when a hemzeh 
occurs at the end of a word, [i. e. in a case of 
pausation,] and has a quiescent letter before it, 
it is elided in the nom. and gen. cases, though 
retained in the accus. case [because followed by a 
quiescent \], except Ks alone, who retains it in 
all cases : when it occurs in the middle of a word, 
all agree that it should not be dropped. (T.) AZ 
[however] says that the people of El-^ij&z, and 
Hudheyl, and the people of Mekkeh and El- 
Medeeneh, do not pronounce hemzeh [at all] : and 
'Ees& Ibn-'Omar says, Temeem pronounce hem- 
zeh, and the people of El-^ijdz, in cases of 
necessity, [in poetry,] do so. (T.)..Ks cites, [as 

exhibiting two instances of a rare usage of \\, or I, 
in a case of pausing, in the place of a suppressed 

$0 m0 ft ^ 000 J00 00 0$0 Jwi0 9 0j 00 

$0 0$ a aa J I 00 

to o< ^l j^^ J^jJ ^^ 

[written without the syll. signs in the MS. from 

which I transcribe this citation, but the reading 

seems to be plain, and the meaning. Such a one 

supplicated his Lord, and made his words to be 

heard, saying, Oood is double good; and if evil 

be my lot, then evil; but I desire not evil unless 

Thou will that it should be&ll me] : and he says, 

,00 1 a 
he means, fUJ ^j\ ^\ ; this being of the dial, of 

Benoo-Sa^, except that it is [with them] D, with 
a soft \ [only] : also, in replying to a person who 

says, '^ Wilt thou not come ?" one says, U, mean- 


mg U^ ^^>U [Then go thou with us]\ and in 
like manner, by tU, in the saying above, is meant 


j^. (TA.)aB Hemzeh also sometimes occurs as 

a verb ; ol, i. e. t with the d of pausation added, 

%0 000 

being the imperative of ^1^ as syn. with j^^. 

(Mughnee.) ■■ [As a numeral, t denotes One.] 

%* " 

"^ [written with the dis- 

and i^l^t ) (M ;) and t 

* 60 

junctive alif s^O 5 (T, T^ ;) He prepared him- 
self, (AZ, ip, M, A, ]^,) and equipped himself, 
(AZ, 9, A,) for (J) departing, or going away, 
(AZ, §,) or for joume3dng : (M, A, jgl :) or he 
determined upon journeying, and prepared him- 
self (T.) El-Afshi says, 



1. ^\, (T, S, M, &c.,)aor. -, (M, £[,) agree- 
ably with analogy in the case of an intrans. verb 
of this class, (TA,) and i , (AZ, T, 8, M, ?,) 

contr. to analogy, (TA,) inf. n. v< (T, 8, M, 5) 
and ^\ (M, ¥) and vW! and aJwl (8, M, jgL) 

' ' ^ » ^0 I 000 i 00 

00 00 A$0 

00 •% 

(T, 8, M, TA,) i. e. I cut [in effect, while I did 
not really cut] you : for like one who cuts is a 
brother who hcu determined and prepared to go 

away. (TA.) [Hence,] vW ^3 V^ ^f [or 

VV^ J3 V^^ %] ^ prov. [which see explained in 

* * jt 

art. ^,.<£]. (TA.) [And hence the saying,] ^J ^ 
W, (?, M, ?,) and 4ii<^\, and siM. (M,) He 

* ^ 00 00 p 

it in his [state of , or he is engaged in his,] pre- 
paration or equiptnent [for departing or joumey- 

ing]. (8, M, ^.) The hemzeh in ^1 is sometimes 

changed into 3 ; and thus ^^, inf. n. ^^, signi- 
fies He prepared himself to assault, or charge, in 

battle. (T,TA.) — iljljl o^, and iiJCj, Sis 
way, or course, of acting, or conduct, or the like, 

was, or became, rightly directed, or ordered. (M, 

^jSt a $ J 
■Q^O— -~^^ V^ *' 9' ^J^ J^, (^,) which signi- 
fies He tended, repaired, betook himself, or di- 
rected his course, towards him, or it : (ip and Mfb 
in art j^ :) and also, he pursued his (another's) 
course, doing as he (the latter) did. (L in ait. 

^3.) — ^it^ Jl vl (M, p aor. : (IDrd, 
M, ?) and i , (?,) inf. n. ^\ (AA, 8, M, ?) 
and aJwj and iJwi (M, ?) and vWl (TA,) He 
yearned for, longed for, or longed to see, his home. 
(AA, 9, M, ?.) 

8 : see 1, first signification. 


10. 4^wt He adopted him as a father ; an 

extr. form ; (lA^, M ;) from ^l, a dial. var. of 

V»: (TA:) regularly, igulj. (M.) And v^' 

V^ and Ct ^^'V^t He adopted a father. (TA in 

^\ : see art ^1. 

^l Herbage, (M, 50 whether fresh or dry : 
(M,* T^,^ TA:) or pasture, or Jierbage which 
beasts feed upon, (Fr, A^n, Zj, T, 1^, M, A, 
Msb, 5,) of whatever kind, «(AHn, Zj,) [or] 
not sown by men : (Msb :) it is, to cattle and 
other beasts, what fruit is to men : (Mujdhid, 
T, Msb :) or whatever grows upon the face of 
the earth ; (' Atii, Th, T, M ;) whatever vegeta- 
ble the earth produces: (K,* TA:) and also, 
green herbage, or plants: (5,* TA:) and, as 
some say, straw, (Jel in Ixxx. 31, and TA,) be- 
cause cattle eat it : (TA :) or herbage prepared 
for pasture and for cutting : (TA :) accord, to 
IF, (Msb,) dried fruits; because prepared for 
winter (Bd in Ixxx. 31, and Msb) and for jour- 

neying: (Msb:) pi. [of pauc] v^l, originally 
^n. (I 'AV p. 367.) You say, ^^« ij c!J J^ 
V*^^ a) c\k3f meamng Such a one's seedrproduce 

[or ffrain] increated, and hi* patture became 
ample, (A.)^Also a dial. var. of v'> -^father. 
(T, and MP from the Tea-heel of Ibn-M&lik.) 
^m At\ ^\t see 1. 

2/VI and 2^U A waif, or eouru, of acting, or 
conduct, or the like. (M, B:.) [Bee 1.] 

jjlyl The time, or teaton, of a thing : (M^b :) 
or the tiine of the preparing, or making ready, of 
a thing: (Mgh:) as, for instance, of fmt: (Mgh, 
Mfb it is of the measure o^> (^gh, Mfb,) 
from v' >" ^''^ ^i^t of the senses assigned to it 
above, (Mgh,) the ^ being angmentatiTe; (Mjb;) 
or of the measure Juif, (Mgfa, Mfb,) iroro ^1 
"he watched" or "observed" a thing, (Mgh,) 
the ^ being radical : (Mfb :) but the former 
derivation is the more correct. (Mgh.) [See also 

j^l The Jirtt of a series of eight mordt com- 
prising the letters of the And>ic alphabet [in the 
order in which they were originaUy disposed, 
agreeing with that of the Hebrew and Aramaic, 
but with six additional letters : they are varionslj- 
written and pronounced ; generally as follows : 
^iu J^ ^^ JcJ^ j>ji» ^J^ iJi J^i : 
but the Arabs of Western Africa write the latter 
four thus: ,JJ^ J^j tZ-miji ^/ai»^y, (^ and 
TA in art. j.^.y : [in both of which are related 
several fables concerning the origin of these 
words :]) accord, to the general opinion, the word 
■a^h/I is of foreign origin, [like each of the words 
following it,] and therefore its first letter [as well 
Bs each of the others] is a radical. (TA.) [Hence, 
ji^.^'^l signifies The alphabet. You say tJjjj^ 
j,<w*JI 2^ '««*»•» of the alphabet...^ It is proba- 
ble (as De Sacy has observed in his Ar. Gram., 
2nd ed., i. 8,} that the Arabic alphabet originally 
consisted of only twenty-two letters : for some of 
the ancient Arabs called Saturday .*^»e'i Sunday 
^k, and so on to wwp inclusive ; calling Friday 

i^jjc In the lexicon entitled " EI-'Eyn," the 

letters of the alphabet are arranged nearly ac- 
cording to their places of utterance ; as follows : 

£' C *' t' t' *^' ^' C '^' '^' '^' *^' -*' ^' 
J, o, 1», >, i, J, J, o> ^1 V* >» 3'^> *S' 
and this order has been followed in the Tahdheeb 
and Mohkam and some other lexicons.] 

1. j^t, aor. ; , iof. n. >^1, ffe remained, stayed, 
abode, or divelt, (T, S, M, ^,) constantly, con- 
tinuaUy, or permanently, without quitting, (T, 
L,) ji^_ '« o i*^e >• (T. 8, M, ^ ;) and so j^l 
having for its aor. -' . (TA.) — j^l, (§, M, A, &c.,) 
aor. ; and ^ (T, §, M, L, Mjb, 1^,) inf. n. >^l ; 
(M,L,MBbO and ^ Jh; (T, M, A, Mgh, L;) 
He (a beast) became wild, or shy ; syn. JU>p : 
(8, M, A, Mgh, h, Msb, ^:) [because wild 
animals live long, unless killed by accident ; ac- 
cord, to what is said by Af and others in explana- 
tion of ji^tjt (sing, ijh/l) applied to 

meaning vrild :] took fright, and fled, or ran aioay 
at random: (Mgh:) tookfright at, and shunned, 
mankind. (T, M;b.) l^\ also signifies The 
shrinhin3 from a thing, or j&unntn^ it; syn. j^. 
(Kull pp. 30 and 31.) And j^l, (?, 5,) aor. - ; 
(J^i) and tj^; (A,?;) He (a man, 8, A) 
became unsocial, unsociable, unfamiliar, or shy ; 
like a wild animal; syn. t^U>^. ($, A, ^.)— 
[Hence,] J^t, (?.,) aor. ; , inf. n. ly/\, (TA,) Jffa 
(a poet) made use, in his verses, of words, or 
phrases, strange, unusual, uKfamiliar, or far from 
being intelligible, (ljL,» TA,) such as were not 
understood (1^) at first sight, or on first con- 
sideration. (TA.)_[And perhaps from jh^l in 
the sense expluned ^>ove, but more probably, I 
think, by the substitatiou of \ for j,] J^l, aor. -, 
(T, 9, &c.,) inf. n. J!^t, (L,) He (a man, 9) was 
angry ; (T, $, M, L, ^ ;) as also X»\ and J>^ and 
.i.*^ and jb^. (T, L.) Yon say, s^ J^l He was 
angry with him. (L.) 

5. jk^l, inf. n. j>ti^t Re made, or rendered, 
perpetual. (§, 5.) [See also the pass. part. n. 
below.] Ij>e/U Jx^^ is a phisse used as though 
meanii^ ^t^\4 Ol ^ [/ did not a deed ever to 
be remembered, or mentumed]. (^am p. 191.)^ 
He, or it, made [a beast] to take fright ; to 
come wild, or sky. (KL.) 

6. J./I3; see 1, in two places. ^ J7e (a man) 
wax long distant from his home; expl. by s£jlb 
«i^ ; (^ ;) '"' """ ^^"*9 *" "■ *^*e of celibacy 
«^ OJt^, OS in one Copy of the ]j: ; (TA;) and 
became little in need, or little desirous, of women. 
(I^.)^_/< (a place of abode or sojourning) be- 
came deserted [by manhindl: (T, M, ^:) and 
became inhabited by wild animals. (T, M, A.) 

ji^l : see ,j.^l. 

O^'l Time, syn. Jft^, (S, M, Msb, ^,) tn an 
tAsolute sense: (TA:) or a long time, syn. ^^ 
^^ : (A, and Mgh : [and this may be meant 
in the § &c. by the syn. j*3 alone, q. v.:]) or, 
property, a long time ( J^^J*^^) that is unlimUed: 
(M;b, TA :) or on extended space of time that 
is indivisible ; for you say \JA ^Uj " the time 
of such a thing," but not IJi^ j^\ : (Er-R&ghib ;) 
[and generally, tiyne, or duration, or continuance, 
or existence, without end ; endless time, &,c. ; pro- 
xpective eternity; opposed to ^1, which signifies 
' time, or duration, kc, witliout iKginning :" (see 
die latter word forfurtherexplanation8,&c.;) each 
of these significations may be meant by the ex- 
planation in the ^ and M and ^, which is also 
the Mfb : each correctly applies in par- 
ticular instances :] pi. [of pauc] i\i\ ($, M, Msb, 
^) and [of mult.] \^\ (§, M, 5) [and 0>*i'. of 
which an ex. will be found below] : but the use 
uf these pis. is restricted to particular cases, to 
'ignily portions of time, or to serve as corrobora- 
tives to the sing.: (MF:) as signifying an ex- 
tended indivisible space of time, [or the Uke,] 

[Book I. 

jL/l should have neither dual nor pi. ; but jM i> 
sometimes said, when the sing, is restricted to 
denote a particular part, or portion, of the whole 
of that to which it applies, in like manner as a 
generic noun is restricted to a special and partial 
signification : some, however, have mentioned 
jl^t as being post-classical; not of the language 
of the Arabs called tl^) vj*>l- (Er-IUghib.) 
j^ ^yi» .^^^l Jl^ [The time became long to 
Lubad, the last, and the longest of hfe, of Lu^- 
m&n's seven vnlturee, to the term of the life of 
which his own term of Ufe was decreed to extend,] 
is a proverb applied to any thing that has been of 
long duration. (M.) And you say, l^«fi Jitl Ji3jf 
^uSl Jke'V 4^ J^J* [^"■y Clod grant thee a 
Ufe long in duration (lit. durations, the pi. form 
being used not in its proper sense, but to give 
inlenaivenesfl of signification), and remote in limit 
(Ut. limiu)]. (A.) And^liliV^tiiolfc 
This wot a long time ago. (Mgh.) And f j^yl ji^t 
(TA) and tj^i Ji^t, (S, M, TA,) meaning ^1> 
[in an intensive sense] ; (TA ;) [A long, or an 
endless, period of time ;] like as you Bay,^t> jMy 
($) OTj^i jA), (M.) [In each of these phrases, 
the latter word is added as a corroborative, or to 
give intensiveDess to the signification.] j>v'>} and 
j^'^ and [in an intensive sense, as will be seen 
below,] jj, j^y"^ and o/"^! J>/'^, accord, to different 
redtalsof a trad., signify 7*0 the end of time ; for 
ever; and for everandever. (TA.) \j.f\ is an adv.n., 
of which the signification includes all future time ; 
[meaning Ever ; like £j in relation to past time ;] 
(EI-Kha^ee, £I-Bedr Ed-Sem^eenee, MF;) 
and j>i*9I ^ signifies the same. (TA.) [So, too, 
does i^y*^!, unless used in a limited sense known 
to the hearer.] When yon say, ij^] d^iAA % 
jou mean, [I will not speak to him as long as I 
live, or henceforth, or ever ; or / will jiever speak 
to him; i. e.,] from the time of your speaking to 
the end of your life. (M|b.) [In this case, iji^t 
may also be considered as a mere corroborative. It 
is u«ed in both these ways (,j n-UU and j^gfojlU) 
in affirmative as well as negative sentences. For 
exB. of its use in affirmative sentences, see the 
5ur xviii. 2 and iv. 60, &c.] One also says, 
iUSt -9, (S, M, A,) and ^J% (T, ?;,) iWl Sf\, 
(T, M, A, ^,) which, though of classical autho- 
ity, is sud to be no evidence of the use of jl/l as 
a pi. of ^1 in a general way by the Arabs of the 
classical ages, as it is here added merely as a coi^ 
roborative, as Jtjt is in the phrase Jlj^l ,Jjt ; 
(MF;) and ^^^\ J^l, (M, A, ?,) in which the 
latter word is not a rel. n., for if so it would be 
O^JvlJt, hut app. a pi., (M,) like CtS^j' J C^* 
^;) and ^g^iV^I j>fl, ($, ]S^,) like as you say, 
^^IJJI jii; (9;) and t^J^-Jl^l; (M, K ;) 
andtj^i^l ^(; (T, $, M, A, T^;) and Sj 
♦jW^t; (M,?;) and j^"^! ^1; (? ;) and J^'l 

Book I.] 

^1; (M,5; [in the T ^1 j;;;]) aU of 
which phrsMS an the same in meaning ; O^i) 
[t. e. / mil not do it, and J mil not come to Mm, 
(or AgST *i may here mean the same as 4i*i\ •9,) 
dttrinff the onsets space of aU future timet, OTtime; 
(V tite Hke ; or for ever and ever ; tU hiumi tuv 
aunmv; in wcuteffi teculorumi in omtM orunt ,-] 
the last word in every case being a corroboratiTe. 
(MF.) — Also, [for j^i j>i and (applied to a 
fern, n.} ^\ Oli,] Lotting : or everhuting. (^, 
A, (.) Bo in the saying, o^l IJA-St^ Jl^' l^jJI 
[7^;»r««rt itote of escittence it timxted in Aim- 
(ion, fruf the_final ttate of exittence it everhuting]. 
('Obeyd Ibn-'Omeyr and L.) And j^*)\ signifies 
[I%e Evertaiting; i. e. God; because He alone 
is * ^J4*)\ ^J^\^^ The Enduring mithoul end or 
eeitation; for the Muslims hold that all living 
creatures (even the angels) must die, and be 
raised i^ain to life : or] 77ie Ancient nithout 
beginning. (^.y^A]ao Offing that it a year 
old. (?.) 

■^1 Unsocial, ttntociable, unfamiliar, or lAy; 
lihe a Tvild animal ; applied to a man, and to a 
young camel : (8, L:) and ^j^\, applied to a 
female slave, and to a she-ass, signifies thunning 
mankind, thy, or roild. (]^.) [See also jij.]^ 
See also ^\, in four places. 

%\: see Jvl.MHThis vord, (Llli,IBh,^,]^,) 
said hj Lth and ISb to be the only vord of its 
measure heard from the Arabs except Jv! ^nd 
mja and t^-if^, but Az says that he had not 
heard the last two from any person worthy of 
reliance, and that they are pronounced mSi and 

4I-*-, (L.) [«« Jvj>] and tjjl and tjjt, (?,) 
which are thought by Az to be dial. vais. of the 
first, (L,) applied to a female slave, and to a 
ahe-ass, signify Prolific; that hreedt, or bringt 
forth, plentifuUy ; (§,?;) and t it and tJiil 
(Aboo-MiUh, TA) and tij^, (Aboo-Milik, ?,') 
applied to a she-camel, signify the same : (Aboo- 
U&lik,]^,TAO and ivl (Lth.ISh.L) andtj[^f, 
(H,L,) applied to a female slave, (M,L,) and 
to a she^ass, (Lth, ISh, M, L,) and to a mare, 
(M, L,) that bringt forth every year; (Lth, ISh, 
L ;) or applied as a pi. to the female slave and 
die mare and the she-oss, that breed, or bring 
forth: (M, L:) and oW^' the female tlave and 
the mare. (Tf., TA.) In the following saying, 

• i*;/! i^i ^,4 • J^i ji^ji 2^ ii • 

[Hard fortune teill not depart tave ivith the for- 
tune which is the necessary attendant of the pot- 
tenor of the female slave, as long as he possesses 
her, (or, if we take ^) in the sense of «J^, save 
with the fortune of thitfemaJe tlave,) who every 
year (U being redundant) brings forth,} j^*j\ 
means the female slave because her being prohfic 
is an obstacle to prosperity, and is not good foi^ 
Inne ; i. e., she only increases evil [and brings 
leproBch upon her master by bearing him children; 

for die Arab in ancient times was considered as 
^shonoured by his having a child by a slave]. 
(90 The Arabs also said, jJ^I j^^l ii^ ^ 
^Jv'4' Sfl> meaning Nothing wilt attain to the 
object of removing hard fortune tave female 
slaves and beasts or cattle nhich breed, or bring 
forth. (M, L : [in the latter of which is added, 
jjt3 ^U J^ ^ in every year bringing forth.}} 

- - S see ji#l. 


i\ : see ^1, last 

j^j^l: Beejv' 

sentence but one. 

iiJl^^ [The quality, or attribute, of unlimited, 
indivitible, or en£eu, duration; everlastingnest]. 

(M,:^.) See ji^l. Ot^j^l a term applied to 

Sayingiof which the foUoiving is an etc.: <t)i^l "^ 
ai>^3*^ Jv Ct. (M in arL .Jy« [q. v.]; &c!) 

i^l : see j^l. 

Jti\ : see jiyl, in three places. 

■^^t £«maintn^, ttaying, abiding, or dwelling, 
conttantly, continually, or permanently, in a place ; 
applied to a man [and to a bird]. (L.) And jtvljl 
[pi. of iji^T] Birds that remain in a country con- 
ttantly, winter and summer; (T, L;) contr. of 
u»l^. (A, L.)__ For the phrases ^t ^\ and 
^j.^\ ^\, see j>^. ^ A ivild animal ; (M, L, 
M;b ;) that thuni, and taket fight at, nuaikind, 
^c. : (L, Mfb :) fern, with i : pi. [properly fern.] 
ji^ljl, (M, M^, L,) and [masc. and fem.J^I: 
(M,L:) and ♦aj^l is syn. with jtyl ; (M;) as 
also '^j.^U*. (A.) Wild animals are called .^Ijt 
(S,M,L,:^) and j^ (M.L,^) because they 
endure for a long, or [naturally] unlimited, time ; 
(M,L ;) because they do not die a natural death, 
(Af, M, L, ^,) but from some evil accident ; and 
the same is asserted of the serpent. (A|, M, L.) 
[See also j^l.] [Hence,] j^l^''JI j^^The light, 
OT active, horse, which overtakes the mild animals, 
and which they can hardly, or never, escape : so 
called because he prevents their escaping the 
pursuer like a shackle. (M;b.) [See also art ^.] 
[Hence also the saying,] j££]l/Uj^]^ j^iy^^^&dt 
X\,Benefitt are fugitive, OT fleeting; thereforede- 
tain ye them by gratitude]. (A trad.) 

ijift fern, of jt^t, q. v. ^ Also, [as a subet.,] 
tA deed, (Har p. 364,) or a calamity, (^j'M., 
^,) ever to be renenhered, or mentioned, ($, M, 
1^, Har,) by reason of its extraordinary nature, 
and its grievotunets : (^ar:) or a great, or 
formidakU, event, at tvhich people take fright, or 
are alarmed: (TA:) or a strange, abominable, 
evil, thing: (I^am p. 627:) pi. ^1^1. (Tf..) 
You say, i^\i fj"^ i V Such a one did, or brought 
to pass, [a deed or] calamity ever to be remem- 
bered, or mentioned. (S.) See also 2.^1^ 
strange, an unusual, or an unfamiliar, word or 
t'^yings one far from being intelligible; (M;) 
pi. <*4\)\, signltying expretriont of subtile mean- 
ings ; so called because remote from perspicuity. 
(Mfb.)^The pi. also signifies iStrange, un- 
ueual, unfamiliar, or extraordinary, rhymet or 

oertet,OT poems; syn. i^ljill ,>• >jljJl>, ($,) or 
V^ wily. (1^.) £1-Fare^da^ says, 

[Te will not attain to my nobility with the igno- 
blenett of your father, nor to my extraordinary 
verity by arrogating to yourtelvee the vertet of 
other men]. (§.) [See Ji^l.] 

j^^ IMade, or rendered, perpetual]. You 
say, ]^^ Uj A^jl i_i}) Se made his land an 
unalienable bequest for pious uses in perpetuity, 
not to be sold nor to be inherited. (T.)_ Also, 
with i, A she-camel that is wild, and intractable, 
or unmanageable; syn. iLsUm igi^ j . (^.) 

Ji/u«: see,j.^l. 

1. ,^t 'ji\, (9, ¥,) aor. ; and -' , (5,) inf. 
n. jfi, (TA,) Se gave the dog, to eat, a needle in 
bread t (9,^:) and [app., in like manner, jt\ 
i\i}\ he gave the theep, or goat, to eat, a needle in 
itt fodder: for you say,] llljl O^^t the theep, or 
goat, ate a needle in the fodder. (A.)^iUf^t 
^jmII t7%e tcorpion tttrng him with the ex- 
tremity of iU tail. (8,M,A,5.)_«iil iHe 
tpoke evil of him behind hit back, OT in hit absence, 
or otherwite, mttk truth, or though it might be 
with truth; at defamed him; (lA^r, T, A,^;) 
and annoyed him, or hurt him. (IA»r, T, A.) 
^Ji\, (T,9, A,Mtb,^,) aor. - and ^ , inf. n. 
*^\ (M, M?b, 5) and Jvi and lj<,\, (M, ?,) He 
fecundated a palm-tree [by means of the spadix of 
the male tree, which is bruised, or brayed, and 
sprinkled upon the spadix of the female ; or by 
inserting a stalk of a raceme of the male tree into 
the spathe of the female, after sbaldng off the 
pollen of the former npon the spadix of the female 
(see li3t)]; (T,9,A,M!bO as also »j?, (8, 
A,) inf n.jefU: (8:) or the latter has an inten- 
sive and frequentative signification [meaning the 
doing so much, or frequently, or to many palm- 
trees]: (Mjb:) and the former (?, M, A, ¥) 
and f latter, (M,A,^,) he dretted, or put into a 
good or right ot proper state, a palm-tree, (9, M, 
A, 5,) and seed-produce, (M, ^,} or any thing, 
as, for instance, a snare for catching game. (A 
1, ,a , t t -^ 

9d,M.) You say abo, aJtf..Jl O^t.and 'C^l, 

and Ow}, The palmrtree mat fecundated. (Aboo- 
'Amr Ibn-El-'Ali, L.) »■ j#l, aor. - , He, (a man, 
TA,) or it, mas, or became, in a good or right or 
proper ttate. (T, 50 

2: see 1, in three places. 

6. jiV It (a palm-tree, A and Msb, or a young 
palm-tree, 8) admitted, or received, fecundation : 
(S, A, Msb:) it became fecundated of itself. (§.) 

8. «j.3l [written with the disjunctive alifa^l] 
He atked him to fecundate, or to drets, or put 
into a good or right or proper ttate, hit palm- 
treet, or his seed-produce. (T,S,M,*5.)^8ee 
also jQ. 

hi\ A needU ; (.t,W»tO *« iron ill. : (M, 

¥ pi- J(l (T, 9, M, M,b, 5) and jlvj. (M, ?.) 
_[The (ttn^, or extremity of the tail, of a 
scorpion; (8,*M, A,]^;) asalso't^tl*} of which 
latter the pi. is ji/U: (A;) and of a bee. (A.)^ 
I The extremity of a horn. (A.) _ J The [pHey] 
mtftnier of a man. (TA.) __ etjjjl S^^tTheeto- 
tremity of the elbotu ; (Zj in hie Ehal^ el-Ine&n ; 
and A ;) the extremity of the piji [here mean- 
ing the ulna] of the arm, (1^,) Jrom which the 
meaeurer by the ci^nt meaturet ; (TA ;) [this 
being Blwa^H done from the extremity of the 
elbow ;] the extremity of the bane Jrom mhieh the 
meaittrer by the cubit meaturet : the extremity of 
the oe humeri which is next to the elbow is called 
the wmI ; and the bJ of the elbow is between the 
M«I and the plj^t S^l : (T :) or a tmall bone, 
the head of which it large, and the rett tlender, 
compactly joined to the m.^ : (TA voce •.^J :} 
or the ilender part of the plji : (§, M : or w 
bone, (as in giJme copies of the ]$,) or tmoil bone, 
(as in other copies of the K and in the M,) which 
latter is the right reading, (TA,) even nith the 
eaetremity of the jij [which is applied to the ulna 
and to the raditu] of, or from, ((>•,) the cIjS [or 
fore am] to the extremity of the fiwfer. (M,^.) 
— iji'j\ also signifies X The bone of what it 
termed v^J*" <IK9 ['■ ^- ^ '^ heel-tendon of a 
man, or of the hock of a beast], (M, 1^,} which it 
a tmall bone adhering to the l,-w^- [i. e. to the 
ankle or to the hock] : (M, TA :) and [app. more 
eorrecdy " or"] ^he tlender part of the vA* 
[orWA] of the' hone: (M,'?:,»TA:) in the 
OVA* [<"■ ^'"^ hocks] are [wlwt are termed] 
0^ji\t which are the external extremity of each 
hock. ($.)_ Bee also i^^, 

a • tsf 

^I: seejVI. 

jl^'j a snbst. (signiiying The fecundation of a 
palm-tree]: (§:) or it is an inf. n.: [seel:] or 
it mgnifies a palm-tree whereof the tpadix it vted 
for the purpote of fecundation. (M; b.) 

jyl : see j^. 

jljf A maker of needles: (TjM.S:) and 
teller thereof: or the latter is called *,jE^I, of 
which fJifA is a cormptdon. (5,)_tThe ,/foa. 
0^.)^8ee also jV, in arLjt^. 

jil One wko fecwtdatet a palm-tree, or palm- 
trees : who drettet, or puts into a good or right or 
proper state, a palm-tree, or palm-trees, or seed- 
prodnce; (T, TA;) or any work of art; and 
hence applied to the fecundater of the palm-tree. 
(Aboo-'Abd-Ei^Raljm&n, TA.)^^?!^^ U ilTtere 
it not in it [namely the house (jijJt)'] a»y one. 
(TA from the Expositions of the F;.) 

jiU : see J^. 

j^ The place [or cote] of the needle.(^.) 

tThet(»i^ue.(L.)^See also 0^1: andS^.^ 

Also, (T,L,1^,) and ^^t, (T,L,> and tj^l, 
(Mf b,) That, (Msb, ¥,) [namely] what it called 
ji^, (T,TT,) or J4-, (k> in a copy of the T,) 
[ia the L and TA it is said to be " like (what is 

termed) ^^!*JI," thiu written with the anprnnted 
■-, and withont any eyll. signs, perhaps a mis- 
tmnscription for ji.m-, and doubtless meaning the 
(mthert, or the pollen,] tcith which palm-treet are 
fecundated. (T,L,MBb,^.) 

S^ (L]?,9,M,?) and t^ and *i>J(M, 
^) t Maliciout and mischievous mitrepretenta- 
tion; calumny; or slander; (I^i, 9, M, ^}) 
and the f marring, or disturbance, of the state of 
union or concord or friendthip or love between a 
people or between two partiet : (Uf, 8, ^, TA ;) 
pi. 'jiZ. (?, M.) You say, j^lljl ^ iiU- 
>;U)I J^ <Li^ t [TTteir intemal states, or 
Cpuditiet, became bad, or evU, or corrupt, and 
in conteguence calumniei became current among 
them]. (A.) 

jf^ : see what follows. 

j5^ A dog that hat had a needle given Attn, 
to eat, in bread: (S :) and, with i, applied to a 
sheep or goat (SlA) that has eaten a needle in its 
fodder, and in whose ijiside it hat stuck fast ; in 
consequence of which the animal eats nothing, or, 
if it eat, the eating does it no good. (TA.) It is 

Baidinatrad.,j^Ult ^r^**^ <J-*W^ Thebeliever 
it like the dog that has had a needle' given to Atm, 
to eat, in bread. (8.) [Accord, to Ibr B, the 
meaning is, that he is generous and incautious, so 
that he u easily deceived. j ^ Also, (T,$,A,) 
and *^^, (§,) A palm-tree fecundated : (T, ^, 
A :) and the same, and seed-produce, dressed, or 
put into a good or right or proper state. (T, TA.) 
The former is the meaning in the phrase &- 
Bj9^U, (T, 8,) occurring in a trad., [q. v. vo 
j^U,] i. e. A row of patm-treet [or perhaps 
tall palm-tree] fecundated: or, as some say, this 
phrase means a ploughshare properly prepared 
for ploughing. (TA.) 

1. ii^, ftor. ; (9, A, 5) and i , (L,) inf. n. 
tjOfS (9) and ^>/l, (L,) Be tied, or bound, the 
pattern of hit (a camel's) fore leg to hit (the 
camel's) jJ»» [or arm], so that hit fore leg became 
raised Jrom the ground; ($, A, ^;) as also 
f A^U : (^, 1^ :) and accord, to lA^, ^^\ sig- 
nifies [simply] the act of tying, or binding. (TA.) 
^[Also, inf. n. ,,^1, Se looted him, or it: for] 
t>i/l also signifies the act of ioonwr; syn.2JU.J; 
i. e. contr. qf^: (lA^, ^:) thus bearing two 
contr. significations. (TA.)^Also, (^,) inf. n. 
.Jv'l, (TA,) He hit, or hurt, hit vein called the 
w^Cl- (?,TA.)».^{, (9,L,K:,)inf.n.,>;f; 
(TA;) and ^\; (^,h,^;) It (the vein called 
UJI) became contracted, (^, I.,^,)a»(j strength- 
ened the hind legs; (L;) as also t u<vl3 : (S,L:) 
and ^,_)i^ in the hind legs signifies their being 
contracted (A,TA) and tense: fTA:) ,>^ of 
the hind legs of a hoise, and jyZJJ [or contrac- 
tion] of the vein above mentioned, are qualities 
approved ; and the latter is known by means of 
the former. (AO, TA.)*^^;^^ also signifies 
The being in a state of rest, or motionless. (lA^, 
^}*nAnd The bang in atttUe of motion! (I 

[Book I. 

A9''>^'' kt,egaiit, having two contr. ugnifi. 
cations. (fj^^y 

8. w^U Se (a camel) had hit pattern of Ati 
fore leg tied, or bound, to his arm, to that his 
fore leg became raised from the ground. (§, ^) 
Yon say, JkfVi wt£> ^^Js [Se contracted Ati»- 
self as though he had his leg thus bound]. (A, 
TA.)._,c-Ji;U 8ke(tiiioioaa)satinthepostitr9 
of the f ,>i^U« [Bpf. meaning Aavin^ her shanks 
pressed back against her thighs]. (TA.),^8ee 
also^^l, in two placeB.^A.a^U: see *A/t. 

u»<', or 1^1, or ,>i^ or ,j<v1 : see^U.Hi 
Also, the firat, t. q. j^i [7\me ; or a hmg period 
oftime; oraperiodof time whether long or ikort; 

ic.]i pi. ^y. (8,?.) 

^1^1 The cord, or rope, with which the pattern 
of a cameTtfore leg it tied, or bound, to hit arm, 
to that hit fore leg it raited Jrom the ground: 
(A,,9,A,¥:) pi. Jyl (?.) Thedim.istjy. 
(S.) — A certain tinn ( jjc) tn the hind leg ^A.O, 
^) of a horse. (AO.) 

i>V> (^') «■* '^1 w^^. (I8h,) A very twifi 
horse: (ISh,]^:) as though he bound up his hind 
legs by the quickness with which he rused them 
when he put them down. (ISh.) 

,^1: Beet>l;t. 

^U The inner tide of the Anes (^, A, 1^) of 
any thing : ($ :) or the inner sides of the two 
knees are called ^LJI Ut^U : (T, TA:) or any 
part upon which a man bends, or folds, his thigh : 
or what is beneath each thigh, in the prominent 
places of the lower parU thereof: or Uie inster 
tide of each thigh, as far as the belly : and also 
the writ! ; the joint of the hand in the fore arm: 
(TA:) and in the camel, (^,) [i. e.] in eadi of 
the fore l^s of the camel, (T,TA,) the tnMrsiA 
©/(A^rifcw.- (T,?,TA:) asalsot^t; (IDrd, 
^ ;) or, as in [some of} the copies of the 8 in 

Ai^ w^i^h>v'i [i° o^e copy of the ^ ^l^'; 
and in another, imperfectly written;] but somo 
write it f ijai\ : and one says, s^\i jXl, mean- 
ing Se put hit handt, or armi, bmMth hit knees, 
from behind, and then carried him. (TA.) The 
pi. of t>vU is jjWti. (§.) 

i^jyU A camel having the pastern of his fore 
kg tied, or bound, to his arm, so that his fore leg 
is raisedfrom the ground; (A,*TA;) as also 
t,>vU«; (§:) or the latter, having kit fore shank 
bound to his arm with tke ^V'- O^-)^-^"* or 
hurt, in the vein called the w«tf !• (TA.) 

CjI u^^ ^^t crow : because it hope as 
though it were ^^U. (^.) 

ijo^: aee^yilt: and see 5. mm Also Having 
the vein called u^W* *** " tense ttate. (TA.) 

1. ^1 i. q. 'ti^, q. V. : (lA^, Az, %h, % :) 
said of God. 0^.) 

6. Ak^ He put it (a thing, §, Mgh, M^b) 
beneath his 3^\ [ot arm-pii]; (9,Mfb,(;) or tit 

Book I.] 

Aw ^l (Mgfa.) Hence, (^,) \ji. i^, the 

munamfl of TUbit the son of J&bir (^, ^) £1- 
Fbhmee: ($:) becatue they asaert that the sword 
noTer quitted him; ($:) or because he put be- 
aesth his ann-pit a quiver of arrows, and took a 
bow, or put beneath his arm-jnt a luiife, and came 
to an Bflsembty of Arabs, and smote some of them. 
(5^.) It is invariable : but if you desire to express 
the dual or pi., yon say, 1^ iijo ]^i and h^ y^% 
1|A, or you 4ay C*^k& and^«^JC^. (^.) It does 
not admit of the formation of a dim., nor is it 
ftlwidged; (8,^;) but some of the Arabs used 
to say it^ [so written with relf], using a single 
vord, accord, to Sb, as is said in the L. (TA.) 

Its rel. n. is ^ ^J^. (S,^.) [Hence also] 

U^ O^ 'n^ ^ ^ucA a one placed tuck a one 
lutdtr kit protection. (TA.)_J>vU also signifies 
He put hie .Ijy, (§,) or garment, (Mgh, 35^,) 
latder hit right arm, tmd then thren [a portion 
of\ it over hit left thoulder, (S.Mgh,:^,) ir 
pnyer, or in ^l^^l; (Mgh;) as also a^k^l. 
(§0 [SeeaUo^;?.] 

joint: (ISd,^:) or the part beneath the ^t^ 
[which signifies the arm, upper arm, armpit, and 
vatff, kc]: (§,M)b:) also written *LvU (M^b, 
If. i) which is said to be a dial. var. by some of 
the modems ; but this is strange, on account tti' 
what is said respecting ^1 ; (M; b ;) for Sb says 
that there are only two subets. of the measure Jjd, 
iriudi are J4I and j,^ ; and one epithet, namelv 
Ji^: odier inBtancea have been mentioned, but 
their transmission from Sb is not establiabed : 
(M|b. in ait. ^1 ;) it is also said that there is no 
other word like ^t ; but this means, in its origi- 
nal form, and does not deny that there are words 
like it by the insertion of a second vowel like tbc 
first, such as this and many other words : (TA ;) 
[wet also j^\ :] it is fem. ; (Mgh ;) or masc. and 
Seta.; ($, M;b;) sometimes the latter ; (L^,^;) 
bat die making it masc. is more approved : (TA : ) 
Fr dtes, from certain of the Arabs, the phrase, 
(9,) JL^ 3Jjt ^ i^l ^^ [And he raited 
the ivAtp to that hit armpit jAoxe] : (^, M;b : ) 
the pt is Ll?. C9,M?b,50 — [Hence,] v> 
(^^Sp^^^ ilvT t [Se hU the tecrtt and occuit 
pMtiemlart of the affairt]. (A, TA [followed by 
die words Vklyo lAfSC^ t^^lji & pleonastic 
•d^tion, merely explaining what goes before.]) 
^And SjtMl iwT vj^ t[Se trawrted the 

receetet of the detertl. (TA.) And ^ i^t 

^ The foot, ot bottom, or lowett part, (^mJu*,)ofa 

MOttfUotn. (TA.) And J.Ij ^'^ ^The place 

where the main body of tandendt: ($:) or lehat 
ii thin, of tand: (T^:) or the lowett part of ait 
eUong tract of tand collected together and elevated, 
teh^re the main body thereof endt, and it become-'' 

thin. (TA.) And Jf^X L^\ >( Evil fortune ; 

miMck. (TA.) 

L^: see ^. 

^JM [Of, or rating to, the an»pt(]._ 

^jhySl The axillary vein. (Golius, on the 
authori^ of Meyd.) 

^j) i»^^ iji«-)l The tTVord it beneath my Ja^l [or 
armpit'}: and (JfV'i (j^lt* ijglll I put, or 
place, the tmord upon my tide, and beneath my 
^. (TA.) And ^(,1 3^ I put it (namely 
the sword, TA) next my ^. (J^.TA.) 
Uudhalee, (^, TA,) EI-Mutanakhkhil, describing 
water to which he came to drink, (TA,) saya, 
(S,TA,) accord, to the Deewfin,bnt some ascribe 
the words to Taabbata-Sharril, (TA,) 

" «:» ■^j^^i ^**-* >i«ifi • 

meaning [I drank of the main body thereof, and 
returned from it, and a tharp tteelredged tmord 
mat] beneath my Ja/I : ($, TA :) or, accord, to one 
relation, the poetsaid, •&>>jC>,,,m«^: and accord, 
to another, jtj\^ v^J ■ ^^ *^7^ ^^^ ^^ ^^Bt 
word of the verse is a contraction of ^^l/l : and 
Ibn-Es-Seerifee, that it is ori^nally t A^VI ; and 
if BO, it is an epithet. (TA.) 

^^U : see what next precedes. 

ij^: Bee 6. 


1. ijfi, aor. ; , ($,Mgh,M)b,:^, &c.,) which 
is the most common form, (Msb,) and ' , (^, T§, 
Mgh, Msb,) and - , (]^,) so in the copies of the 
K, in the place of - ; (TA ;) and J^l, aor. - ; 
(IDrd, Mfb, ?;) inf. n. Jwj (S,Mgh,Mfb) 
and ^t and ^t, (^,) or the first of these is a 
simple Bubst., and the second and third are the 
inf. ns. ; (M;b ;) Se (a slave) ran amay, ojjUd, 
(T, S, Mgh, M?b,) orwerrt amay, (T^,) from hu 
matter, (T, Mfb,) mithout [being induced to do 
to 6y] fear, or teverity of morh: (M|b, 50 
thus the signification is reetricted in the '£yn 
(M;b:) and in this case, the law ordains that the 
slave shall be restored ; but if the act arise fiom 
severi^ of work or from fear, be is not to be 
restored : (Lth, TA :) in the ]^ur xxxvii. 140, it 
is said of Jonas, (T, Bd,) because he fled from his 
people without the permission of his Lord : (BiJ :) 
and it is also, tropically, said of a fish : (Mgh :) 
or he (a slave) hid himtelf, and then ment amay : 
(M, 5:) as alsotj^U; (M :) or this signifies, 
simply, he hid, or concealed, himtelf: or he con- 
fined, rettricted, limited, rettrained, or mithheld, 
himtelf: (S, S. :) or it has both of the last two 
significations: ($gh:) and he (Attained from a 
thing, at from a tin, or crime. (lA^r, 5*.) 
A poet says, (^,) namely, 'Amir Ibn-Ka^b, 
(AZ,) or 'Am4n Ibn-Ka^b, or, as some say, 
Gh&m&n, (AA,) 

[Noro turely Bahdni taid, and the did not hide 
hertelf, or did not rettrain hertelf. Thou hatt 
grown old, and enjoyment doth not beft thee] : 
(8 :) or the did not hide herself [or her mitid], 
but taid openly: (TA:) or the did not go far 

[from the person whom she addressed, or from 
the trath] ; so nys AZ, taking it frvm ^U as 
reladng to a slave : (TA :) or the did not abiain 
from her speech, at from a tin, or crime : (lAfr:) 
or the did not ditdain, or tcom. (TA.) KTlit 
says that he asked A( respecting ^,ji^, and he 
answered that he knew it not. (TA.) 

6: see 1, in three p'""" -STi 5^ ^^ 
camel) withheld her milh. (TA.)^«jllll JfiJ 
[or t^jZtl ^] He denied, or ditacknomledged, th6 
thing. (Tf^) One says to a man, "Verily in thee 
is snch a quali^;" and he replies, ^^t \* Ido 
not deny, or ditacknomledge : and one says, " O 
sou of such a woman;" and the man replies, 
\i-» ij/ul \^ I do not deny, or ditacknomledge, 
het^. (IP.) 


^1 A slave running anay, or fleeing, Ste. ; a 
runaway, or fugitive, sUve; part n. of Jjt; 
(Mgh, Mfb, 5 ;) as also ^ J^l [but in an inten- 
sive, or frequentative, sense, i. e. who runt amay, 
OT fleet, &c., much, or often; and so ^^l/l, 
occnrring in the 5, in art «Ju]: (IF, 5:) 
pi. Jm (Mgh, Mjb, 5) and S^. (^) 

1. Jvl, aor. ; ; (8,M,¥:;) and J^\, aor. ! ; 
(5 ;) inf. n. KKfl, (8, M, 5,) of the former verb, 
(9, M, TA,) or, accord, to Sb,''!)^!, because it 
denotes an office, and, if so, of the latter verb, 
(TA,) and Jjl, (M, ^,) which is of the former 
verb, (M, TA,) and lx^\ [like l^t] ; (T [) He 
(a man, ^i) mat, or became, skUUd in the good 
management of camel* ($, M, 5) and of iheep 
or goau. (M, ^.) iUlfl, like i{\^ [in measure], 
signifies The management, or tending, (A, 1^, TA,) 
of JU [meaning camelt or otlier beattt]. (A, 
TA.) Yon say, JJIySI J^ ^ Heit good in the 
management, or tending, of hit JU [or camelt, 
&c.]. (A, TA.)_ J^l, aor. - : see 2, second 
signification. __^NI wi^l 7%0 camel* were 
gotten, or acquired, a* permanent property. (§, 

TA.) J^NI C-i^t, aor. i; and cJ^t, aor. -'; 

(I^;) inf. n. [of the former] J^l and [of the 
latter] J^t ; (TA;) The camelt became many, or 

numerout. (^.) Also jf^\ oi^!, (S, M, ]^,) 

and the like is said of wild animals, (^, M,) or 
other*, (¥,) aor. i and - , inf. n. J^l (?, M, 5) 
and jil; (M,?;) and.iJgi; and tcJ?3; (M, 
1^ ;) TITie camelt mere content, or tatitfied, with 
green pasture, to at to be in no need of water : 
(S, M, 5 ;) the last verb is mentioned by Z, and 
he says that it is tropical, and hence ,^1 applied 

to "a monk." (TA.) [Hence,] j4->l Jv* 

*31^oe, and*J?3, (9,M,?,) tJTu manwa* 
content to abttain from conjugal intercourte with 
hit wife; syn. l^ Ijl^l ; (M;) theman abttained 
from conjugal, or carnal, intercourte with hit 
wife. (§, 5, TA.)_[Hence also] J^l, (5,) 

inf. n. J,;!, (TA,) I He devoted hivuelf to reli- 
gioKi exercUet; or became a devotee; (?, TA;) 
as also J^l, like aU, inf. n. li\i\ : or this signifies 
ke became a monk. fTA.) — And J^l, aor. ; , 
(Kr, M, I^,) inf. n. jjt, (Kr,M,) f Be over- 
came, and refuted, or mthttood; (Kr, M,^;) 
as also * J^, (?,) inf. n. ^ ; (TA ;) but the 
word commonly known is J^l. (M, TA.).^ 
Also (K, TA, but in the C^ " or") J^^l ci? 
signifies The cameh were left to ptuture at liberty, 
and Kent away, having mth them no pastor: 
(? :) or they became wild, or thy. (K,» TA.) 
_ And The Cornell taught by degreet, or etep by 
ttep, or bit by bit, after the J./t [q. t.], i. e. the 
ail*, of the herbage or patture. (TA.) ._ And, 
inf. n. J^l, The cameb remained, or abode, in 
the place : (M, ^ :) or remained, or abode, long 
in the paaturage, and in the place. (El-Mo^eef, 
TA.)^s^^l J^, inf. n. J^t, The herbage 
became tall, eo that the camel* mere able to feed 
upon it. (K.)_^^t J^\, inf. n. JV> The 
treei had green [such, app., a$ i$ termed J.^1] 
growing in its dried parte, mixing therewith, 
. upon which cameh, or the like, fatten. (Ibn- 
'AbbU.) ^ aJL/I, inf. n. ^J^\, He assigned to him, 
orgave him, (*) ^^w*.,) jjortwrinj camels, or camels 
pasturing by themselves. (1^.) 

«■ J?. (?, ^,) inf. n- J*^^. (K,) He took for 
himself, got, gained, or acquired, camels ; he ac- 
quired them as permanent property. (^, ^.) 
[See also 6.]^He mas one whose camels had 
become numerous; (T, M,l^;) as ako t J^T, 
(M, ^,) inf. n. Jwi ; (TA ;) and ♦ J^l, aor. ; , 
(¥,) inf. n. J?. CT?.)_J^';^l JtM The 
managing, or taking good care, of camels; (M;) 
and the fattening of them : (M, ^ :) mentioned 
by AHn, on the authority of Aboo-Ziydd EI- 
Eildbee. (M.)^See also L 

4: see 8. 

5: see I, in two places: ...and see 8.^ 
^1 ^U He took for himself, got, gained, or 
acquired, cameU ; (AZ, T, M, i^ ;) like C^ JliS. 
(AZ,T.) [See also 2.] 

8. j4t •^, (S, M, If.,) in the O ^^% 
(TA,) He does not, or wUl not, keep firmly, or 
steadily, to the pasturing of camels, nor tend them 
well ; (M, ^ ;) he does not, or will not, manage 
litem, or take care of them, in such manner as to 
put them in good condition : (A;, A'Obeyd, T, 
^ :) or it signifies, (M, ]EL,) or signifies also, (S,) 
he does not, or will not, keep firmly, or steadily, 
upon them when riding them; (T, S, M, II, 
TA ;) used in this sense by a man excusing him- 
self for not putting on a camel his aged fiither 
who was walking. (T.) 

Si\- see J^:_and J^l. 

J^t: BeeUj(. 

Jifl SkiUed in the good management of camels 
(^, M, ^) and of sheep or goMs; (M, ^i) as 
also ♦ Jvl; (S, M, ?:) and ^^^^v J^t, and in 
poetry t J./1, skilled in the management, or care, 
of camels. (T.)^A man possessing cajnels; 

(Fr, M, ?;) as also ♦ J^l, (M, ?,) similar to 
^U and ^'3t (^Eun p. 714,) but this is disap- 
proYod by Fr; (TA;) and t^l, (§, M, O,) 
with fet-^ to the ■^, (^, O,) because several 
kesrehs together are deemed uncouth ; (O ;) in 
the $, erroneously, ^/jL^t, with two fet-hahs ; 
(TA ;) and t^ also, (M, ?,) with two kesrehs. 
($.)^J^I j^if A fleshy he-camel, (Ibn- 

'Abbdd, ^.) aJLyt liU A she-camel blessed, 

prospered, or made to have increase, in respect 
of offspring. (Ibn-'Abb&d, ^.) In one place in 
the 5, jJ^I o^ is put for Ji^\ ^J>. (TA.) 

Jvl [mentioned in two places in the latter part 
of tiie first paragraph,] The lil^ of herbage, 
(5,) i- «., of dry herbage; [ajro. meaning what 
grows in the season called tjit:M, or summer, 
anumg herbage th^ has dried up ;] growing after 
a year; upon which camels, or the like, fatten. 

J^l, (T, §, M, M}b, ^, ice.,) said by 8b to be 
the only subst. of this form except jf^, and to 
have none like it among epithets except jXt ; for 
though other instances are mentioned, they are 
not of eBtabliehed authority; (M;b ;) bnt IJ 
mentions, with these, Jl^ and JJ»I [which may 
be of established authori^']; (TA;) [and to these 
may be added Lyl and j^\, and peHiaps mJ^ and 
yJ*^; respecting which see jL/t;] and for J.^ 1 
one says also * Jl^l, (S, M|b, J^, kc.,) someti] 
by way of contraction ; (S, Msb ;) or this may be 
a dial. var. of the former ; (Kr, MP ;) [Camels 
and a herd of camels : or] at the least, applied to 
a Itj-a ; i. e. a number [of camels] more than a 
jiji [which is at least nine,] up to thirty; after 
which is the l«^Jk, i. e. for^ and upwards ; and 
then, iJv^, which is a hundred of Ji^t : (T :) or, 
accord, to Ihn-'Ahh&d, a hundred of Ji\: (TA;) 
it is a quam-pl. n. ; (Az, ^, ISd, Z, O, Msb, &c.;) 
a word having no proper sing, ; (§, M, O, M;b;) 
and is of the fern, gender, because the quosi-pl, n. 
that has no proper sing, is necessarily fern. (^, O, 
Mfb) when not applied to human beings, (9, O,) 
or when applied to irrational beings, (M;b,) and 
has S added in the dim.; ($, M;b;) the dim. of 
J^t being * Il^l : (§, M;b, ^ :) it is said in the 
^ that it is a sing, applied to a pi. number, and 
is not a pi., nor a quasi-pl. n. ; but in this asser- 
tion together with the saying that the dim. is as 
above is a kind of contradiction ; for if it be a 
sing., and not a quasi-pl. n., what is the reason 
of its being fem. 7 (TA :) the pi. U Jl^ (?, M, 
M(b, 5) and ^\ [like Xtf pi. of i^, q. v.] ; 
(Msb, TA ;) the pi. meaning herds [of camels] ; 
and in like manner >Lil and jU^I mean flocks 
of sheep or goats and herds of bulls or cows : 
(M;b, TA:) and the dual, 0^*i me^ns two 
herds [of camels], (Sb, T, S, M^ Mjb,) each witii 
its pastor; (T;) like as oC^it means two flocks 
of sheep or goats: (^:) or, accord, to Ibn-'Abb4d, 
the dufd means Itoo hundreds of ^L (TA.)_ 
^jjiL^\ ^"^1 [J^ smaller camels] is an appella- 


tion applied to sheep ; because they eat more than 
goals. (lAfr in TA art. i>4-o.) — It is said In the 
^UT [Ixxxviii. 17], J^ y^f\ ^l OsJi^. y^'l 
•ZM^, meaning, accord, to 'Aboo-Amr Ibn-El- 
'Alk, (T, TA,) l[WiU they not then consider] 
the clouds that hear the water for rain, [how they 
are created?] (T, l^, TA :) but accord, to him 
who reads ^Nt, the meaning is, the camels. (T, 

aj^l A blight, blast, taint, or the like: (T, ^:) 
thus written by lAth, agreeably with the authority 
of Aboo-Moos&; (TA;) occurring in a trad., in 
which it is said that one should not sell dates 
until he is secure from axj*^! ; (T, TA ;) but 
accord, to a commentary on the Nh, it is correctly 
written tai;! [q. v.] (TA.) 

aiCt Enmity; hostility. (Kr, M, ]^.) 

SUjt Unwholesomeness and heaviness of food ; 
(9, M, IS^ ;) originally U^s, like as ^.^l is origi- 
nally *t^3 ; (S ;) as also * J^(. (^.) It is said 
in a trad, that this departs from every proper^ 
for which the poor-rate has been paid. (§, M.) 
^ See also iX^I. ^" evil quality of herbage or 

pasture. (AlHn, TA in art. jli.) A cause 

of harm or injury; evil; mischief. (TA.)^ 
A consequence of an action, or a claim which 
one seeks to obtain for an injury; and a cause 
of blame or dispraise : having these meanings in 
the saying, oll^l ^ C-^j^ ^ .iltS <iJjd J|l 
[Tf thou do that, thou wilt escape from its con- 
sequence, kc.]. (T.) .^ A fault, vice, ot the like. 
(Aboo-Mdlik, T.) So in the saying, ^ Si^U 
aX^t jA*j\ IJk* [There is not to be charged against 
thee,'in this affair, any fault, kc.]. (T.)_.A 
crime; a sin; an unlanful action. (^.).^ 
Rancour, malevolence, malice, or ^te. (IB.) 

^\: see J^l. 

S'a .' « 

^^t: seej^l. 

^jX^I, with fet-h to the ^, because several 
kesrehs together are deemed uncouth. Of, or 
relating to, camels. ($.).^See also Jv'- 

^^y. see J^l. 

jj> fA Christian monk; (S, M, Mfb, ]^;) 
so called because of his abstaining (4t4u) 5t)ro 
women: (TA:) or the chief monk: (T:) or a 
devotee'. (TA:) or an old man, or elder: (M:) 
or the chief, or head-man, of the Christians : (M, 
]^ :) or the man who calls them to prayer by 
means of the j^jlU j (A Heyth, M,* 5;) the 
beater of the ^^ U : (IDrd:) as also *^li5l 
(M and ^, but according to the M as meanii^ 
" a monk,") which is either a foreign word, or 
changed by the relative ^^, or of the same class 
as JmUI [in which the first letter as well as the 
second is augmentative], for Sb says that there is 
not in the language an instance of the measure 
JV i J:M ;) and ♦^^, and ^^, and ^^, 
and f J^l, (]^,) which last is disallowed by'sb 
for the reason stated above; (TA;) and * J^, 
like Ji't; and ^^J^; (?;) the last with fet-t 
to the hemzeh, and kesr to the Vf and with the 

Book I.] 

[first] ^quiescent} or ,^^1 [app. a mietmnscrip^ 
lion fi»-,_^l]ia need bypoedc licence forf,Jle^l, 
Uke S^\ for Jyi: (TA:) pi. ^<f\ (M, ?) and 
J^t, or J^t, [accord, to difierent copies of the 
]gL,] with damm [which indicates that the fo^me^ 
is meant, thon^ it is irregular]. (T^.) By 
Oelrf^l Jef' ^ meant '£■«»* [or Jmw*], (S, 1^,) 
tie Mutiah. (S.)^In the Syriac language i1 
signifies Mourning, or torromng. (Tf )i^ i^lim 
A att^ff, or ttick. (M, ^.) See also Sj^l. 

3i\i\ : see the next paragraph. 

£14^: see Jyt.aH Also A huiuUe of Jtrewood; 
CI, §, Mjb ;) and so ♦ Sjljl : (T, § :) or b great 
hundk o/Jir&Kood; and so t£l^l and ill/' (^) 
and fSt/l: (B^ in cv. 3; but there expluned 
<Mil; as signifying a great buneUe :) or a bundU 
bf dry herhagej (M, TA;) and bo *4)'ljj {?;) 
and ♦ JJi and ♦ 1^1 (M, ^) and ♦ ai;;^!, (5, [in 

the C$ Slri'i]) ^ith ("i^ of the two ^% changed 
into ^, and mentioned by Az, but it is said in the 
9 and that this is not allowable, because this 
change may not be made in a word of the measure 
JJUf, with #, but only in one without I, as in 
the 'cases of jUj> and Lljel; (TA;) and \^^ 
signifies the same, (1^,) belonging to art J^j. 
(TA.) Hence the prov., (S, TA,) ^ siXi 
aiCi and *aiCt, (S, ]^, Ice.,) but the former is die 
more common, and ^ill^jl, which is allowed by 
Ax bnt disallowed by 'j ; (TA ;) [lit. A hrndfiil 
of herbage, or the like, upon a bundle, or great 
ftimdie, of firewood, or a bundle of dry herbage;} 
meaning t « trial, or trying evmtt, upon another 
(9, O, ^) that had happened before : (S, :) 
or plenty (^^ma^) upon plenty ; as though [>earing 
two contr. significationB. (T^.) 

hj: seeSjVJ. 

ajwi dim of J^l, q. V. (S, Mfb, 5.) 

,j^l : see J^\. 

Jl3t J. portor of camtU, (M, ?., TA,) reho 
wtanageM them, or faA«« care of them, mell. 

JVI : oee the next paragraph. 

j;j^ (T,?,M,M,b,?,) like j;4^, (s, 

M|b, $, [in the C^, erroneously, J>*>«,]) -^ 
atparate, or dM^tnct, portion of a number of birds, 
and of horses, and of camels, (M, ^,) and of such 
fidlowing one another; (^;) as also '',J«;I, and 
♦SCj. (M,?,) andtailil.andtjl^l: (^Q or 
it sonifies a bird teparating tttelfjrom the row 
of other Inrdti (T, TA;) accord, to lA^r. 
(TA.) It is said to be the sing, of ^ Je^^t : (T, 
9, M, and Jel in cv. 3 :) Ks says, I used to 
bear the grammarians say that this latter has for 
ib mg. Jyt, like J>^>«, of which the pi. is 
■ jg^Vi: (M,bO or it^ ling, is tj^j, (s, 
Hfb;) bat he who says this adds, I have not 
band the Aiaba to know a ung. to it: ($:) or 
wcfa of tbeM is its sing.; (M, Jel;) and so is 

J*' -0*1 
* J^ ■■ (Jel :) or its sing, is tajCj, (Bd in cv. 3^ 
and Mjb,) originally signifying " a great bundle:" 
(Bd :) it is said that this seems to be its sing. ; 
and BO ♦ ail? : or the sing, may be ♦ ai^j, like a» 
Jiii is sing of j^\j3 : (T :) or it has no sing., 
(T, 8, M, Bd, Mjb, 5,) accord, to Fr (T, Msb) 
and Akh (S) and AO, (T, M,) like i>«l»Ci (Fi 
T, Bd) and ^iQ. (AO, M, Bd.) jj^ 
signifies, accord, to some, A company in a ttate 
of ditpertion : (M :) or ditperied companiee, on^ 
folloning another: (M§b:) or distinct, or tepa- 
rate, companiee, (Akh, §, Msb, ]^,) like leaning 
camels: (M$b:) or companies in a etaie of dit- 
pertion. (AO,' Mfb.) One says, jiX/l OtU. 
^}ti\t\ Thy eamele came in dittinct, or separate, 
companiee. (Akh, §.) And J^i^ j^ [in the 
5ur cv. 3 means Birds in distinct, or separate, 
fiochs or bevies} : (Akh, 8 :) [or] birds in com- 
panies from this and that quarter: or foUoiting 
one another, Jlock after flock : (Zj, T :) or \birds 
in companies; (Bd, Jel;) likened to great 
bundles, in respect of their compactness. (Bd.) 
^Respecting these birds, Fei, in the M;b, quotes 
many fanciful deBcriptions, which I omit, as 
JeJl : see Jjeh '"» two places. 
»Ct: "eeJl^I. 

aJVI: see aJl^t, in three place8:_and J^l, in 
two places. 

J^l More, and most, skilled in the good manage- 
ment of camelt. (§, M, ?, TA.) Hence die 
prov., ^UmJI Ut « I*. ,>• J^l [More skilled kc. 
than ^oneyf-ei-Jiandtim]. (TA.) And die 
phrase, ^Ul ^^ ^ '^ {He is of the most 
ikilled kc. of men]. (^, M, K.) Mendoned by 
Sb, who sayB that there is no verb corresponding 
it. (M.) [But see 1, iiret signification.] 
J^T: see Jyl, in two places. _ J^lj! J^l, (S, 
, ^,) and JJt, and Jl/, (M,) [all plB. of J^Tor 
2X^1,] and '<U^j«, (M,) Many, or numerous, 
camels : (S, M, ^ :) or this, [app. meaning the 
last,] aa some say, put in distinct herds; (M;) 
sndsojiyt: (TA:) or gotten, gained, or acquired, 
for permanent potsession: (M:) this last is the 
meaning of the last of the epithets above. (S, 
I^.).^^l, applied to a camel, alBO signifies 
Content, or satisfied, with green pasture, so as to 
be in no need of water: pi. Jy : (§, K :) and so 
^ly, applied to she-camels, (T,* TA,) and to wild 
animals. (^ in art. Jv.).^And <U^I ^1 Camels 
seeking by degrees, or step by step, or bit by bit, 
after the J^\ [q. v.], i. e. the uS*. of the herbage 
or pasture. (TA.)_And J^l J#l Camels left 
to themselves, (8, M, 5, TA,) mithout a pastor. 

J^t and J.^' : ■«« Jtv'- 

1^1 and ,_^l and ,^t : see jj- 

jCfJ : see Jjljl. 

1)1(^1: see DU, in twoplaoea:.K.andsee Jiyl. 

AiyU ^jl A land hamng camels. (§, ^,) 
K^ ^X ■ nee JvT. 

1. di^\, aor. t and ; , inf. n. iji\,Me made him 
an object of imjtutation, or suspected him : and 
he found fault with him, or blamed him : (M :) 
or he cast afoul, or an evU, imputation upon him. 
(IA»r, T.) You say, ^^^^ i^li (§, ^,) or J^, 
(as in one copy of the §,) or J£j «i^, (I^l, M,) 
aor. as above, (Lh, S, M, ^,) and so die inf. n., 
(L^, M,) I£e made hint an object of imputation, 
or suspected him, (Lb, S, M, 1$.,) of a thing, (8, 
^1) or of evil, (S, accord, to one copy,') or of good, 
and evil : (L^, M :) and ^ tb^t signifies the same, 
(M.) And j,^i^ * ^^^^ O***! or j^. Such a 
one i» made an object of imputation, or suspected, 
of good, oraf evil: (AA,* L^, T [as in the IT ; 
but perhaps ^^ is a mistranscrnidon for ^^ ; 
for it is immediately added, ^i^U ^ :]) when, 
however, you say ^^ [i. e. oi»i or * oSil 
alone, it relates to evil only. (AA, T. [But 
see 2.]) And li^ Jjj^ jii, o' * oiii. Such a 
one is evil spoken of by the imputation of such 

thing. (8, accord, to difierent copies.) And 
it is said respecting the assembly of the Prophet, 
j>j»>J\ *^ ^ CkP '^> C^' ^"d so in a copy of the 

?>) or LW^ "^1 (*<* '" *""* copies of the §,) i. e. 
Women (T) shall not be mentioned in an evil 
manner therein : (T, S :) or shall not have evil 
imputations cast upon them, nor be found fault 
with, nor shall that which is foul be said of them, 
nor that which ought net, of things whereof one 
should be ashamed. (lAar, T.) ^ Also, and 
» ii?, (M, ?,) inf. n. iJs, (^,) I£e found fatdt 
with him, or blamed him, to hit face; (M, ]^ ;) 
and he upbraitled him, or reproached kirn. (M.) 

8. t^\ cJ, (AZ, S,) inf. n. ^^, (If,) Se 
watched, or observed, the thing ; or he expected it, 

or waited for it. (AZ, S, JBL.) >^l J^\, (M,) 

inf. n. as above, (As, T, &, If.,) He followed the 
traces, or footprints, or footsteps, (A5, T, S, M, 
K,) of a thing ; (A|, §,?;;) as also t ^b. 
(If.) And hence the next signification. (Af^ 
T.)^ ji-jll o?. (?» M,) inf. n. as above, (Sh, 
T, ^, $,) He praised the man, or spoke well 
of him, (Sh, Th, T, S, M, If,) after his death, 
(Th, §, M, ?:,) or tn 'death and in life, (Sh, T,) 
used in poetry to signify praise of the living; 
(M ;) and njept for him : (? :) he praised him ; 
and enumerated, or recounted, his good qualities 
or actions: you say, oyj^i ^C^l ii^ Jji^ 
„«oU5^ {He ceased not to eulogize your living 
and to praise your dead] ; (Z, TA :) for he who 
praises the dead traces his [good] deeds. (As, 
T.) .^ See also 1, in six places, 

5: see 2. 

^;^'l: see art. ^. 

i^\ A knot in wood, or tn a branch ; (S, M, 
5 ;) or m a staff, or stick ; (T ;) and in a bow, 
(TA,) [i. e.] the place of the shooting forth of a 
branch in a bow, (M,) which is a fault therein ; 
(TA ;) Biid tn o rope, or cord : (M in art Jjl :) 


pi- OV«. (T, S.) Hence, (M,) M /owZ^ 

defectj or blemisky (T, M, 1^, TA,) in one's 
grounds of pretension to respect, (T, TA,) and in 
speech, op language. (M, TA.) _ t Particularly 
The enormity that is committed with one who is 

termed O^^* (TA.)-_And t ^^^ncour, male- 
volence, mcUicey or spite : (K, TA :) and enmity : 

pi. as above. (TA.) You say, ^>^l j^^ J (S, 
TA) Between them are enmities. (l^.)...Also 
The [part called] ^iuU [meaning the epiglottis] 
of a camel. (M, 1^.) 

Zi^\ : see art. ^. 


J^\ The time of a thing ; (T, S, M, 5, and 
Msb in art. ^\ ;) tho season of a thing; (Msb in 
that art. ;) the time of the preparing, or making 
ready ^ of a thing; (Mgh in that art;) as, for 
instance, of fruit, (8, Mgh, Msb,) of the fresh ripe 
dates, and of the gathering of fruits, and of heat 
or cold : (T :) or the first of a thing. (M, BI.) 
You say, dj\^\f t^J^S J^l He tooh the thing in 

its time : or tn, or with, the first thereof. (M.) 
_ ^ "' 

The ^ is radical, so that it is of the measure JU^ ; 

or, as some say, augmentative, so that it is of the 

measure O^l^. (TA.) [See art. ^1.] 

^3^ occurs as meaning Dead, or dying ; i. e., 
[properly,] wept for, (§.) [See 2.] 

^y^ A praiser of the dead; because he traces 

his [good] deeds. (As, T.) 

• A. 

^^U Made an object of imputation, or sus- 
pected, of evil : thus when used alone : otherwise 
you add wtL^ [of good], and ^ [of evil]. (M, 

^.)... Hence, [A catamite;] one with whom 
enormous wickedness is committed; (TA;) t. q. 

9 A ^ J 9 J 9 J 

^id»^. (Idem, voce C>>»p>.)_ Also One who 
is imjmsoned; because suspected of a foul &ult, 
or crime. (T.) 

^j»J^\, accord, to the Msb ; or ij»J^, accord, to 


• J** 

u^^\, with medd to the 1 and kesr to the w^, 
(TA,) or with ^amm to the ^, [i. e. ^y^\, and 
by some written ^>^^] or with the ^ quiescent, 

[i. e. ^y^ty] and without j, [app. yj>^\^ (Mfb,) 
{Ebony ;] a thing well known, which is brought 
from India: an arabicized word: (Mfb [in 
which is added the proper Arabic appellation; 
but the word in my copy of that work is imper- 
fectly written ; app. >Aji^ ; which, however, does 
not seem to be the word intended:]) some say 

that it is the same as j^li^ : others, that it is 
different therefrom : and respecting the measure 
of the word, authors differ. (TA.) 


1. a) 4Lf\, (JK, ]^,) and 4y ; (]^ ;) and kf\ ; aor. 

[of both] 4yl^ ; inf. ti. ayt, (JK, 5>) of the former, 

(TA,) and «yt, [also of the former,] (JK,) and 

ijf, (JK, ?,) which is of the latter; (TA;) He 
knew it ; or understood it ; or knew it, or under- 
stood it, instinctively : or lie recognised it readily ; 
knew it, or understood it, readily, after lie had 

forgotten it. (1^.) You say, a) o^t U, (AZ, 

JK,§,Mgh,) aor. d^T, inf. n. ijl; (AZ,§;) and 

a C^ U, (JK, S,) aor. as above, inf. n. a^\ ; 
(S ;) I did not know it, or understand it ; or did 
not know of it ; was not cognizant of it : ( JK, 
Mgh :) or I did not have my attention roused to 
it after I had forgotten it : (AZ, S :) the former 
is like C^^ ; (Mgh ;) and the latter, like [•C^^ 
and]i;^. (S.)— '-5 ii]^ ^ (Mgh,¥:,TA)^« 
will not be cared for, minded, or regarded, be- 
cause of his lowness of condition, or abjectness. 
(Mgh, TA.).^t jk£/ d2^\ I imputed to him, or 
suspected him of, such a thing. ( JK, K, TA.) 

2. d2^\, mf. n. A^\3, I roused his attention : 
and 1 made him to know, or understand. (Kr, 
JgL.) The two meanings are nearly alike. (TA.) 
And '^dl^ I made him to know; informed, ap- 
prized, advertised, or advised, him; gave him 
information, intelligence, notice, or advice. (IB.) 

4 : see S. 

6. dyU He magnified himself ; behaved proudly, 

or haughtily. (JK,S,^j:.) You say, J4yJ< ^^ 
O^ JU The man magnified himself against 
such a one, and held himself above him. (JK,* 
TA.) And <Ji> ^ a^U He shunned, avoided, or 
kept himself far from, such a thing ; (JK, Z, K ;) 
he was disdainful of it, he disdained it, or held 
himself above it. (Z,]^.) 

2i^\ Oreatness, or majesty ; ( JK, S, K ;) a 
quality inspiring reverence or veneration ; (T A ;) 
goodliness and splendour; (Kl;) and goodliness 
of aspect : (TA :) and pride, self-magnification, 
or haughtiness. ( JK,* S,* Kk.) 

1. O^f, [third pers. ijt,] (T, 8, M, 5,) and 
c4i?, [third pers. J^\,] (T, M, Ig.,) the latter ac- 
cord, to Yz, (T,) aor. ^, (Tl^,) inf. n. l^\, (Yz, 
T, S, Msb,) or this is a simple subst., (M,) I be- 
came a father. (T,* S,* M, K.):^d3^\, (ISk, T, 
M,B:,) aor. l^, (lA^r, ISk, T,) inf. n. S^gt, 
(M, K,) I was, (lAar, ISk, T,) or became, (M, 

1^,) a father to him. (lAar, ISk, T, M, Bl.) 

[Hence, I fed him, or nourished him ; and reared 

him, or brought him up.] You say, \jJk ^l^ ^j*jJ 
jf^\, inf. n. l^\. Such a one feeds, or nourisJies, 
this orphan, like as the father does his children. 

(Lth, T.) And i^jt vt ij U (ISk, T, S) He has 
not a father to feed him, or nourish him, and to 
rear him, or bring him up. (S.) 

2. Al^t, mf. n. 3^\j, I said to him ^v [mean- 
ing ^V^ wifi ji Mayest thou be ransom^ with my 
father! or the like: see ^\, below]. (5, TA. 
[In the Cl^, erroneously, ^\ l^.]) 

6. «i^U He adopted him as a father; (M,]^, 

.J » 

TA ;) as also ▼ el/lwt ; (M in art. ^\ ;) and so 
V^l dVV5, accord, to A'Obeyd : (TA :) [or,] accord, 
to A'Obeyd, you say, V^t w4^ I adopted a father: 
(T :) and you say also, V^t ^vwt and vt «.r^Vwt 
he adopted a father. (TA.) 
10 : see 5. 

^) is originally ^\, (^, Mfb, 1^,) as is shown 
by the first of its dual forms and of its pi. forms 
mentioned below ; (S, Msb;) and signifies A 
father [in the ordinary sense : and also as mean- 

[BooK I. 

ing t «» ancestor] : (M :) as also ^Q,sl dial, var., 
(M, K,) the same in the nom. and accus. and gen. 

cases, like U3 : (M :) and ^) is a dial. var. of the 
same, [the second letter being doubled to com** 

pensate for the ^ suppressed, as is the case in ^\, 

(TA voce rf-t,)] but is rare. (Mfb.) Accord, to 
the dial, commonly obtaining, when you use it as 
a prefixed noun, you decline it with the letters 3 
and t and ^, saying, «^t \jJk [This is his father], 

(Mfb,) and Si^\ [thy father] \ (M ;) and il^l c^l; 

[I saw his father]', and d^Xj Ojj-« [I passed by 

^ ^ ^ 

his father] : (Msb :) but accord, to one dial., 
you say, «V^t \JJk, (Mfb,) and J^t; (M;) and 

«l^t w^tj; and «l^V/ ^^jj^' (Mfb:) and accord, 
to one dial., which is the rarest of all, it is defec- 
tive in every case, like ju and » ; (Mfb ;) and 
[thus] you say, ^\ \Sm [kc.]. (M.) The dual is 

^t^t, (S, M, Mfb,) meaning [two fathers, and] 

^ '* «. 

father and mother; and some say ^V^l : (S, M :) 

you say, «)^t Ua, meaning They two are his 
father and mother; and in poetry you may say, 

«V/t U*; and in like manner, A^^t C^lj [I saw his 

father and mother], (T,) and dL^t [thy father 
and mother] ; (S ;) but the usual, or chaste, form 

is A^^\ c^li- (T.) The pi. is ft^T, (T, 8, M, Mfb, 
B:,') the best form, (T,) and o^t, (T, S, M, K,) 
and ^1, (M, 1^, [in the CK ^*j\ is erroneously 
put for ^^\,]) and l^\, (Lh, T, S, M, K,*) Uke 
i.^«* and a^>. : (T, S :) you say, ^yi\ t'^^, 

9 J J ^f* 

meaning j^y^\ [T/hese are your fathers] ; (T ;) 
and hence, in the Kur [ii. 127], accord, to one 

reading, Jl^-t ^ w)««^l J J^j\ '^} ^\^ i^^ 
the Ood of thy fathers, Abraham and Ishmael 
and Isaac], meaning the pi. of ^\, i. e. «£)L^t, of 

which the ^ is suppressed because the noun is 
prefixed [to the pronoun] ; (S ;) and some of the 

Arabs say, ^^\ j^^S U3^l [Our fathers are the 

most generous of fathers]. (T.) The dim. is ^^t; 

originally ^), with the final radical letter restored. 

(Msb.)...^! ^ a) c£)*^ ^> ^^^ V^ ^9 mean- 
ing He knows not who is his father, and what is 
his father, are sayings mentioned by Lh on the 

authority of Ks. (M.) ^ l^f % (T,S,M,5, 

&c.,) [accord, to the dial, of him who says V/l in- 
stead of vt,] as also iU vf "9, and Jljf % (S, K,) 
[the last, accord, to J, because the J (meaning 
the J in «2JU in the preceding phrases) is as though 
it were redundant, but he seems not to have 
known the dial. var. V/1, and I rather think that 
SiXfS ^ is for iiljl ibT ,^1 % or the like,] and 
Skft % (Mbr, Sgh, ?,) and JH J% (K,) which 
is for 4JII ^\ ^), (M,) means Thou art, in my esti- 
mation, one deserving of its being said to him, 
Mayest thou have no father! it is used in the 
manner of a proverb, is of frequent occurrence in 
poetry, (M,) is said to him who has a father and 
to him who has not a fitther, and is an impreca- 
tion as to the meaning, of necessity, though enun- 
ciative as to the letter; (M,]^;) and hence the 
saying of Jereer, 

[0 Teym, Teym of Adee, may ye have no 


Book I.] 

Jaihtr /] ; which is the strongest evidence of its 
being a proverb, and not having a literal meaning; 
for all of [the tribe of] Tejm could not have one 
fiither, but all of them were fit objects of impreca- 
tion and rough speech : (M :) it is an expression 
of praise : (S :) [i. e.] it is an imprecation against 
him to whom it is addressed, not, however, said 
with the desire of its having effect, but on an 

occasion of intense love, like «2JU j»t *>), &c. : 0?^ 
p. 165 :) and sometimes in dispraise, like M^\^i 
and in wonder, like ^j> 4b: (TA:) or, as A 

Hejth says, on the authority of Aboo-Sa'eed £d- 
pareer, it expresses the utmost degree of reviling; 
[meaning Thau hast no known father;] and 

^ ji\*) expresses reviling also, but means Thou 
hast no free, or ingenuous, mother: (Meyd in 

'ffar p. 165 : [see >t :]) sometimes it means 
Strive, or exert thyself, in thine affair; for he 
who has a father relies upon him in some circum- 
stances of his case : (TA :) accord, to Kh, it means 
tTum hast none to stand thee in stead of thyself: 
(ISh, TA :) Fr says that it is a phrase used by 
the Arabs [parenthetically, i. e.,] to divide their 
speech: (TA:) [thus, for instance,] Zufar Ibn- 
£I-94rith says, 

[Shorn thou me my weapons : (mayest thou have 
no father I or thou hast no father: &c. :) verily 
Z see the war, or battle, increases not save inper- 
eeverance]. (TA.) [Aboo-' Alee, as cited in the M, 
observes that the t (meaning the final t) in \^\, in 

the phrase «2JU V^t % indicates that it is a prefixed 
noun, and determinate; whereas the J in «2JU 
together with the government exercised upon the 
noon by ^ indicates that it is, on the contrary, 
indeterminate, and separate from what follows it : 
but it seems that he was unacquainted with the 
diaL var. bt ; for «£U l^t *>) in the dial, of him who 

fit • s , 

uses the form V^t instead of ^t is the same gram- 
matically as ^ ^t *9 in the dial, of him who uses 
Ibe form ^t.] Suleymdn Ibn-'Abd-£l-Melik 
heard an Arab of the desert, in a year of drought, 
saj, iU i^l *9 i4^t ^C^ JP^ and Suleymdn put 
the best construction upon it, [as though it meant. 
Send down upon us rain : Thou ha^t no father], 
and said, I testify that He hath no father nor 
female companion nor o&pring. (TA.) They say 

also, in paying honour [to a person], iU3UJ ^t ^, 
and iiSjUJ V ^, (TA,) i. e. May thy Iiater have 
no father! or, accord, to ISk, each is a meto- 
Bymical expression for M l^t *>). (S in art. L^, 
q.T.)...One also says, on the occasion of an 
oocorrence that is approved and qommended, by 
way of expressing wonder and praise, i)y t aD, 

meaning To Ood, purely, is attributable [the 
0asoeUence of] thy father, seeing that he beyat thee 
m generous son, and produced the like of tliee ! 
(TA ;) [or to Ood he attributed (the excellence 
of) thy father!] it means that to God [alone] 
bekmgs the power to create the like of this man 
[to whom it relates], from whom has proceeded 
ttis wonderful action, (^ar p. 44.) ^ And 
'n^ *^ ^, meaning fi%0 resembles her fatlier 

in strength of mind, or spirit, and sharpness of 
disposition, and in hastening, or striving to be 
first, to do tkingt : said of Qaffah, by 'Auheh. 
(TA.) — ^l, (TA,) or cJf ^Je, (T in art t,,) 

[said to a person,] means [^mf\^ ^^^ Mayest 
thou be ransomed with my father ! (see the next 
sentence but one ;) or] ^v ^J^t [I n^ Tan- 
som thee with my father] ; (T ubi supr& ;) or 

Ld\f L^«^^ ^^t 27iou art, or shalt be, ransomed 
with my father] ; or ^V^ dVl^ ji [J have in my 

heart ransomed thee, or / would ransom thee, with 
my father] ; the ^ being dependent upon a word 
suppressed, which, accord, to some, is a [pass, 
participial] noun, and accord, to others, a verb ; 
and this word is suppressed because of the fre- 
quent usage of the phrase. (TA.) You say also, 

^^Ij C-JI ^^v [With my father mayest thou be 
ransomed, and with my motlier !]. (TA.) And 

^»^ v>* L^W, I- e. a5»^ ^>» j-:»V ^^ [May 
he whom I love be ransomed with my father!], 
meaning m4iy he [my father] be made a ransom 
for him [whom I hve] \ (El-Wdhidee on the 
Deewdn of El-Mutanebbee, in De Sacy's Chrest 
Arabe, sec. ed. vol. iij^ jg. 35 of the Arabic text) 
Sometimes they change the ^ into t : a poet 

^ •^ ^ * » ^ 

\t 9 * ^ h * * 

[And they have asserted that I have become im- 
patient on account of them two : but is it an evi- 
dence of impatience that I said, Alas, with my 
father m>ay they two he ransomed?]', meaning 

\ih ^v tj. (S.) And some of the Arabs used to 

say, C<Jt WW b [^^9 ^^^ my father mayest thou 
be ransomed!] : this, says AM, being like UJW3 W 
for L^^ W$ ^ ^^ WtiV Wy ^^ uie hemzeh 

changed into ^, originally WW Wj meaning ^^W W • 
and hence what is related, in a trad., of Umm- 
'Ateeyeh ; that she used not to mention the Pro- 
phet without saying, U«^ [for yh ^W]* (^A in 
art WO A woman said, 

s^S Jy W^ C^« ^W W 

[ O thou to whom I would say. With myfatlier 
mayest thou be ransomed ! and O thou who art 
above him to whom I would address the saying. 
With my father muyest thou be ransomed!] ; re- 
specting which Fr observes that the two words 

[w^ and ^t] are made as one [by prefixing the 
article] because of their frequent occurrence ; (S;) 
and Aboo-'Alee says that the ^ in ^^^ \& substi- 
tuted for p, not necessarily ; but ISk quotes the 
words as commencing with U^ l^, which is the 
right reading, in order that this expression may 
agree with ^^^ which is derived from it : £t- 
Tebreezee, however, relates Abu-l-'Ali's reciting 
the words as ending with %f«^1 ; saying that this 
is compoimded fit)m the phrase ^wvy ^^^ ^^^ 
therefore the • is preserved. (TA.) [See also the 
first paragraph in art WO ^ You say also, C^t W 

[meaning O my father], (S, M, ]^,) as in C^^S W 
y}mi\ [O my father, do thou such a thing] ; (S;) 


and c^f W ; (§,M,?;;) and c^'f W j (Z in the 

Ksh xii. 4 ;) and d^\ W (S, M, IgL) when you pause 
after it (§, M.) The 5, [here written O,] (Kh, 
M,) the sign of the fem. gender, (^, Z,) is substi- 
tuted for the [pronominal] affix ^, (Kh, 1^, M, Z,) 

as in o%«t W y (9 ;) cmd is like the S in 2^ and 
iUU», as is shown by your saying, in pausing, 

4yt W, like as you say, aTuL W • Q^^y M :) 
the annexing of the fem. O to a masc. noun 
in this case is allowable, like as it is in ji^i ^\\%f^ 

and j^> 51^ and ^j J*.j and ajiA^ >^ : its 
being made a substitute for the affix ^ is allow- 
able because each of these is an augmentative 
added at the end of a noun : and the kesreh is the 
same that is in the phrase ^t W * (Z ubi supr^ :) 
the O does not &11 from ^t in the phrase ^\ W 
when there is no pause after it, though it [some-» 

times] does from jA in the like phrase in that 
case, because the former word, being of [only] 
two letters, is as though it were defective. (1^.) 

C^t W is for «U^t W, (Aboo-'Othmdn £1-Mdzinee, 
S,* M, [the latter expression mentioned also in 
the T^, but not as being the original of the former,]) 
the t [and «] being suppressed ; (the same Aboo- 

'Othm&n and M;) or for C^t W9 the t being sup- 
pressed, like as the ^ is in >^ W 9 ^i* it may be 
after the manner of ^t W. (Z ubi supr^.) c^t W 
is thus pronounced after the usual manner of a 
noun ending with the fem. Z, without regard to 
the &ct that the O is in the former a substitute 
for the suffix ^. (Z ubi suprik.) 4yl W is s&id in a 
case of pause, except in the Kur-4n, in which, in 
this case, you say, C-v^ W^ following the written 
text ; and some of the Arabs pronounce the fem. I, 
in a case of pause, O [in other instances], thus 

saying, C.^.ti> W. (S.) «Wt W is also said; (M, 
]§L;) though scarcely ever. (M.) A poet uses the 

expression OW^ W^ f^i* ^W^ W ^ (^9 ^ ^^ says 
that this is used only by poetic license, in a case 

of necessity in verse. (TA.)_v^ is tropically 
applied to signify XA grandfather, or any ances- 
tor. (M8b.)...It is also applied to signify fA 
paternal uncle; as in the ]^ur ii. 127, quoted 

before. (M.)....[lt is also (like j»t and ^j^\ and 
wJ^) prefixed to nouns of various significations. 
Most of the compounds thus formed will be found 
explained in the arts, to which belong the nouns 
that occupy the second place. The following are 
among the more common, and are therefore here 

mentioned, as exs. of different kinds.].^S|^t ^\ 
t Tlie woman's husband: (Ibn-9abeeb, M :) it is 
said in the Tl^ that v^S i^ certain of the dials., 
signifies the husband : MF deems this meaning 
strange. (TA.) ^jy^S yi\ \The master of tlie 
dwelling, or of the place of abode : (TA :) and 

ithe guest. (5 in art ^y.) wiwi^t ^jfThe 
very hospitable man. (TA.)_ w^^liiJI ^\ ^The 
lion. (TA.) i^ ^\ \The wolf. (TA.) ^\ 
o\^L\\ \ The fox. (l!A..)—ji\^^\\Bread. (§ 

and K in art j^i^.)— «2UU^t f Extreme old age : 

(TA :) and t hunger. (MF in art ^^-ij..) 

ft •t 

Wt : see v>* 

l\yi\ or l\yi\ : see «^t. 

• 2» 

iS»*^ Of, or relating or belonging to, a father; 
foukal. (9,TA.) 

^1 dim. of v'l q-''- (Mjb-) 

i^l [in coine« of the Ijl * J^l, and in the C^^ 
t*t^t, both app. mistranscriptions for S^l, which 
is well known,] J'a(A«r»Aip; po(emt(y; thereia- 
tum of a father. (8,* M.) You say, 4>« ,_j^ 
l^t ^'^ [fi^tween tne an<2 nch a one u a tie 
fff father Aip\. (§.) 

1. ^\, aor. ^, (S, M, M?b, K,) which is 
anomalous, (S, M, Mfb,) because it has no fencial 
letter (S, Mjb) for its second or third radical, 
(Msb,) and ^, (M, Msb, K,) mentioned by IJ 
as sometimes said, (M,) agreeably with analogy, 
(TA,) and ij^, which is doubly anomalous, first 
because the pret. is of the measure ^)xi, and this 
pronunciation of the ,j of the aor. is [regularly 
allowable only] in the c««e of a verb of the 
measure Jjti, aor. J«ij, and secondly because it 
is only in an aor. like jj^nri, (Sb, M,) i. e., of a 
verb of which the first radical letter is j or |_^, 
(TA in art. J^j,) and ^jSi, (IB. [«*><> cites as 
an ex. a verse ending with the phrase Aefl3 (^j^,]) 
inf. n. iWI (?, M, Mgh, Mjb, T^) and iTgi, (?,) 
or 3^1, (so in a copy of the M,) or i^^lr (ao in 
the Msb,) He refuted; or refrained, forbore, 
abHained, OT held back ; Byn. ^-^1; (S, Mfb, HF, 
Bi;[ in ii. 32, Kull p. 8,) volwilarily, or of his 
own free will or choice : (Bd ubi suprft, Kull ;) 
[thus when used intransitively ; and it is also used 
transitively :] you say, j^'^t ^1 he refuted attent, 
or content, to the thing, or affair; disagreed to 
it ; and did not desire [to do] it : (M{r in ^r 
p. 483 :) he did not assent to, consent to, approve, 
OTChoote,it; he disallowed it ; rgeetedit: (Mgh:) 
and >,_jSjt ^\ he ditlihed, was displeased with, 
diiapproved of, or hated, the thing. (M, ]^.) Fr 
says that there is no verb with fet-l; to its medial 
radical letter in the pret. and fiit. [or aor.] unless 
its second or third radical is a fiiucial letter, except 
jj/l : that AA adds ij^j : but that one say* J^j 

with ij^Ji ^°' '*^ ^^'> ^"'^ O^j ^'^ O^ji f°'' 
its fiit. : (T :) bo that the iuBtance mentioned by 
AA is one of an intermixture of two dial, vars.: 
(TA:) Th adds ^' and Li and U^ ; and Mbr 
adds l«ib : but most of the Arabs say ,_yUj and 
j«JL> and j%^ and yji^^. (T.) [Some other 
instances are mentioned by other authors ; but 
these are verbs of which the aore. are rarely with 
fet-h, or are instances of the intermixture of two 
dial, vars.] ^;>jJ]l <i^ is a greeting which was 
addressed to kings in the time of ignorance; 
meaning Mayett than refiae, or dislihe, (ISk,* 
$,*M,*^r p. 491,) to do a thing that would 
occasion thy being curted! (ISk,^, M;) or, to 
do that for which thou woul(Ut deserve the being 
cursed! for it implies the meaning of a prayer; 
L e., may God make thee to be of those who 
disUke die being cursed! and hence it occurs 
parenthetically, (^ar ubi BupHk.) You say also, 
^llj ^1 ^1 [He refaed, or did not nAmit, to 

be harrned, or inj«red[. (T.) [And 
"^ is inserted after ijl, and is either redundant, or 
corroborative of the meaning of the verb, as in 
the case of "i o' o"" '^ *'^' f^-l ^* " """^ '" 
the Jg^nr ix. ^, ij^ >^ Cil "SJ '^ ijiv5> meaning 
But God mU not content or ckooie [save to com- 
plete, or perfect, hit light}. (Bd.) And in the 
same xvii. 91, ijy^ -^l yjjii\ '^\ Ji^, i.e. 
[ But the greater number of men have not contented 
to, or choten, aught] save denying [its truth, or 
diAelieving it] ; this phrase with ^l being allow- 
able because it is rendered by means of a nega- 
tive. (Bd.) You also say, ^^m\ ^^ olfe [Be 
used to refiise, or ditlihe, ^h-meat}, (K,) or 
^.iJClI ji»l [the eating of flesK^meat]. (Mgh.) 
And (Utl ^"^ ^jf] [Such a one refilled, or dit- 
liked, water, or the watery. (S:) or ^j^ O"* \^^ 
iOl {he refuted, or voluntarily refrained from, 
the drinking of water, or the water], (AAF, M,) 
And^'jt Agie ^^\, (Mgh, and Mtr. [author of the 
Mgh] in ^ej p. 483,) and 4^ * .1^, both sig^ 
nify He refuted him his assent, or content, to the 
thing, ot affair. (Mtr ubisupri, inHar.) Hence, 
(Mtr ubi supr&,) ^J* ^1, (Mgh, and Mtr ubi 
supHk,) and a^ t^U,(T,^,and Mtrubisuprk,) 
He wot incompliant, or unyielding, to him; he 
resitted him, withttood him, or repugned him; 
syn, «j;;ut (T, §, Mgh, and M{r ubi supr&) 4eJk« : 
(T:) thus explained because the objective comple- 
ment (j^*JO is suppressed. (Mtr ubi supri.) ^ 
>iu£jl i-e^l, (?,) or ^liLl t>., and ^^AJt, (M, 
TA, [in a copy of the former of which the verb is 
written w-e^l, but this I suppose to be a mistran- 
scription, on account of what here follows,]) like 
Ciyjj, (^,) inf. n. ^t, (M, and eo in some 
copies of the I^,) or ^t, (so in some copies of the 
^,) wtdi kesr, and with the short final alif, (TA, 
[t. e. like i^j, but perhaps this may have been 
supposed to be the right reading only because the 
verb is hkened to w<e^, of which ^jAj is the 
most common inf. n.,]) F left, or relin^uitlted, the 
food, (M, ^,) and the milk, (M, TA,) without 
being satiated, OT satisfied, (**,y } Jj -ft!' ^1, 
and j^l, inf. n. ^1, The young camel, or young 
weaned camel, suffered indigestion Jrom the milk, 
and became affected with a dislihe of food. (M, 
^■) ^ w^l as tyn. with O^l : see the latter. 

4. abl *^\ [in the C^, erroneously, aI^I] I 
made him to refute if ; or to refrain, forbear, 
abstain, or hold back, from it, voluntarily, or 
of kit own free wUl or choice : (S : [this meaning 
being there implied, though not expressed:]) or 
/ made htm to ditlihe it, to be displeated with it, 
to disapprove of it, OT to hate it: (M,^:) namely, 
water t&c.]. (8, M.) One Bays, j^ -^'J^' ot**, 
(ISk.S, ^,* [in the C^, erroneously, ,^ *),]) 
i. e., *I^U jJUU%^ V [Suck a one it like a tea, or 
great river, that mill not make thee to refute it, 
or didike it, kc] ; (^ ;) i. e., tltat will not fail, 
or come to an end, (ISk, $, ^,) by reaton of its 

[Book I. 

ii^fiv^fEuv, (18k, $.) In like manner one says, 
of a»j- water, ^-^ *^ &» [Water that foUl not 
fail, or come to an etui}. '(TA..) And U lU Ujktf 
^jlli With ui, or at our abode, it water that does 
not become scanty, or little in quantity. (Lb, T, 
M.) And lOl jj/i" The water decreased, or he- 
came deficient. (AA, from El-Mu&ddal.) And 
i^yi 'i 1^ J* A well that will not become ex- 
hausted : (lAf r, M :) one should not say, ^^. 
(M, TA.) In like manner, also, one says, ^jii* 
ijjj *9 Herbage, or pasture, that wiU not fail, or 
come to an end. (S.) And ^^ "^ >**l)> *^^ 
He has dirhemt, or money, thai wiU not fail, or 
come to an end. (TA.) And iO' ^t signifies 
also The water [in a well] was, or became, diffi- 
cult of accett (aJJUt), so that no one was able to 
descend to it but by exposing himself to peril or 
destruction : (M :) if a drawer of water descend 
into the well, (T, TA,) and the water be altered 
for the worse in odour, (TA,) he exposes himself 
to peril, or destruction. (T, TA.) 

5. ^^)1 Agle ^^ : and a^ ^0 alone : see I, 
latter half of the paragraph. 

^1 A paucity, or deficiency, and revultion, of 
the milk in the breast: (Fr, T§:) or a revulsion 
of the milk in the udder; (^;) but the saying 
" in the udder" requires consideration. (TA.) 
You Bay to a woman, when she has a fever on the 
occasion of childbirth, Ajjj 3^\ 1.5***^' *^ ^1 
[Thit fever is only occasioned by the paucity, or 
deficiency, and revulsion, of the milk in thy breast. ] 

^It^t and ^Ql and ^Ql : see «,>'> >i four 

l%\, (T,8, M,) or ^liLl ^ t(il (?,) A dis- 
like, or loathing, of food: (T,'s, M,^:) of the 
measure Jlad, (S, M,) with damm, (S, I^,) be- 
cause it is like a disease, and nouns significant of 
diseases are generally of that measure. (M.) You 
say, «;! iji.1 (T,S, M,E:) >u1jI ^ (?) Ho 
wat, or became, taken, or affected, with a dislike, 
or loathing, of food. (T, S, M, 1^.) 

iVJ inf. n. of ^1, q.v. (S,M,iH:.) See also 

^1 and ifi\ : see ..^1, in three places. .^ Also, 

the former (^1)) ^^^ [&PP- ^ camel, or any 
beast,] that refuses, or refrains fro/m, fodder, by 
reason of her suffering from indigestion : and she 
that refuses, or refrains from, the stallion, by 
reason of lier having little appetency. (AA.) 
[See also v'j't ^oce ..^1.] 

IL^t A man who refutes, or doet not submit, tu 
be hirmed, or injured. (T.) 

L^l; with damm, (?,) and kesr to the ■^, and 
with teshdetd of this letter and of the ^, (TA,) 
[in the C^ ie*';] Pride; telf-magnification, or 
greatness, or majesty : (^ :) and * 11^1 [also] sig- 
nifies pride, te\f-magn{fication, or haughtiness. 
(9am p. 118.) 

vT, Mi ♦(^l (^. M, Mjb, ?, TA,) and tJiW'. 

Book I.] 

(9,TA,) part. t». of |_^, Bigniffing Itefiirttg . 
or rs/romtn^, firbearinff, abttaining, or holMtiff 
back [vobrntarilj/, or of ku otm fret mU or 
ekoice] : ($, M;b, TA :*) [refimng astent or con- 
taut; kc.:]duliking, being ditpleoMdrnthtiibingf 
diaappnmng of it, QT hating it; (M,*^,*TA:) 
or the Snt and flecond, a man ditliking, or loath- 
inff, food : (M, ^, TA :) and the third, (^,) and 
^OW'i (bo in a copy of the M,) or i^Ql, (IJ[,) a 
man mho rafiita, or refrains from, or ditliket, or 
Aa^, (.^jri,)food; or, tkingt that are bate, or 
«Mni, (M,^,TA,) a>u2 cautee of digpraite or 
blame: (TA:) or the second (^1), a man wAo 
refvtei, or re/roin*, ice., vehemently, or much; 
incompliant, unyielding, resisting, withstanding, 
or fWTn^in^ ; (T :) and '^Wl and oW'i ^ i»<^ 
having vehement >V' [^PP* *W) >■ b- dislihe, or 
loathing, of food ; agreeably with a common 
quality of words of the measnreo'::^]: (T,TA: 
[but in copy of the T, accord, to the TT, Afi 
in this last explanation is written Af\ : in the TA , 
it is without any vowel-sign :}) the pi. of wtl is 
, - . ,i St * 

^^^^ and il^l (M, j^) and ^I, (Ei.,) with damm, 

then kesr, and then teehdeed, (TA, [in the C^ 
^wl, and in a copy of the M Oe'')]) ^"'^ ^W'l (M, 
TA,) or Si, (5, TA,) like Jl^^ : (TA : [in the 
C? .M :]) the pi. of t^I IB o^i ; (M, ? ;) of 
which an instance occurs wherein the pi. o ^ 
Gkened to a radical ^; the gen. case being 
written, at the end of a verse, ,i>erfl : (M ;) the 
pi. of toC', (M,) or o^\, (?,) is oW,. (Kr, 

M,5.) [K&t<x,J ^Jri1 The lion. (?.) And 

•W/'t O^t) ^ i° ^"^^ copies of the ^, but in 
others tle^t, (TA,) She [app. a camel] that dis- 
Uiei, or loathes, and will not drinh, water: and 
she that desires not the evening-food : and she (a 
camel) that is covered and does not conceive, or 
become pr^nant: (M, ]^:) and vU'> [**^ P'*'] 
she-camels that ref%ae, or refrain from, the ttal- 
Uon, (TA. [See also ^1.]) It is said in a prov., 
itfii jrw^ ^Wl [She that is eating her evening- 
food, or pasturing in the evening, excites her that 
has no desire for that food]; i, e,, when the 
camels that desire not the evening-food see the 
camels eating that food, they follow them, and 
pasture with them. (M, and bo in the § in art. 

V^ [bcL part n. of 4, q. v.] Water failing, 
or coming to an end: (TA :) or water that is 
acanty, or little in quantity.] (L^, M, TA.) 

hi^ £, (M,) or it^ S>U, (^,) Water whi^h 
ike camuis refuse, or disUhe. (M, K.) 


S. 0^ Q>^, (M,^, [but in the latter the pro- 
noun is masc.,]) and ^'^, (M,) or simply t^^l, 
(9.) inf. n. s^, (S, ¥,) Se put on her, or clad 
Mer mitk, an ^\ : (^, H, ^ :) or \fS signifiee 
is put OH her, ai clad her with, a shiji. (AZ,T.) 
m^^t, iiitJi.,) inf. q. as above, (K,) It (a 

garment, or piece of c\otb,)Kasmade into on «^l. 
CM, ^.) 

6. sJl/ v^j (M, ?,) imd ♦s-i:5l, [written 
nith the diBJonctive alif i^ '"j'], (M,) or ^^,^'1 
(K, [but this I think a mistranscription,]) Se 
put on himself, or clad himself with, an \^\: 
(M, ]C:) or ^C^jLIil, alone, tAd ^( on herself, 

or chtd herself nnth, an ^^. (AZ,T,8,M:.) 

—l^lj e>jJ1 t^V i He put on (i. e. on himself) 
the coat of mail, and the arms, or weapons. (A.) 
And S^^ k,>JU fSe put forth his skoutder- 
joints from the belt of the bow, [the belt being 
acrou his breast,] so that the bow was on his 
shouUier^lades : (A :) accord, to AJ^n, (M,) 
wJu signifies ta man's putting the suspensory 
'if thf bow across the breast, and putting forth the 
s/iouUler-jointsfrom it, (M,^,) so that the bow is 
nil ths shoulder-joints : (M ;) and you say also, 
'J^ \j^ *^J^ i,^U t [he put his bow in the 
inaiuier above described upon his bach]. (S.)^ 
[And hence,] i^U signifies also iSeprepared 
Uimseif, or made himself ready, (Jfy.,) ^^ [for 
the affair]. (TK.) _ And t He acted, or be- 
hai-ed, with forced hardness, firmness, strength, 
hardiness, courage, or vehemence. (1^.) 

8 : see 6, in two places, 

9: see 5. 

(S,) or ij^, (M, K,) i. e., (S, M, [but in the %. 
what here follows is given as a meaning distinct 
from that of !«*#,]) a ijt [q. v.], (S, M, ]B:,) or 
piece of cloth, (8, A,) which is slit (§, M, A, ^) 
in Ihemiddie, (S,) and worn by a woman, (_A,^,) 
irho throws it upon her nech, (S, M,) \putting her 
lii-iid through the slit;] having neither an opening 
at t lie bosom (a ^f.^'), nor sleeves: (S,M,A,]^:) 
and a woman's shift : (T, M, K: :) and, (K,) or 
accord, to some, (M,) a garment that is short, 
reaching half-reay down tlie shank : (M, ^ :) or 
[a garment lilte] drawers, or trousers, without 
kijf ; (M, 1^ ;) t. q.iJS: (M :) or a shirt with- 
imt xleeves, (§ voce j^, M,5>) worn by women : 
(S ubi suprA :) the first explanation alone is g^ven 
in most lexicons : (TA :) some say that it is 
different from the jljl ; that it has no band like 
that of drawers or trousers, and is not sewed 
together after the manner of dramers or trousers, 
but hi a shirt of which the two sides are not tewed 
li-gether : (M :) or t. q. isSt and jlo^ and j3^ j 
all signifying one and the same thing : (T :) pi. 
[of pauc] ^W (M, it [in the C?, and a MS. 
copy of the Si, written v^']) [originally ^Ult 
wljich is mentioned as one of the pis. byMF] and 
^i [ori^nally ^11 which is also mentioned as 
one of the pk. by MF] and by transposition ^yii, 
(MF,) and [of mult.] v^l, (S,) or ^Ul, (M,) 
or both. (¥..} _ [Hence,] ^i also signifies 
t The AmA of barley. (M,?.) * 

..r-.l* j1 [wrapper, or wrapping garment, such 
lu is oaSed] j^. (T.) 

S-^i Bee^l. 


jiJjJt k^i>* t A man whose nail is crooked. 

1. j^, (M, ^,) in, or in relation to, a lUw [or 
skin for water or milk], (TA,) signifies The 
having two punctures of a seam (oMj/^) ''^"^ *" 
as to become one. (M, ]^.) Yon say, i^jiil ij;**}), 
aor. - , inf. n. _^l, TVie wtUer-skin Itad its two 
punctures (laUj^ [or rather two of its punctures^ 
agreeably with the explanation of the inf. n. in 
the M and E^, as given above,]) rent so that they 
became one. (TJ^.)— [And hence,] The meeting 
together of the ^^Ifll'-* [or vagina and rectum] : 
whence >>^1 [q. v.] as an epithet applied to a 
woman. (Ham p. 373.).^ [It seems to be indi- 
cated in the T, that one says, iCdl ^1, aor. :, 
and^l,aor.-; asmeaning,orperhaps the former 
only, 7^ women assembled, at came together : for 
I there find, immediately after ^U as signifying 
" a place in which women assemble," " one says, 
^\, aor. : , and _^l, aor. - ; " bat it is then added 
that, accord, to Kh&lid Ibn-Yezeed, ^U is from 
^\, aor. - .] ma I. q. i^Zi [The act of rending, 
rending asunder, npping, or the like ; or undoing 
the sewing of a tiling]. (TA.)_The act of 
cutting, (Sgh, ^.) You say, a«JI Jle cut it, 
(T%.)maJ^\, aor, -, also Bignifiee Mebrougkt 
together, or united, two things. (T.) [See >pl, 
and ^U.] ^ O^W .^t, (Sgh, Msb,) with two 
forms of aor., [app. ; and - ,] (Msb,) inf. n. ^I, 
(Sgh, 5,) or jJjJt ; (Mgb ;) and J^\, aor. ^ ; 
(Msb ;) He stayed, remained, dwelt, or abode, ts 
the'place. (Sgh, Msb, ?;.) 

2 : see 4. 

4. V»*lr inf. n. ^U^t ; and ^ V^t, inf. n. ,^U ; 
He rendered her such as is termed v»yi, q. v. 

jty\ is primarily nsed in relation to the (Uui 
[or skin for water or milk; as meaning] Having 
two punctures of a seam (O^i/^) **'"' **> ^kat 
they becoTJie one, (S.) _ And hence, (S,) or irom 
JJii as meaning " he brought together, or united," 
two things, (T,) A woman whose ,j\SJ. ' ..* [or 
vagina and rectum] meet together in one, [by the 
rupture of the part between them,] (T, M,) be- 
coming conjoined, so that the p.ji is enlarged 
thereby, (TA,) on the occasion of devirgination; 
(M;) i.q. IliJu, (T,S,M,) as some say; (T;) 
or liliu ; (^ ; [scud in the TA to be a mistake ; 
but ILUU and i^iu are said in the M, in art 
njOfi, to have the same signification ;]) a woman 
whose ij^^V< * have become one : (39am p. 271 :) 
or, as some say, small in the ^-jt [or vagina] : 
CM :) or it has these two contr. significations, 


^,,jU is a quasi-inf. n. of _^l in the last of the 
senses expliuned above. (M;b.) [Thus it signifies 
A staying, r^naining, dwelling, or abiding, in 
a place. But it more commonly signifies] The. 
assembling of women [and of men also] in a case 
of rejourins and of mourning, (^ar p. 234.) _ 


It is also B noon of time from the ume. (Mfb.) 
[Tbiis it signifies A tiine of staying or remain- 
ing, &c.]_^And it is also a noun of place from 
the same. (Msb.) [And thus it signifies A place 
of $taying or remainijig, kx. But it more com- 
monly signifies] A place of auemibling of women 
[and of men also] in a caie of rejoicing and of 
mourning : trom _^\, aor, ' , accord, to Kh&lid 
Ibn-Yezeed. (T.)__!Andhence,tropically,(M?b,) 
t Women oMembting together (T, 8, H, Mgh, 
Mfb, ^) in a ease of rejoicing and of mourning, 
(T, H, Mgh, ^,) or in a cate of good and of evU : 
(§,M|b:) or any a»*emilt/, (M,^,) of men and 
of women, (M,) in a ctue of mourning or of re- 
joicing : (M, ^ :) or particularly of young women; 
(M,^,) accord, to some; but it is not bo: and 
some assert that the word is derived from ^\, in 
die fifst of the senses explained in this art. ; and 
from ^y\, as an epithet applied to a woman ; 
because it signifieB women coming together, and 
meeting face to face, in a cate of good anAofevil: 
(M:) tiie pi. is ^U. (S,Mgh.) Aba-l-'At4 
E»-Sindee says, 

, I , , A^ tt t ,, 
* ii^-*-i -rJl- L^-fiy Vie-- ■ 

[/n the evening witen aroie the wailing women to 
wail, and openings at the neckt and bosomt of 
garments were rent with the hands of atsembled 
mourning women, and cheeks also were lacerated] : 
(9, M, Mgh :) L e., (C^ ^^j^V- (§.) And 
another says, 

[So that thou seest them (referring to women) 
standing in hit presence, or at, or by, it, like as 
tkou seest the assembly of men around the prince, 
or commander] : ^l«]t here necessarily denoting 
men. (M.)^I^t says, (Msb,) it is used by 
the Tulgor to denote An affliction, or evil acci- 
dent; ($,Mgh,Mfb;) [and Mtr adds,] and a 
wailing: (Mgh:) they aay, jj^jU ^U ^^ U^ 
[meaning We were present at the affliction of 
tuckaone]: (§,M?b:) oro:**,_^^U J li£. 
[meaning We were present at the affliction, and 
wailing, of flie sons of such a one] : (Mgh :) but 
, the correct word in this case, (§, Mgh,) or the 
better, (Mfb,) is a^lu : (8, Mgh, M;b :) so says 
lAmb. (Mgh.) But accord, to IB, nothing for^ 
bids that it may occur in the sense of A place 
of mailing; and in the sense of mourning, and 
wailing, and weeping; for therefore do women 
BBsemble : and thus it may be in the saying of 
Et-Teymee, respecting Manfoor Ibn-Ziydd, 

\The peoples mourning, kc., fir him wat oTte: in 
every kouse was a moaning, and a sighing] : and 
in the saying of another, 

i. e. [The daughters of the captives, teken they 

were flout, hacame, in the early part of tke day,] 
in a stale of mourning ; and the beasts of prey, 
in a state of rejoicing. (TA.) 

1. Ol^y i>iT,(?.M,Msb,:^,») aor. '- , (Msb,) 
or ; , (?,) inf. n. Oi^' (M, Msb, K) and J,it, 
(^,) ffa remained, continued, stayed, or abode, 
intkeplace; (8, M, Mab,5;*) or became Jueed, 
or settled, tha-ein. (M.) 

10. fj2\Z^\ [lit] He (an ass) became a she-ass. 
(M.) The saying, ^U^ ljC«^ o^' »id °^ 
man, [lit] signifies [He was a he ats,] and he 
became a ske ass; meaning t^ n>as mighty, 
of high condition, [Uke the wild he-ass,] and ke 
became base, abject, or vile. (8, TA.)._Also, (S, 
TA,) or W\ ^IL-I, (M,) -He (a man) pur- 
chated a she-ass ; (S ;) ke took for kimself a slte- 
ast. (S,M.) 

0»5t (T,S,M,M5b,?) and ♦oUI, (?:,) but 
one should not say <UUl, (ISlc, 8, Msb,) or this 
is of rare occurrence, (K,) occurring in certain 
of the trads., (lAth,) A she-tut [domestic, or n:ild] : 
(S, M, M^b, io pi. (of pauc, T,8,M5b) ^\ and 
(of mult., T, 8, Msb) ^\ (T, S, M, Msb, ?) and 
^\ and (quasi-pl. n., M) ♦ iUyU. (8, M, ]^.) 
^ Hence, ^^ signifies | A foolisk and soft or 
weak woman; as being likened to a she-ass. 
(TA.)_Also Th» station of the drawer of water 
at the mouth of the well; (S,M,^0 and 
♦ jjUt. (M, 5-) -And A rock, or great mats of 
ttone, (AA,T,S,M,) in water; (AA,T, M;) 
or, as some say, at tke bottom of tke casing of a 
well, to tkat it it newt the water. (AA, T.) And 
A targe, round mass of rock, which, when it it in 
shaiioK water, it called ,Jha)l ^^\; and a she 
camel is likened thereto, in respect of her hard- 
ness: ($:) or ,,V»b)I ^UI signiSes a large matt 
of rock projecting from the water ; (T :) or a 
matt of rock, (M,]^, TA,) large and round, in 
the water, (TA,) at the mouth of the well, over' 
spread with [t?ie green substance catted] ^S».h, 

that it is smooth, (M, K, TA,) more smootk 
than other parU : (M, TA :) or a mass of roch, 
part of which is im/merged (^l^, M, 1^) tn the 
water, (K,) and part apparent. (M, 5^.) And 
t,)e^' O^' signifies A large mats of rock in tke 
interior of the roater-course, which nothing raises 
or moves, of the measure of the stature of a man 
in length and likewise in breadth. (lSh.)_Alao 
The [piece of wood called] iJicU [wkick is one 
of four forming the support] of the ft->9^ [more 
commonly called ^>yk, q. t.] : pi. ijj\, (JS^, 
TA,) with medd. (TA : [but in the C? iIp'.]) 

i^ljl : see (^jUI, in two places. 

J,33l (T, M, Mgh, Mfb, K) and oy', (?.) or, 
accord, to J, (Mfb,) it is thus, with teshdeed, but 
pronounced without teshdeed by the vulgar, (8, 
Msb,) A certain place in which fire it kindled, 
($, Mgh,) called in Persian o^-^ [o"" O^], 
pertaining to.a bath : and metaphorically applied 

[Book I. 

to t that 'V5«fiii Mckt are baked, and called in 
Pereiatt \J^ and tUjili [or smiply t^yS and 
u^b] : (^gb:) accord, to Az, (Mfb,) it is tkat 
of the bath, and of the place in which gyptum it 
made: (T, Msb:) or the trench, koUow, or pit, 
of tke j\^ [or Ume-bumer, (in the Cl^k, eiro- 
neously, the jt^,]) and of tke preparer of 
gypsum; (M,^,TAO and the like: (^J) the 
pi. [said in the TA to be of the latter, but it is 
implied in the T and M and Mgh that it is of the 
former,] is o^l (T, S, M, Mgh, Msb, ¥, [in 
the C^, erroneously, ^^ei^'i]) hy common con- 
sent of^the Arabs, (Mgh,) with two Os, (T,) 
accord, to Fr, who says that they sometimes 
double a letter in the pi. when they do not double 
it in the sing., (T,) and accord, to IJ, who says 
that it seems as though they changed ^^ to 
O3JI ; (M ;) and [of l)^\, as is said in the TA 
and implied in the M,] ^1. (M,^.) [J says 
that] it is stud to be post-classical ; (8 ;) [and ISd 
says,] I do not think it to be Arabic. (M.) - 

-' A, ■ .( 

tU^U : see ^Ul. 

1. c!, aor. J^; (Mjb;) and 'S^\, (T,S,M, 
l^,)fior, »fi\; (6;) inf. n. jj", (M,Msb,) or l^, 
(^,) or the latter is an inf. n. of un. ; (T, TA ;) 
He came; (Mfb;) and I came to kim, or it; 
(S }) the former a dial. var. of ^1, aor. ^Vi ; 
(Mfb;) and tiie latter, of ^t (T,8,M,5.) 
[See art |_yt, to which, as well as to the present 
art., l>elong several words mentioned in this.]^H 
Ul, aor. as above, (T^,) inf. n. j^, (M, ]?, T?,) 
also signifies He pursued a right, direct, straight, 
or even, course, in going, or pace. (M,:^, T?..) 
— And He (a man, TK) battened, made katte, 
or sped; or ke wot quick, katty, speedy, rapid, 

swift, ot fleet. (M, IJL, TK.) And iSlJt »ijf, 

inf. n. as above, Tke she-camel returned her fore 
legs, [drawing the feet back towards the body, 
and lifting tkem kigk,] in ker going. (M.) 
Yon say, UtJI sM ^J^ ^ o^> ^* &nd 
Ih>^ ^') How good, or beautiful, it ihie tke- 
cameTt returning of her fore legs in her going ! 
i. e. U^ ^ l^'ii '^j. (T,* S, M.) — And jjl 
signifies also The act of impelling, or propelling; 
particularly, of an arrow firom a bow. (TA.) See 
also this word below, ^aujjt, (8, M, Msb, !l^,) 
aor. iyT, (§, Msb,) inf. n. iJDI, (8, M, Msb, ^,) 

accord, to A'Obeyd, (M,) and mentioned by 
%h on the authority of AZ, (TA,) and ^1, ($, 
TA,) [I gave kim what is termed SjUl, as mean- 
ing tke tax called n-l^ : this is the signification 
which seems to be indicated in the 8 : or] I bribed 
him; gave him a bribe. (M, Msb, ^.) [See also 
i^UI below.]^aJ[ljl cJt, (T,$, M,^,) and 
i>li)', (M,K,) aor. ^h, (S,) inf. n. Ml, with 
kesr, (Kr, M, K,) [in a copy of the T, and in two 
copies of the S, tUI, but this is said in the M to 

a Bubst,] and ^ ; (M, ^j) and iUUult toil, 
inf. n. :WI> (^0 The palm-tree [and tke trte} 


(see !l^ur iv. 23 and Ixv. 1,)] He entered into, 
efigaged in^ or occupied himself with, [or he did, 
or committed,] that which was excessively/ foul or 

evU. (TA,) And jii it jU O^ J^W |J« 
[Hesaidy gave utterance to, uttered, or expressed, 
or A« brought to pass, did, or effected, what was 
good, or excellent; he said, or c/tc^, n^^//^ or excel- 

lently\. (Mfb in art. >>i^.) And jlh^ lSj'H iV^ 
^^*- [-Hie (a horse) petformsd, or fetched, run 
after run]. (Smart.>D,&c,)..j».lJt ^jJ[jS[5 

^t WH^ [in the ]^ur xx. 72] means 


^A€ quartet whence he felt secure, (TA.) And 

^^M J4! j-Ip jJI t Property belonging to such a 

one perished. (T.) And Ai^> ^^^ij t -H^ *» toA^ 
away, or carried off, and overcome. (TA.) A 

poet says, 

XX ^ • X 





• J 


utfi«)t >U. 0J> l5^' 

X X ^^ 

•» i^fi .X»» XX • J»^ 

[.^mf tA« enchanter shall not prosper where he is, 
or wherever he may be] ; (M, Bd, J^ ;) and where 

r-r. IN • x{ J X 

A« Cometh : (Bd :) or ^ja^M^ ^t whs^ [where he 

^^ X X '■^ 

Cometh with his encliantment ; or where he per- 

formeth his enchantment] : (Jel :) and it is said to 

mean that where the enchanter is, he must be 

slain : such is the doctrine of the lawyers. (M.) 

, xj ^ XX 

.^Z mentions that ^t occurs in the sense ofjlto 
[He, or it, became; like as we sometimes say, 
he, or it, came, or came to be] ; like tU^ in the 
saying, U^» *U^t «W*. (Kull.) [So you say, 

^ X • J #»x xf " 

U^'< 2^3t ^1 7%« building became, or cam« fo 
>c, ^rwi, strong, or compact.] ... The saying, in 
the Ig^iir [xvi. 1], ly)^ kiUS ^li aDT jll ^1 means 
[7^ threatened punishment ordained of Ood hath 
approached : therefore desire not ye to hasten it :] 
its coming hath approached. (TA.) [And in like 

• xJ ^ 2 ^ J 

manner,] ^yjJ ^1, like ^^, means Such a one 
was approached by the enemy come in sight of 

him. (IgL.) ^jl^ l^ C^t [Thou art approached 
&c., O such a one,] is said when one is warned of 
an enemy that has come in sight of him. (Sgh, 

J^JxJ#xx xC 

TA.) AndjjjJt^^y^ ^t means IVie enemy came 
to them, [or came down upon them, for, as MF 

X# rf. X 

observes, ^t when trans, by means of ^JIp seems 

XX X ^^ 

to imply the meaning of Jijj,] overcoming, or 
overpowering, tliem, (Bd in xviii. 40.) ... Hence, 

• xx xt J xf 

aJL^ ^! [and oUI, as will be seen by what fol- 
lows,] t He destroyed him, or it. (Bd ubi suprii.) 

•» >x J x» ftxx xf 

And hence, from jjjJ) oW^^ (^gl^O ^^e^ iV^ 
y*jJt t Time, or fortune, destroyed him. (M, 
Mgh, Mfb, ]^.) Destruction is meant in the l^ur 

r«« rfcl 1 • • .1 »<' J Ox » >l^ JJ xf- 

[lix. 2], where it is said, J whs^ i>« aDI^^UU 

J X X X ■'^ 

I ^M .::^ .; t [^Mf Ood brought destruction upon them 


whence they did not reckon, or expect]. (Es- 
Semeen, TA.) And it is said in the ]^ur [xvi. 28], 

XX X O^x xOJ Jl^ ^^ 

j^tyut ^ ^W aD! J>[i, i. e. t -Sw^ Ood 
removed their building from the foundations, and 
demolished it upon them, so that He destroyed 

»x X xC 

them. (TA.) d^ ^1 also signifies f He caused 
it to come to an end; made an end of it; con- 
sumed it; [devoured it;] exhausted it; came to, 
or reached, the end of it; namely, a thing; (Kull;) 
as, for instance, what was in a bowl ; (^ in art. 
ji^j^;) and what was in a vessel; (]^ in art. 
^r^j^ ;) like IL t^ : (ISd cited in the TA in 

^ fix 

art. ^^SJ :) or t. q. a^j^ [which may be rendered 
he went away with it ; but this, as an explanation 

#X X xt 

of d^ ^\, has another meaning, which see in 

what follows]. (KuU.) And one says, ^j'^ ^\ 
AUU ^>4 t Destruction came to such a one Jroin 

'•x ^ •» 

meaning f [Misfortunes, in the footsteps of which 
were misfortunes,] took away [what was sweet, of 
life, and rendered it bitter]. (TA.) One says 

also, kZ^\ U^ (>«9 [so I find it written, but I 
think that the last word should be wn^^ly agreeably 
with a preceding phrase from the T,] f Hence the 
trial, or affliction, came^ in upon thee. (Mgh.) 

And 1 

X ^^x 

passive form, f He missed [his object in respect of 
such a thing] by laying hold upon it when it 
was not fit to be laid hold upon. (Msb.) And 

J».y! ^t, [also] like ^^, f The man was 
deceived, or deluded, and his faculty of sense 
became altered to him, so that he imagined that to 

»xx xf 

be true which was not true. (TA.) ... a^JLp ^\ 

S X 

is also syn. with d^ ja [meaning He, or it, (as, 

X X 

for instance, a period of time,) passed by him, or 

«• X Axx xC 

over him]. (Msb.) You say, ^y^ a^JL^ ^I [A 
year passed over him ; or he became a year old]. 
(S,]^,MBb, in art Jym.; &c.) a3Ut oil, and 

X M< 

aS\ld\ « Ja J;j^ ^1 ,>^t U : see art. yiC 

2. .U) ^, (T, S, M,) or tUf\, (^,) or both, 

• x tx 2 2^ 

(TA,) inf. n. 2l^\3 and ^^O, ^i^ smoothed, made 

tfo^y, or prepared, (Jv-», S, l?^, or \jb, T,) the way, 
course, parage, or channel, of the water, (T, S, 
T^,) in of^der that it might pass forth to a place ; 
(S ;) he directed a channel for it (M, TA) so that 
it ran to the places wherein it rested or remained. 

(TA.) And ^\ dJh S\ He made a rivulet, or 

X X X X ^^ 

a channel for water, to run to his land. (M.)... 

iiit c/^ ^'^ iV^. inf- n. IpU, (T, M,* TA,) Ood 
prepared, disposed, arranged, or put into a good 
or right state, [and thus rendered feasible or 
practicable or easy,] for such a one, his affair. 

J x»» 

3. «Ut, [inf. n. as below,] ^« requited, com- 
pensated, or recompensed, him. (M, 50 The 
saying, in the Kur [xxi. 48], JUu« ^;^l^ ^U 

X . xOxf x*x* fix " *^ 

W~ W^^ J>>^ O^ ^^y ^™® '^^ ^^y (^/ 

^ * " ^ 

TA,) meaning [T^oti^A t^ be the weight of a 
grain of mustard,] we wiU bring it [forward for 
requital] : others read \^ ▼ U^l, meaning we will 
give [a recompense] for it; in which case the 

X xCf 

verb is of the measure Jji5t : or we will requite 
for it ; in which case the verb is of the measure 

JiU. (M,TA.)_jI'«9t Jii i^X (T,§,M, 

• X X J X ^^ 

.Msb,) inf. n. SUtJ^, (T,S,) J agreed with him, 
or n?a« of one mind or opinion with him, upon, or 
respecting, the thing, or affair; I complied with 
him respecting it ; (T, 8, M, Msb ;) in a good 

J J#X X 

manner : (T :) the vulgar say, A^t^ : (S :) this 
is of the dial, of the people of £1- Yemen, inf. n. 

9 X xj 

SUty* ; and is the form commonly current : (Mfb :) 

. [Book I. 

but it should n6t be tfsed, except in the dial, of 
the people of £1-Yemen. (T.) ... [Hence, app., 


^t as meaning He aided ; a signification men- 
tioned by Golius, on the authority of Z and Ibn- 

4. il51, (§, M, &c.,) inf. n. {\JJ\, (TA,) t. q. 
4y ^J^ [He came with, or brought, him, or t^] ; 
(S ;) he made it (a thing) to come, A^Jt to him ; 
(TA ;) he made, or caused, him, or it, to be present ; 
(Ksh, TA ;) he made, or caused, it (a thing) to 
go, pass, or be conveyed or transmitted, (syn. 

A»U,) 4^\ to him. (M, K.) It is said in the 
Kur [xviii. 61], Utfji lisT, i. e. a^ U%t [Come 

X X X X X 

tilou to us with, or biing thou to us, our morning- 
meal]. (S.) ... Hence, (Ksh, TA,) inf. n. as 
above, (T, S,) He gave him (T, S, M, Mfb, 5) a 
thing, (M,]^,) or property: (Mfb:) and you 

X ^ 

say, OU in the sense of the [imperative] Ot [give 

X X 

thou]. (T.) We read in the ^jLur. [v. 60, &c.] O^sjij 

X X 5 

5l£»pt [^m:? they give the portion of property 
which is the due of the poor]. (TA.) And in 

• x.«J ■* Ax^x 

[xxvii. 23 of] the same, j^-i Jb£» ^^ ^^^J^y 

^^ X XX 

meaning ^n^ «^^ Aa^A been given somewhat of 

X ' ' X * 

everything. (M, TA.) [You say also, t J^ ^J^l 

as meaning He was gifted, or endowed, with such 
a thing; as, for instance, a faculty.] See also 3. 

...^Ul^Jt wHN)t I made a gift to the slave be- 
tween whom and me was a contract that he should 
become free on payment of a certain sum : or / 
abated, or took off, somewhat of his appointed 

paH-payments, or instalments. (Msb.)..;^,^^! U 
J^j.t, in the ?ur lix. 7. means Wtu^t the Apostle 


giveth you, of the [spoil termed] 0^, (Bd, Jel,) 
&c. : (Jel :) or what command he giveth you : 
(Bd :) or what he commandeth you [to receive]. 

• X X i 

(Kull.) ...•^^ ^ ^jl A dispute, or an alterca- 
tion, was held before him, respecting the meaning 
of a thing : [perhaps more properly signifying he 
was given authority to decide respecting a thing:] 
occurring in a trad. (Mgh.) 

6. i' ^Ki It (an affair, T, Mgh, Mfb, K, or a 
thing, S, M) was, or became, prepared, disposed, 
arranged, or put into a good or right state, for 
him ; (T,* S, M, Mgh, Mfb, K ;) and hence, it 
(a thing) n?£w, or became, feasible or practicable, 
and ea^, to him ; (Mgh ;) it (an affair) was, or 
became, facilitated, or easy, to him ; (Mfb ;) the 
way thereof (i. e. of an afiair) was, or became, 
facilitated, or easy, to him. (TA.) The following 
is an ex. : 

• xx §*• 

dx J0 A 

4) vD 

[Fortune became weU, or rightly, disposed for 
him, so that he became restored to wealth, or com- 

>• X Jx Stf' 

petence] : (T :) or 4Jt j^>»Jt 4} ^u [good fortune, 

or prosperity, became prepared, &c., for him, 
tec.]. (So in the TA.) And hence the saying, 

LLj\ ^ ^t^ vto \Sm This is of the things which 

it is feasible or practicable, and easy, to me to 
chew. (Mgh). .. He ajyplied himself to it with 

XX ut^ 

gentleness, (As, S, 1$.,) and so l^i ^yU, meaning 

X X ^"^ 

d^[mJ, to his needful affair or business, (T,) and 


entered into it, engaged in it, occupied himself 
fvith it, did it, executed it, or performed it, by the 

gen. n., and] the n. tin. is with I : (AZ, T, S, M, 
Mjb, 5 :) or it has no n. un. : (Fr, T, S, Msb, 
5 ;) if you form a pi. from i>Ut, you say, sHS 
air, [originally lijU, like lUtl, pi. of ^Ui,] 
andi^^l. iFt,T-) 

st-«3l Much in quantity, abundant, or ntim«- 
rom: and gi-eat, or lari/e : asalBO^ Ot; (M,^;) 
which is, in my opinion, [eays ISd, originally 
Jjl,] of the measure J*i: (M:) the fern, b 
a^l: and the pi. ia iCl andijUl; (M,^;*) 
both being pis. of the masc. and of the fern. ; (^ ;) 
or the latter is pi. of the fem. only ; (M,* MFj) 
but the former is [pi. of the maac.,] like >t>^ as 
pi. of .MJ^i C^^i) "^** ^ P'- "^ '^® **™' "^* 
(M.) You say, w-gll Ct^ Herbage, or a hei-b, 
that it abundant, or plenteous, and tangled, or 
luxuriant : (T, S :) or abundant and tall. (M.) 
And w<«jl j»ii Hair that m abundant, and 
tangled, or luxuriant : (8 :) or abundant (T, M) and 
long. (M.) And^l<L^,andt&^l,^fAtc£&ean£. 
(M, TA.) And 3iJ\ if^t A fiethy m&man : (M, 
TA:) pi. ^Ul, (M,) signifying j?esAy women ; 
(S, M, 1^ ;) as also iUt : (M :) or the former of 
these pis. signifies taU, full-grown, women. (I^.) 

^\i\ i.q. ^J^^\, (?.,) i.e. The [three] stone* 
mhick are set up and upon n>hirh the cookinff'pot 
is placed : the [second] i» is said to be a substi- 
tute for t_*, and some hold the hemzeh to be aug- 
mentatiTe. (TA.) 

1. j«»J1 ij^ jj\, aor. < , inf. n. jj\, He made 
an incifion in the foot of the camel \in order to 
hnom and trace the fooiprintt] ; as also * «jjl. 
(M.) And j^\jj\ He made a mark upon the 
bottom of the camcTsfoot teith the iron instrument 
called ijiJjt in order tliat the footprints upon 
the ground might be known: (T, TT :) or he 
scraped the inner [i. e. under'] part of the cameTs 
foot Kith that instrument in order that the foot- 
prints might be traced. (S.).^iJ ^ J>^H jjX, (T, 
§,M, A,&c.,)-«iill O^, (M,) aor. ''(S.M.M^b, 
^) and-, (M^U:,) inf. n. ^ (T, S, M, Msb, 5) 
and ijlil and S^\, (M,E,) the last from Lh, but 
in my opinion, [says ISd,] it is correctly speaking 
a subst, and syn. with ijjU and SpU, (M,) He 
related, or recited, the tradition, narratiee, or 
start/, as received, or heard, from the people; 
transmitted the narrative, or stori/, by tradition, 
from the people : (T, S,« M, A, L, Msb,* ?. :') or 
he related that mlterein they had preceded {as 
narrators: so I render 4^ \y^ C^^t^t, be- 
Ueving,^ to hare been inserted by a mistake of 
a copyist in the M, and hence in the L also :] from 
i^^t. (M, L.) [See ^1.] You say also, Zi jjl 
^^1, meaning He related, a* Iteard from him, 
mhat teas false. (L, from a trad.) —^1, aor. - , 
(M,) inf. n. jjI, (M,]^,) also signifies Multum 
inivit camelus camelam. (M, ^.) ^^"jj ^l, 
aor. - , He applied, or gave, his nhole attention 

to the thing, or affair, having his mind unoccupied 
by other things. Q^.) _ ji-iJt jjie J3l He deter- 
mined, resolved, or decided, upon the thing, or 

affair. (T,S-) 1 ji*^ tiSi ^t ^I ojil JjJ, 

(Lth,T,L,) inf. n. jS and j5l, (L,) I have 
assuredly purposed to do such and suck things. 
(Lth.T.L.) See also 4 And see 10. 

2. *e*jjl inf. n.*j^. He, or it, made, (M?b,) 
or left, (M, ^,) or caused to remain, (S,) an 
impression, or a mark, or trace, upon him, or it. 
(S,* M, Msb, ^.•) It is said of a sworf, [meaning 
It made, or leji, a mark, or scar, upon him, or 
it,} and in like manner of a blow. (T, TA.) 
[Whence,] 4.o;£ i^ >' t [ J^" scarred his honour]- 
(5 in art. ij^y) You say also, <hA*' J^ 
ji>4»JI i C ci j ^Tij [Prostration in prayer made, or 
lefi, a mark, or marks, upon his face and upon 
his forehead]. (T,*TA.) See also 1, first sentence. 
.^He, or it, made an impression, or produced 
an effect, upon him, or it ; impressed, affected, or 
influenced, him, or it. (The Lexicons passim.)^ 
\jki tjii '^\, (T, TT,) or ♦;iT, (5.) He, or it, 
made such a thing to be foUotced by suck a tking. 


4 : sec 2, last sentence. ^ [Hence, app.,] opt, 
(As, T, M, Msb.) inf. n. j\^l , (As, T,) He pre- 
ferred him, or t*. (As, T, M, Msb, TA.) You 
say, t^Jts »jj| He preferred htm before him : so 
in the ]^ur sii. 01. (As, M.) And 'C'^ O^T 
,_j-Ai (jle [I preferred such a one before myself], 
from jUj"^!. (S.) And «^ ^^1 ji I liave pre- 
ferred for thee it ; I have jyreferred to give 
thee it, rather than any other thing. (T.) And 
IJ.^ J^ O' j5' He preferred doing such a thing; 
as also tj2t, inf. n. jjl ; and^t. (M.)-_^t also 
signifies He chose, or elected, or selected. (5.) 
^ And tjj\ He lumoured him ; paid him honour. 

6. ^U It received an imjyression, or a mark, or 
trace; became impressed, ot marked. (Msb.)^ 
He, or it, had an impression made, or on effect 
produced, upon him, or it; became impressed, 
affected, or influenced. (The Lcsicons passim.) 
^ See also 8. 

B. >j.l^\, [written with the disjunctive alif 
AfU^I,] and^#;jU, He foUomed his footsteps : (M, 
5 or did so diligently, or perseveringly. (TA.) 

10. *^U^I ^ _PLL,I ; (ISk, S, K ;) and 
jtYti* *^l, aor. - ; (?^ ;) He chose for himself [in 
preference to his comjianions] (ISk, S, ^) good 
things, (^,) in partition, (TA,) or good actions, 
and qualities of the mind. (ISk, S.) And jjU-it 
*^^, (S,?:,) or (^^1, (Msb,) He had the 
thing to himself, with none to share with him in 
it : (S, Msb, ^ :) and the former Bignifies he 
appropriated tlie thing to himself exclusively, (M, 
?i) *f^ i^J^ '** preference to another or others^ 
(M.) Itissaid tna trad.,^'t,^^^T^l£iri3t 
*^ When Ood appropriateth a thing to Himself 
exclusively, then be thou diverted from it so as to 

[Book I. 

forget it. (M.) And one sayB, O^JU^ ^1 ji^i, 
(and C-^, TA,) [Ood took suck a one to Him- 
self,] when a person has died and it is hoped that 
he is forgiTcn. (8, M, A, 1^.) 

Jil, (AZ, T, §, A, L, %., &c.,) said by Ya^^oob 
to be the only form known to Aj, (S,) and *j3t, 
which is a form used by poetic licence, (M, L,) 
andtjJl, (M,L,5,) andt_JJl, (M,) and»X 
which is in like manner a sing,, not a pi., (T, L,) 
and t ijjl, (El-Leblee,) and t J^j^ (5,) xhe 
diverged wavy marks, streaks, or grain, of a 
sword} Byn. Jj^ ; (As,T,l^,M, A, L,?: ;) and 
JIjLJ; andi^l^i; (AZ,T;) and its lustre,OT 
glitter : (M, L :) pi. [of the firet] JjJl : (T, M, L, 
50 the pi. of yl is Jjl. (El-Lehlee.) Khuffif 
Ibn-Nudbeh Es.Sulamee says, [describing swords,] 

^ jjA^ i;lii LiUA. 

[Tke furbishers polished them, and freed tkem 
from impurities, making them light : each of them 
preserving itself from the evil eye by means of its 
lustre] ; i. e., each of them opposes to thee its 
^ji : (^, L ;■) ^jCi is a contraction of ^y£i j and 
the meaning is, when a person looks at them, 
their bright rays meet his eye, so that he cannot 
continue to look at them. (L.) " 


jfi\ The scar of a mound, remaining wlten the 
latter has healed; (As, Sh, T, §, M, If ;) as also 
♦Jit (S, K) and ♦ jit : (Sh, T :) pi. JuT, though 
properly jUl, with kesr to the I ; [but why this is 
said, I do not see ; forjlil is a regular pi. of all 
the three forms of die sing.;] and j^l maybe 

correctly used as a pi. (Sh,T,L.) A mark 

made with a hot iron upon the inner [i. e. under] 
part of a camel's foot, by which to trace his foot~ 
prints: QI,1S.:) pi. Jyt (M.) [See also sjfl.] 
•^ Lustre, or brightness, of the fiice ; aa also 
♦jjt. (M,Ij:.) See jiT^See also jit. 

jj\: see jil, in three placesi^andjjti^and 
see jit, in two places. ^ AIeo, (S,M,5,) and 
♦ji^l, (M,5,)but the latter is disallowed by more 
than one authority, (TA,) What is tertned the 
iJio-^iq-y.] of clarified butter: (S,M,¥.:)or, 
as some say, the milk when the clarified butter 
has become separated from it. (M.) [See also 

^1 A remain, or relic, of a thing ; (M, Mjb, 5>) 
us of a house ; as also ♦ ijlit : (M|b:) a trace 
remaining of a thing ; and of the stroke, or blow, 
of a aword : (S :) see also jA : a sign, mark, or 
trace ; opposed to the j>^, or thing itself: (TA;) 
a footstep, vestige, or track ; a footprint ; the 
impression, or mark, made by the foot cf a man 
[ifc] upon the ground; as also t jjt : and an 
impress, or impression, of anything: (El-Wd'ee:) 
pi. jliT (M, Msb, If) and Jy'l. (M,^.) [The 
sing, is also frequently used in a pi. sense : and 
the former of these pis. b often used to signify 
Remains, or monuments, or memorials, of anti- 

Book I.] 

quity, or of any past time.] It is said in a prov., 
^>e^ jLn^ \jj\ ^yJD^t *>) J will not seek a trace^ or 
vestiffe, [or, as we ratlier say in English, a shadow^] 
after suffering a reality j or substancey to escape 

me : or, as some relate it, ^>.lllvl ^ seek not tkou. 

(Har pp. 120 and 174.) And one says, 6^\ ^t iio3 

[May Ood cut short his footsteps'] : meaning 
may Ood render him crippled : for when one is 

crippled, his footsteps cease. (TA.) And ^J^ 

•hI JjliA:! ^y and ^pt, Such a one^ if asked, will 
not tell thee truly whence he comes : (M in art. 
^juo :) a prov. said of a liar. (TA.) And 

^>., (S, M,» K,) and ci^., (El-Wd'ee, Msb,) 

djjl ^, and t d^t ^, (T, S, M, Mf b, ?:,) the former 
of which is said by more than one to be the more 
chaste, (TA,) [but the latter seems to be the 

more common,] and »jj\ f^^j and ▼^pt yJ^j 
(El-Wd'ee, Msb,) I went out, (S, &c.,) and / 
came, (El-Wd'ee, Msb,) after him : (M, A, ¥. :) 
or at his heel: (Expos, of the F§ :) or following 
near upon Am, or hard upon him, or near 
qfier him, or following him nearly : (Msb :) as 
though treading in his footsteps. (El-Wd'ee.) And 

C>«1^' ^i jj\ : see ^1, (1^.)... jin impress or 
impression, a mark, stamp, cliaracter, or ^race, 
in a Jig. sense; an effect. (The Lexicons passim.) 

You say, ^>«.». Jjt d:^U (Jp C/jpon Au camels, 
OP </i«c^, or goats, is an impress of a good state, or 
condition; of fatness, and of good tending; like 

1^1. (TA in art. ^.) And ^^>^1 v>^ A?t 


«)U Verily lie has the impress of a good state, or 
condition, in his camels, or sheep, or //oaf jt ; like 
^^St |>i*rf^, and (.^t. (TA ubi suprk.) And 

\J£»jj\ A^JL^ Jt40, or tY, hears the murk, stamp, 
character, or trace, of such a thing. (The Lexi- 
cons passim.) .... [The pi.] jUt also signifies Signs, 
or marks, set up to show the way. (SI.) ... Also 

• *f fx X 

the sing., t. q. jj\, q. y. (M, L.) ... Also t. q. j^ 
{both of which words are generally held to be 
syn., as meaning A tradition, or narration relating 
or describing a saying or an action ^c, of Mo- 
hammad] : (M, 1^:) or, accord, to some, the former 
ngnifies what is related as received from [one or 
more of] the Companions of Mohammad ; (TA ;) 
bat it may also be applied to a saying of the 
Prophet; (Kull p. 152;) and the latter, what is 
from Mohammad himself; (TA ;) or from another; 
or from him or another : (Kull p. 152 :) or the 

former signifies i. q. 2Uw [a practice or saying, or 
the practices and sayings collectively, of Mo- 
kammad, or any other person who is an authority 
t» matters of religion, namely, any prophet, or a 
Companian of Mohammad, as lianded down by 

tradition] : (8, A :) pi. j\S\. (S, M.) You say, 

i^ ^J • X X 

^3^ ^ eSjj^^ [I found it in the traditions of 
ike practices and sayings of the Prophet ; kc] : 

^ XXX 9 • X J 

and j\j*)\ Hil.Q^ !>• ^y^ [Such a one is of those 

^ X X * 

idko hear in their memories, knowing by heart, the 
iraditkms of the practices and sayings of the 
Prophet; &c.]. (A.) ... A man's origin; as in 

fhe sayingB, j3\ ^jj\ si ^jju'U It is not known 

mhere was his origin ; and jjI U dJ ^j Js2 to It 
i» n^t kmown what is his origin. (Ks, L^, M.)... 

The term, or period, of life: so called because it 
follows life : (Mf b, TA :) or from the same word 
as signifying the print of one's foot upon the 
ground; because when one dies, his footprints 
cease to be seen. (TA.)_[For the former of 

these two reasons,] ^jUt in the Kur xxxvi. 11 
means The rewards and punishments of tlieir good 

and evil lives. (M, L.) b^jUI is also a pi. of jU, 
q. V. ; formed by transposition from jbl. (Ya§i- 
^oob, and M in art. jU.) 

jj\ A man who chooses for himself [in preference 
to his companions] (ISk, S, M, JgL) good things, 
(K,) in partition, (M, TA,) or good actions, and 

qualities of the mind; (ISk, S;) as also ^ jj\. 
(M, ^.) 

jj\ : see^t. 


jj\i see^j), m two places :... and see^t 

• xOe «x xf 

ljj\ : see SjUt. 

• xjfi fx xj 

cjj\: see Sj{j\.^A mark which is made by 
tlie Arabs of tlie desert upon the inner [i. e. under] 

part of a cameVsfoot ; as also ▼ j^^U, and, accord. 

^ • JOJ >xx»i J Ofx 

to some, " jyp ; whence one says, d3jj\ C^Sj, 
and t dj^yp, I saw the place of his footsteps upon 
tlie ground : (M :) or the abrasion of tlie inner 
[i. e. under] part of a cameVs foot with the in- 

XX • J»i 

strument of iron called SjiJU and jyp, in order 
that his footprints may be traced. (§,.) [See 

also ^t.]...See also ^). ... And see spu.... 

4 X o2 9 J X 

Preference: (A.) You say, cjj\ ^jJs> di He 

has a preference in my estimation. (A.) And 

f x« x»i J ^J 

jt^^\ jOft spi ^i ^ He lias a preference in the 
estimation of the prince, or commander. (A.) 
And oil Sl^ l^\ y> o^, (TA,) or 1 1^\^ (T,) 
Such a one is a favourite with such a one. (T, TA.) 
See also ly\, in two places. ——^1 i<> lS\ : see 
jj\. ^ Dearth, scarcity, drought, or sterility. 


« » X 

» X 

(^J^ [in the CK ^j^],) and an unpleasant 
state or condition. (M, ^.) 

cjj\ : see S^t. ...U Spt : see ^t. 

• xxt Vti.^ 

cjj\: see Sjbl. .— A subst [signifying The 
appropriation of a thing or things to oneself ex- 
clusively : the liaving a thing to oneself, with none 

9 A X ^{x 9 

to share with him in it :] from s^c^V ^Uwl. (S, 

M.) And, as also ^i^\ and tjpt and "^^^1, The 
choice for oneself [in preference to his companions] 
of good things, (M,* K,* TA,) in partition; (M, 
TA ;) the choice and preference of the best of 
things, and taking it, or tkem,for oneself: (TA :) 

• xi 

the pi. of the second is jj\. (TA.) You say, 
jiit :^ iiif, and t spt ^, [&c.,] JTe took it 
without a choice and preference of the best of the 
things, and the taking tlie best for himself (T, TA.) 
And a poet says, 

t XX 9^ ■» t X Jx J OJ^ 

♦ ^t ^ ^ Ja ^> l| A) cJLii * 

» > XX x« 

X W» X 

X ^^ X 

[w4.m£ / «atrf /o Am, O wolf, hast thou a desire 
for a brother who will share without choice of 


tlie best things for himself in preference to tliee, 
and witliout niggardness?]. (M, TA.) See also 

x»2 Oxxf 

^jj\ : see cjj\j in two places. 

j(j\ : see jjt.i.. [7%a^ WtaAces a large footjyrint, 
or /Ad KA«.] You say, i^\ ajt> jl beast that makes 
a large footprint upon tlie ground with its hoof, 
(AZ, S, M, T^,) or with its soft foot, such as that 
of the camel. ( AZ, S. ) ... A man possessing power 

and authority; honoured: pi. i\jj\\ fem. sLit. 

^1 • xj '^ 

(M.)...^j^t ^y^ SwcA a on€ m my particular 
friend : (S, %i) or is the person whom I prefer. 

# • xj 

x> x» 

(A.) ,j^ ju^ ^1 ,j^ SmcA a one is a favourite 

* " " * X 

wnVA «/cA a cm«. (T.)_^l iC^ IsT, and J*! 

# X ^"^ X X •^i^ 

>e5« L^>, &c.: see)3T._Je5t j^ ^^ [^ /Atn^ 
r^ry o^un^^an/, copious, or nt/merou^] : j^t is here 
an imitative sequent, (S, ]§!,*) like j-JtJ. (S.)bbi 
/ti>'>>t [o aidrjp, Tlie etlier ;] tlie ninth, which is the 


greatest, sphere, which rules over [all] the other 
spheres : [said to be] so called because it affects 
the others (o*Ifc ^ 3ji). (MF.) [It is also 

XX ^^X X 

called t^^JlLfjt ilU, and J^jiot iUi; and is said 

X X 

•••> ^xx 

to be next above that called ^jQ\ %£Ui.] 

•^ <t 



5jUt : see ^1. You say, lsM\ ^ J^NI 

(S, M,*) or ^0^ o^ ^IJI ^, (A,) 2%« cam^/jp 
acquired fat, upon, or a/ier, remains of fat. (S, 

M,» A.) And M J3 J;^« ^5^ ^^^^ ^e becmne 
angry the more, liaving been angi*y before that. 

(Lh, M.) And ^^ ^jut ^ ^^ l5^^ 
SwcA a one angered me wlien anger yet remained 
in me. (A.) And^ j>« Ijl3l, and t sjjf, (T, S, 

M, ?,) and 1 5j5l, (M, K,) or t |j5t, (T,) the firet 
of which is the most approved, (M,) and is [ori- 

X X 'i^ 

ginally] an inf. n., [see ^t^j>m^\ j^\^ (T,) signify 

A remain, or reZ/c, of knowledge, (Zj,T,8,M,]^{l, 
and Jel in xlvi. 3 of tlie Kur,) transmitted, or 
handed down, (^, Jel,) from the former genera^ 
tions : (Jel :) or wliat is transmitted, or handed 
down, of knowledge : (Zj, M :) or somewluit trans- 
mitted from the writings of the form^er generor 
tions : (TA :) by the knowledge spoken of [in the 
I^ur ubi supr^] is meant that of writing, which 
was given to certain of the prophets. (I 'Ab.) 


jj\ One who relates, or recites, a tradition, 


narrative, or story, or traditions, Sec, as received, 
or heard, from another, or others; a narrator 
thereof. (T, S,* L.) The saying of 'Omar, on his 
being forbidden by Mohammad to swear by his 
father, \S\ ^\ tU»tS ^ cijU. U, means I did 

X -^ ^ X XX 

not swear by him uttering (the oath) as proceeding 
in the first instance from myself, nor repeating 
(it) as heard from anotlier particular person. 

(A'Obeyd,T,S,TA.)_U \^J \Sh Jilf, (lA^ir, 
T,S,K,) and I^T widiout U, (lA^w, T,) and 

^ Jt^^ ^^J^y (?;¥^>) Diean I will do this the first 
of every thing. (S, El.*) And in like manner, 
after diji [I met him, or it], one says, U }ji\, [and 

X " 

♦^' C5i >^M "»d *^» V5i J3'» (M,K,) and 


^jL^ OtJ JJT, (M,) or CHJ^ "i'li, (?,) and 
CH J^ L^3; (lA^, M, B:,) and t^| ^}^ ij^\, and 
^ >83' j^> t spl, (^,) and t ,;4;^t ,^3 >T, (M, as 

from Lh,) or t O"^* V^i '^ J^^y (^>) *^^ 
♦ 0^« C^3 ♦i^l , and V2 t sjSi : (Lh, M, 1^ :) op, 

aB some say, ^ ^"^t signifies the daybreak, or 

dawn; and "^j-jSt 3 J, tA^ ^tm« thereof, (M,TA.) 

Fr says that l^ t>T lil^ t j^l, and t^t j^> IjT, 

and ^ t-H? iCi jtj\f signify Begin thou with this 

^r«^ of evert/ thing. (TA.) One says also, dJLsit, 

d ijiT, (T, M, TA,) and U t |)3i (M,TA,') 

meaning 2>o tAcm it [at least], if thou do nothing 
else : (T, M, TA :) or, as some say, do thou it in 
preference to another thing, or to other things : 
U being redundant, but [in this case] not to be 
omitted, because [it is a coiToborative, and] the 
meaning of the phrase is, do thou it by choice, or 
preference, and with care. (M, TA.) Mbr says 

that the phrase U \jj\ \jA J^ means Take thou 

this in preference; i. e., I give it thee in pre- 
ference ; as though one desired to take, of another, 
one thing, and had another thing offered to him 
for sale : and U is here redundant. (T, TA.) 

jyj\j : see 6jj\. 

jyp : see ojj\, in two places : and see 5jJL2U, in 

two places. 

SPU (T, S, M, ^, &c.) and I^U (S, M, ?) and 

▼ Sjj\ (M, K) A generous quality or action ; (AZ, 
S ;) so called because related, or handed down, by 
generation from generation : (S :) or a generous 
quality that is inherited by generation from gene- 
ration: (M,K:) a generous quality, or action, 
7'elated, or handed down by tradition from one's 
ancestors : (A :) a cause of glorying : (AZ :) and 

precedence in ^ ^ [or grounds of pretension to 

respect, &c.] : pi. of the first and second, jjU. 
(AZ, T.) 

oj^Ju and ^jyyi An iron instrument (S, M, 5) 
with which the bottom of a cameVsfoot is marked, 
in order that his footprints upon the ground may 
be known : (M :) or, with which the inner [i. e. 
under] part of a cameVs foot is scraped, in order 
that his footprints may be traced: (S,K:) or 
^ jiyp has a difierent meaning, explained above, 

voce cjj\. (M.) The cj^ of a horse's saddle is 
without hemz. (S.) 

jy U A camel having a mark made upon the 
bottom of his foot with the iron instrument called 
S|mJU, in order that his footprints upon the ground 
may be known : (T :) or having the inner [i. e. 
under] part of his foot scraped with that instru- 
ment, in order that his footprints may be traced, 
(S.)... A sword having in its ^>Io [or broad side, 
or the middle of the broad side, of the blade,] 
diversified wavy marks, streaks, or grain, or lustre 
or glitter : (M, 5 • [in some copies of the latter 

of which, instead of^l, I find^t :]) or having its 
^jZo of female, or soft, iron, and its edge of male 
iron, or steel: (K^:) or tliat is said to be of the 
fabric of the jinn, or genii ; (S, M, '^ ;*) and not 

ifom jj'iS, as signifying jJ^t : (S, M :) so says Af : 

^1 — uUl 

(S :) [ISd says,] jyU is in my opinion a pass, 
part. n. that has no verb : (M :) or it signifies an 
ancient sword, which has passed by inheritance 
from great man to great man, (A.) .... A tradi- 
tion, narrative, or story, handed down from one to 
another, from generation to generation. (T, S, A.) 


^ • 

1. jJJUt J3l : see 2.^^1, aor. - , (T, S, M, 

K,) inf. n. JS\, (T, M,) He followed him. (Ks, 
T,S, M, 50— •-'^^ i^rore away, or drove away 

j^^ ^ 

and pursued closely, or hunted, him ; syn. «>jJ9. 
(Ibn-'Abbdd, '^.)mm^He sought, or sought after, 
or pursued after, him, or it : in which sense the 
aor. is - , (AA, 1^,) and - also. (So in some copies 
of the ^j:.) 

' » 

• A?' 

2. jjOJI UJI, (T,?,M,]B:,) inf.n.u^O, (S,?,) 
Se put the cooking-pot upon the ^Ot [pi. of 
1^1, q. v.] ; (T,*|, M,* ?: ;) as also t \^{ 
(M, TA,) inf. n. J?l ; (TA ;) or t \^\^ (so in 
some copies of the ^ in art. ^Ju,) inf. n. wiU>t ; 
(TA in that art. ;) the first of which is a dial. var. 
of UUi, inf. n. 1^ ; (S ;) and t UU^, whence 
5UJ>jji. (M.) 

4 : see 2. 

* » 


5. jJ^'l C>Ju\3 The cooking-pot was put upon 

the ^\iU (TA.) BB l^\j They surrounded him, 
or it : (S, K :*) they became around him, or it, 

like the 4^\ [or rather like the ^ISl] : (M :) 
they collected themselves together around him, or 

it. (A,TA.)_oXJIUi?U,(T,S,]B:,)oro^V, 
(M,) He (a man, S) kept to tlie place; (T,5;) 
remained in it; (M;) did not quit it. (AZ, T, 
S, M.)...aAjU also signifies He followed after 
him, and pressed or importuned him, and ceased 
not to incite him. (T, 1^.) In my opinion, [says 

. jA 9i 

Az,] this is not m any way derived from ^^Jb*^) ; 
but from J^-j^l Ooul, meaning " I followed the 
man." (T.) _ And ^^1 ^ t^JO They aided, 
or assisted, one another to do, or accomplish, the 
thing, or affair, (M, L.) 



Q. Q. 1. jjJi3t ^t : see 2. [But accord, to 

Az, in the T, (J^^^y as aor. of ^Jl>\, is jJu» re- 
duced to its original form ; and the like is said in 
the S and M in art. y^. If this be the case, 

SUij^, q. v., may be 5U1« reduced in the same 
manner, i. e., to its original form.] 

\Ji\ [probably a mistake for ▼ \Ji\] Continuing, 

«» * ^ 

permanent, constant, firm, or established: (J^, 
TA :) so in the Moheet. (TA.) _ Also, (KL, and 
so in a copy of the S,) or t oul, [agreeably with 

analogy, and therefore more probably the correct 
form,] (so in other copies of the S and in the T,) 
Following. (Ks,T,S,E:.) 

iJu\ and 2ifJu\ [the former of which is the more 
common, and this only I find in copies of the T,] 
The stone [which is one of the three] whereon the 
cooking-pot is placed : (A'Obeyd, M, K :) it is, 
with the Arabs, a stone like the head of a man : (T :) 

the pi. is ^0l and wil3l 5 (T, §, [in which latter 

[Book !• 

it is written "diflFerently in difierent copies, with 

the article prefixed, l^^h^ and y^^^\j but in 
both manners in art ^^,] M, K;) the latter 
being allowable ; (T ;) or, accord, to Akh, the 
latter only is used by the Arabs ; (M ;) applied 
to the three stones mentioned above : (TA in art. 
fJui ; &c. :) upon these the cooking-pot is set up ; 
but what is of iron, having three legs, is not 
called a^t, but 4^^ ; (T ;) [and this is what 

is meant by juj^ ^j^ i^\ in art. /dU m tbe K;] 
i. e. an iron trivet upon which a cooking-pot is 

set up. (TA in art. v^moj.) a^JuI may be of the 
measure IjJLxi [from iJut], and it may be of 

the measure ll^jK^t [from ^^; in either case 

originaUy Lyit]. (A,L.) ^^O^t ibU sipiifies 

The part, not detaehed, of a mountain ; by the 
side of which, two pieces are put [for the cooking- 
pot to be set thereon]. (A'Obeyd, T, K.) And 
hence the saying, (A'Obeyd, T,) ilJU^ ibT iuj 

^U^^l (A'Obeyd, T, K) May God smite him 

with the mountain ; meaning, | with a calamity ; 
(Th, TA, Bl in art. ^Jj ;) with a calamity like the 
mountain [in greatness] ; (Th, M ;) for when they 
do not find the third of the ^y^^ they rest the 
cooking-pot [partly] upon the mountain : (M, K, 
in art. ^Ju :) or, with difficulties, or troubles, or 
calamities : (As, T :) or, with all evil ; evils being 

likened to one i^\ after another, and the third 
being the last: (T, K :) so says Aboo-Sa'eed : 
(T :) or, with the last of evil ; and the last of 
everything hateful : (AO in Har p. 84 :) or, 
with a great calamity. (Har ib.) One says also, 

j-ilj^)! 2LJU O^y meaning t Sueh a one is the 
heaviest, most burdensome, or most troublesome, of 
the people. (Har ubi suprit.) .^ [Hence also,] 
j-iO'>>! is a name applied to f certain stars [accord, 
to Ideler, as mentioned by Freytag in his Lex., 
the stars <t and r and v Draeofiis] over against 
the head ofthejjS ; which is the name of certain 
stars disposed in a round form. (AH4t, K.) 
[Also] a name given by the vulgar to t [The three 

chief stars in the constellation called] ^}\^JJ\ [i.e. 
Lyra]. (Kzw.)-_The sing., (K,) i. e. each of 
the two forms thereof, but written in the copies of 
the S with damm [only], (TA in art. ^^,) or 
[only] the latter, with kesr, (M, and so in the IJL 
in art. iJu,) also signifies f A number, (M,) or 
a great number, (]B[, and so in the S in art. ^^,) 
and a company, or congregated body, of men : 

(M,K:) pi. as above. (M.) You say, a^^ 
oo^tj 2^\ t [TViey are against him one band]. 

(TA.) And *U1*. i«iil O^ tr* O- C-ji^ 
There refmained of the sons of such a one a great 
number. (S in art. ^y^.) 

• .•» 

• .t 

ftil : see out, in two places. 

ijuyo t Short, broad, plump, and fleshy. (K.) 
mm^ And, with 5, | A woman whose husbatid has 
two wives beside her ; she being the third of them: 
they being likened to the ^Ul of the cooking- 
pot (M.) [See also SUlo, in art. ^^yu.) 

SUb^ jj3 A cooking-pot put upon the ^\j] 

Book I.] 

[pi. of 2LfJu\, q. y.]. (M, and 1^ in art ^Ju : in 
some copies of the latter, 5Uuy«.) [See Q. Q. 1.] 



Jicit and jJJ\ i. q. 1\^ [A fruit-stalk of 

the raceme of a palm-treey upon which are the 

dates] ; like JUu^ and JJS^ : the hemzeh in 

each is a substitute for e ; but by J [and others] 

it is held to be augmentative, and the words are 
mentioned in art. JSii, q. y. (TA.) 


1. JbJl, aor. J , inf. n. Jyl, It (anything, M) 
had J or cavM to havcj root, or a foundation ; or it 
fvas, or became, firm, or established, and firmly 

rooted or founded ; as also t JJU. (M, ^.) ». 
Also, inf. n. as above, It (dominion) was, or 
became, great ; (TA ;) and so t the latter verb. 

(M, Ig:.*) And Jil, inf. n. aJlJl, said of high 

rank, or nobility, It was, or became, old, of 
ancient origin, or of long standing, (TA.)^See 

also 5. 


2. AJLJl, (M, ?,) inf. n. J^U, (S, ?,) He made 
it (his wealth, or property, M, K, and so applied 
it is tropical, TA) to have root, or a foundation ; 
or to become firm, or established, Bud firmly rooted 

or founded ; syn. aJU^I. (S,* M, K.) _ He 
(Qod, T, M,* TA) made it (a man's dominion, 
T, M, 1^) to be, or become, firm, firmly established, 
stable, or permanent : (T :) or great : (M, ^ :) 
and he (a man) made it (a thing) lasting, or p^r- 
manent. (TA.) lA^r cites the following verse, 

[app. meaning Kaqb would oblige me to make- 
payment, or the like, (as though establishing 
against me the duty of doing so,) but my Lord 
changes their actions,] explaining it by saying, 
i. e. ^y-^>l3 ; but (ISd says,) I know not how 
this is. (M.)_ ^(p (God, M) made it (a man's 
wealth, or property,) to increase; or put it into 

a good, or right, state, or condition ; syn. «ls»j. 
(M, JqL.)..^U.ji^ 4;JLJIt I multiplied him [meaning 

his party] by m^n, (TA.) O^jJI a^ cJSi 

/ collected against him the debts. (TA.)_ 

aXaI 1^1 ^<g clad his family with the most excel- 
lent of clothing : (M :) or he clad them (M, K) 
with the most excellent of clothing, (E.,) and did 
good to them, or acted well towards them. (M, 1^.) 
mmjj\, [used intransitively,] (M,]^,) inf. n. as 
above, (TA,) He (a man, ]gL) became abundant 
in his wealth, or property. (M, 50 

6. ^\j : see 1, in two places. ... Also It (a 
thing) became collected together. (K^.)^He 
took for himself, got, or acquired, what is termed 

2bt, i. e. Zygf^ [meaning victuals, or provision] ; 

(M,5;) aiLC jij [rt/ter w?awO. (M.) He 

Uohfor himself, got, or acquired, a source, stock, 

^Jund, ( J-©t,) of wealth, or property. (S, TA.) 

•.And "^ Jjb JJ« collected, or gained, or 
«9iitre(2, iwatt4, or property, (M, K,) anc? ^ao/t 

t< ybr himself : (M :) [said in the TA to be 
tropical :] or he collected wealth, or property, and 
took it for himself, or got it, or acquired it, as a 

source, stock, or fund : (Mgh :) and "^U ^ ^jil, 

inf. n. J^^l, signifies the same as aJUU. (TA.)». 

wH^< 6>i^ >U 3f%^y toAe JUI, i. e. wealth, or 
property, from men. (TA.)^^\fy JJU JE^ie dug 
a weU (T, S, M, T^)for himself (T, TA.) 

Jil A AiW o/* trees ; (S, ]§l ;) a species of the 

^j^ [or tamarisk ; so applied in the present day; 
termed by Forsk&l (Flora Aeg. Arab. p. Ixiv.) 
tamarix orientalis] ; (S, TA ;) or a kind of trees, 
(T, M,) or a certain tree, (Mgh,) resembling the 

»U|^, (T, M, Mgh,) except that it is of a better 
kind, (T,) or except that it is larger, and better 
in its wood, (M,) of which are made yellow and 

excellent \vessels of the kind called] 9>tjJt, and of 

which was made the Propkefs pulpit ; it has thick 
stems, of which are made doors and other things; 

and its leaves are of the kind called J^, like tliose of 

the Sij^ : (TA :) AHn says, on the authority of 

Aboo-Ziyid, that it is of tlie kind termed «Uop, 

tall, and long in its wood, which is excellent, and 
is carried to the towns and villages, and the clay 
houses of these are built upon it ; [app. meaning 
that its wood is used in forming the foundations 
of the walk ;] its leaves are of the kind called 

^jj^, [syn. with Jm^,] long and slender, and it 
has no thorns ; of it are made [bowls of the kinds 

called] el^ and ^U*. ; and it has a red fruit, 

like a knot of a rope : (M :) or a kind of large 

trees, having no fruit : (Msb :) or t. q. p\ij^, 
having no fruit : (Bd in xxxiv. 15 :) n. un. with 
(S, M, Msb, K ;) explained in the A as the 
[or gumracaxiia tree] : or a tall, straight 
[tree such as is termed] 4aUop, of which are made 

the like of^\S^\: (TA :) the pi. [of J3t] is jj\ 
(M, ?) and [of ii5l] C>^i (S, ?, TA (in the 


- > X 



C?: O^l].) [See also iUl, below.] ■b^'^ 


JU Jj\ Such a one is a collector of wealth, or 
property. (Ibn-'Abbdd.) 

aJut n. un. of Jj\, q. v^ (S, M, &c.) Because 
of the tallness of the tree tlius called, and its erects 
ness, and beauty of proportion, the poets liken 
thereto a woman of perfect stature and erect form. 
(M.) ». Metaphorically, (Msb,) t Honour, or 
reputation ; or grounds of pretension to respect 
on account of the honourable deeds or qualities of 
one*s ancestors, &c. ; syn. i^j^ ; (Msb, TA ;) 

or ^ m.. (S, O, EI, TA.) So in the saying, 

Uil3) J^>^ J^, or oiJ^, (S accord, to different 
copies, and so in the O, but in the copies of the 
K, incorrectly, iH5| ^ ^i^, TA,) J Such a 
one speaks evil of, (S, O,) or impugns, or speaks 
against, 05^,) our honour, or reputation, &c. 

(S, O, 5.) And i^iJl C^ J He detracted from 
his reputation ; spoke against him ; impugned his 
character; censured him; blamed him. (A, Msb.) 

And a3^I c,nL,6 ij*^ J [Such a one's grounds 
of pretension to respect, &c., are impugned], 

(TA.) And 41X31 C^iJ^ ^ ^ X He has not any 
vice, or fault, nor any imperfection, or defect. 
(Msb.) «.» The root, foundation, origin, source. 

f •( 

stock, or tke like, syn. J^l ; (T, S, M, Mgh, 1^ ;) 
of a thing, and of a man; (T;) of anything; (M;) 
[a source, stock, or fund,] of wealth, or property: 

(Mgh, TA :) pi. JlJl. 05:.) So in the saying, 

JU ^t dJ [He has a source, or stock, or Jund, 

^ ^^ 

of wealth, or property]. (T A.) ,^^ Victuals, or 

provision ; syn. SjfgA. (M, B[.) ... The goods, 

furniture, and utensils, of a house or tent; as 

also ▼ aUI. (M, '^.*) mm^ Apparatus, accoutre* 
ments, implements, or the like. (Ibn-'Abbdd, ]^.) 

So in the saying, fUl)t ijJt l)jjJ [I took the 

apparatus, &c., of, i. e. for, the fm,iUer'\. (Ibn- 

2Jbt : see dSj\, near the end. 

J13I, (T, S, M,) with fetrh, (S,) or JlJl, with 
damm, (Mgh,) or both, (K,) J Olory, honour, 
dignity, nobility, or high rank. (A A, T, S, M, 

Mgh, ?.) You say, Jlil 'J\£9 Jl5t 'si iHe kas 
glory, or honour, &c., a* though jt were the 
mountain called Othdl, (TA.) [But the next 
signification seems to be here more appropriate.] 
— t Wealth, or property. (Mgh.) 

Jjjjl A place of growth of trees of the kind called 

j)\j\ [perhaps a mistranscription for J«it] : men- 
tioned by Th, from I A^. (T.) bb Abundant, and 

luxuriant, or long, hair. (TA .) ... See also Jj||^, 
in two places. 

JJI : see Ji^. 


Jjj-o Having root, or a foundation ; or firm, 
or established, nnd firmly rooted or founded: (S:) 
or having a permanent source, or firm foundation : 
(Munjid of Kr :) or of old foundation or origin : 
or collected together so as to [become stable or 
permanent, or] have root or a^foundation : (T :) 
or old ; of ancient origin ; or of long standing : 
(M, TA :) or permanent : (lA^ :) J applied to 
glory, honour, dignity, nobility, or high rank; 

(T, Kr, S, M, TA ;) and so t J^( : (8, TA:) and 
to wealth, or property: (Kr, S:) and to anything; 
(T, M ;) and BO t A5JI, and ♦ J5t£^ : (M :) and t JjT, 
also, has the first of these significations, applied to 
dominion. (T.) ^^ Prepared, disjiosed, arranged, 
or put into a right or good state, (AA.) 

1 *l •• 

J^U« : see J^>«. 

. Also Taking for oneself, 
getting, or acquiring, a source, stock, or fund, 

(^^1,) of wealth, or property : (S, TA :) or col- 
lecting wealth, or property, (T, Mgh,) and taking 
it for oneself, or getting it, or acquiring it, as a 
source, stock, or fund, (Mgh.) So in a trad, on 
the subject of a charge respecting the orphan. 


•^U j5ui ^ aJU j>« ji»b [He may eat of his 

wealth, or property, not taking for himself a 
source, stock, or Jund, of wealth, or property : or, 
not collecting &c.] : (T, S, Mgh :*) or, accord, to 
Bkh, 710^ acquiring abundance of wealth : but 
the former explanation is more correct lexically. 


1. J^\, (Lth, S, M, &c.,) aor. ^ , (Lth, M, Msb, 
1^,) inf. n.^l , (S, ]^,) or^l, the former being a 
simple subst, (Msb,) and J^U, (8,1^,) He feU 



into what is termed j^\ [i, e. a sin, or crime, &c,] ; 
(Lth, T, S, M, Msb,* ]^* ;) [he sinned; committed 
a sin, or critne;] he did what was unlawful: 

(M,* ?! :) and ^j9(J^ signifies the same as j^\ : 

(K:) it may be either an inf. n. of t ^1, which 

[says ISd] I have not heard^ or^ as Sb holds it to 

be, a simple subst. like C^^^ : (M :) and is said 

' • ^ 

to be used in the sense of ^t in the ]^ur Hi. 23 

[and Ivi. 24]. (TA.) [It should be added also, 

that t JlJ^, like vt jii, ifl syn. with ^U and 

jfiS ; and, like^^U, may be an inf. n. of ^^t, or 

a simple subst. : see an ex. voce ^j^*] In the 
dial, of some of the Arabs, the first letter of the 
aor. is with kesr, as inj^Xsu and^^JLju ; and as the 
hemzeh in^t is with kesr/the radical hemzeh [in 
the aor.] is changed into ^; so that they say 

ljland^[for^Tand^d] (TA.) In the saying, 


^ »^ 

^ OJ 0^ 

the meaning is, [Shouldst thou say, thou wouldst 
not sin, or do wrong, in so saying,] There is not, 
among her people, any one who excels her [in 
grounds of pretension to respect, and in impress, or 
character, of beauty], (M.)BSBt«i£» ^ aDI a^S, 
aor. i (S,K) and •; , (S,) or ^, {TS.,)h\ii there 
is no other authority than the El for this last, nor 
is tliere any reason for it, as the medial radical 
letter is not faucial, nor is die final, and in tlie 
I^titdf el-Azdhir the aor. is said to be -^ and - , 
(MF, TA,) [Ood rechoned him to have sinned, 
or committed a crime or the like, in such a thing ; 
or] Ood reckoned such a thing against him as an 

Ju (S,K:) or i^l^aor. - (Fr, T, M, Msb) 
and i , (Msb,) inf. n. Jj! (Fr, T, M^b) and Jo1 
(Fr,T,TA) andJUl, (Fr,TA,) He (God) re- 
quited him, (Fr, T,) or punished him, (M,) for 
what is termed jji\ [i. e. sin, or anme, &c.] : (Fr, 
T, M :) [see also jM\ below :] or he (a man) 
pronounced him to he j^\ [i. e. a sinner, or tJie 

KAtf] : (Msb :) [or] t i^t'^ aor. *^y^, has this last 
signification, said of God ; and also signifies 
Ke found him to be so. (T.)«— You say also, 

J^t ijUl c43l, aor. - , inf. n. ^f, The she- 
camel was slow. (M.) 

2. kS\, (S,Msb,K,) inf. n. ^13, (Msb,?,) 
He said to him cu^jt [Thou hast fallen into a sin, 
or crime, kc; hast sinned, &c.]. (S, M§b,IJl.) 
B^ See also 1, first and second sentences. 

4. A#jt He made him,' or caused him, to fall 
into what is termedj^S [i. e. a sin, or crim^, &c.], 
(Zj, 8, M, K,) or what is termed ^J. (Mf b.)_ 
See also 1, last sentence but one. 

6. ^U He abstained from what is termed j^\ 
[i. e. m, or crime, &C.]; (T, 8, M, Msb,?;) 
like 9'j^ meaning " he preserved himself from 
what is termed ^jL :" (Msb :) or he did a work, 
or deed, whereby he escaped from wliat is termed 
,^1 : (TA :) and he repented of what is so termed, 
(M, ]^,) and begged forgiveness of it; bb though 
he removed the ^\ itself by repentance and by 

begging forgiveness ; or sought to do so by those 
two means. (M.) You say also, t«i£» ^^ ^0 
He abstained from such a thing a^ a sin, or 
crime; syn. k^^SmJi, q. v. (8,1^, in art. ^m^.) 

j^\ [accord, to some, an inf. n. ; see^t : accord. 

to others, only a simple subst., signifying] A sin, 
a crime, a fault, an offence, or an act of dis- 

obedience, syn. ^3, (8, M, Msb, 181,) for which 

9 0^ 

one deserves punishment; difiering fi*om ^^^ 
inasmuch as this signifies both what is intentional 
and what is unintentional : (Kull :) or [so accord, 
to the M, but in the K " and,"] an unlawful deed : 
(M, K :) or a deed which retards from recompense: 
or, accord, to Fr, what is exclusive of the [punish" 
ment termed] o^ : accord, to £r-Rdghib, it is a 
term of more general import than Oh^^ • C^^ 
^^U [which is originally an inf. n. of ^1] is 
syn. with ^\ ; (T,* Mgh ;) and so, too, is ^jM\, 
(Msb,) or *j»Ul, signifying a deed retarding 

recompense : (TA :) the pi. of ^1 is jM\ : (M :) 

and the pi. of ^^U is ^U. (T.)^ [Sometimes 
it is prefixed to a noun or pronoun denoting its 
object :...and sometimes it means f The punish- 
m£nt of a sin &:c. : see explanations of a passage 

in the Kur v. 32, voce gl^.]-_t Wine: (Aboo- 
Bekr El-Iyddee, T, 8, M, El :) sometimes used in 
this sense; (8;) but tropically; not properly: 
(lAmb :) I think, [says I8d,] because the drinking 
thereof is what is thus termed. (M.) ^ [And for 
a like reason,] t Contention for stakes, or wagerS, 
in a game ofliazard; syn. jUi ; (M, IJl;) which 
is a man's desti*uction of his property. (M.) It 
is said in the ]^Cur [ii. 216, respecting wine and 
the game called j^l], iiUi^ r^^\ W* J^ 
^uU [fiay thou. In them both are great sin and 
means of profit to men] : and Th says, when they 
contended in a game of this kind, and won, they 
gave food and alms, and these were means of 
profit. (M.) 

jftbl : see^).... Also The requital, or recom^ 
pense, of^\ [i. e. sin, or crime, &c.] : (T, 8, M, 
Msb :) so says Zj, (T, M,) and in like manner 
say Kh and 8b : (T :) or jmnishmetit (Yoo, Lth, 
T, M, ]B:) tliereof: (Lth, T, M :) and t JLvjl and 

t^U signify the same ; (M, K ;) the latter like 
jMui. (TA. [In the CK this is written^U.]) 

8o in the ?:ur [xxv. 68], UOl jL [He shall find 
a requital, or recompense, or a punishment, of sin] : 
(T, 8, M :) in my opinion, [says I8d,] the correct 
meaning is, he shall find the punishment ofj^ifs 
[or sins] : but some say, the meaning is that which 
here follows. (M.)—jL valley in Hell. (M,K.) 

[Book I. 

The commission ofjfi\ [nn, or crime, &c.,] much, 
or frequently ; and so ^ 3l^\. (M, 1^.) 

• ^ 


>ut: see^l. 

• .«• 


• ^ 9 9 9 ^ 

jM\ : see^l : _.and>Ut. 

• .•^ 

Jiy 1 : see^l ; and^l. 

jt : see^T. ..» Also A great, or habitual, liar; 

or one who lies much ; and so ▼ j»y I. (1^.) 8o 
in the ?ur ii. 277 : or it there signifies Burdened 
withj^\ [or «n, &c.]. (TA.) In the ^ur xliv. 44, 
it means, accord, to Fr, The unrighteous, or 

sinning ; like ^ jji\ : (T :) or the unbeliever : 
(TA :) or, accord, to Zj, in this instance, (M,) by 
the^t is meant Aboo^ahL (M,^.)hbA1so 

j^\ Falling into what is termed jji\ [i. e. a sin, 
or crime, &c.] ; (8, Msb,* ^jL ;*) [sinning; com- 
mitting a sin, or crime;] doing what is unlawful: 
(5:) and in like manner, (8, Msb, ]^,) but having 

an intensive signification, (Msb,) ^^^1, and 

♦ Ayl (S, M, Msb, K,) and t Jiut : (M, Msb, K : 
[in the CKI, erroneously, without teshdeed :]) the 

pi. of the first of these three is iU^ ; that of the 

second, ^1 ; and that of the third, 0>'^'- (^0 
Seeal8oJeJl._a^T,(§,)and 1>\J\, (S,M,5, 

' ^ 9 ^ * 

[in the C]^, erroneously, oU3).]) A she-camel, 
(8,) and she-camels, slow, or tardy ; (8, M, K ;) 
weary, fatigued, or jaded. (]§L. [In the CK, we 

9 6 J 9 y 9 J ' 

find oU«*« erroneously put for oVeeito.]) Some 
pronounce it with O. (Sgh») [In like manner,] 
^j^\y^ signifies That is slack, or slow, in pace, or 
going; J^\ ^ vJ^ ,^jJf. (Sgh, K. [In Go- 
lius s Lex., as from the K, j^\ w)J^ ^J^t* 
Both are correct, signifying the same.]) 

see 1. 

• ft 

^U : see^^jt , in two places : ...and seeJ»lSt. 

>yU [Reckoned to have sinned, or the like ;] 
having a thing reckoned against him as an jjj\ : 

9 9 p 

(8 :) or requited for what is termed^\. (Fr, T.) 

• .<- 

)J^: see^l. 



^j\ji\ and o^^ • see art ^Ji. 


> 5 

fi t 

1. jUI C^l, (8, A, Msb,) aor. i (8, Msb) and 

- , (M, TA,) [the former contr. to analogy, and 
the latter agreeable therewith, in the case of 

an intrans. verb of this class,] inf. n. m»-I, 

(8, A, Msb, K,) Tlie fire burned, burned up, 
burned brightly, or fiercely, (Msb,) blazed, or 
flamed, or blazed or flamed fiercely ; (S, A, 
Msb, ^ ;) as also t cu^D (8, A, K) and 
t c^^^hJJt [written with the disjunctive alifc^^afc^jt] : 
(S, ^ :) or made a sound by its blazing or flaming. 
(ISd,TA.)_^t, aor. ^ , (S,^, &c.,) contr. to 
analogy, (TA,) and ^ , (Jm, T8, L, EI,) but this 

'it 9 s 

is ^rejected by AA, (MF,) inf. n. ».) (8) and mi^T, 
(TA,) t He (an ostrich) ran, making a [rustling] 

9 *' 

sound, or noise, such as is termed U^k^. (S, L, 

K, &c.) And, aor. -, (T, A,) inf. n. •.!, (T, TA,) 

t He hastened, or was quick, in his pace ; walked 
quickly ; or went a peu^e between a walk and a 
run ; (T, Nh ;) said of a man ; (Nh, from a trad. ;) 
and of a camel : (IB :) or | ^ 7n<ide -a sound, or 
noise, in his pace or going, like that of the blazing, 

or flaming, of fire. (A.) You B&y,^^sk&i\ i^\ ^f 

Book I.] 

t [Se made a rustling sound in going along, like 

that of tfie ostrich]. (A.) And ^-l, aor. ^ , [so 

• t ^ 

in the TA,] inf. n. 9-^^ty t It (a camel's saddle) 

made a sound or noi^ [produced by his running]. 
(AZ, TA.) And M*»t signifies also f The sound- 

^ ' iS 

ing of water in pouring forth. (TA.) .i.. •-1, 

(§,?,) aor. '- , (S,L,) inf. n. L^\, (S, ?,) Jf 

(water) Tra^, or hecamSj such as is termed *-WK 

lit ^ 

(S, Ly ]^.) :^ A».t JJ(? rendered it (namely water) 
* ^ i 

such as is termed •-V-t. (^.) 

2. jlJI -^l, (S, A, ?:,) inf. n. 1-.U, (K,) 

A — ^\ 

JELe made the fire to \humy bwn up^ burn brightly 
or fiercely y (see 1,)] blazey or flamCy or 2»2a2;& 

or flame fiercely. (S, A, Kl.) —. [Hence,] «.jk.t 

t;^ ^^ev^ t -^^ hindled evil, or mischief among 
them. (TA.) 


5 : see 1. —. Hence ff^^ also signifies It gave 

light; shone', or shone brightly. (TA, from a 
trad.) —. See also 8, where a contracted form of 
this verb is mentioned. 

8 : see 1. -. [Hence,] jl^t IjJ) [written with 
the disjunctiye alif ^J^t] 2Via day was, or became, 
intensely hot, or fiercely burning; (8, ]K1 ;) as also 
t^Uand^ts. (]^.) 

• St 

mA Intenseness of heat, and its fierce burning; 



(Ip, ]^ ;) as also t «.^si^) [inf. n. of 1], and t ».U.1, 
and t ^WLJr [inf n. of 8] : pL ^VJ. (S.) You 
say, ulj».tfJI Zi^\ Ocvi^ The intense heat, or fierce 

burning, of summer came, (TA.) ..i..The sound 

of fire; as also ^ ^-d^^^ (ISd, TA.) J The 

sound, or noise, and commotion, of an ostrich 
running, and of people walking or passing along. 

i ^ i t St t 

(A.) You Bay,^9t$JLlsJt 2^\ •-) [explained above : 
see 1]. (A.).».t Confusion : (S, El :) or, as also 
^ ■■ tf fcl, the eon/imon arising from the talking of 
a people, and the sound, or noise, of their walking 
or passing along. (L.) You say, Ai^t . ^ ^«i)t 
The people are in a state of confusion [ice], (S.) 

cv;(. "' 




f^VI Anything burning to the mouth, whether 

salt or bitter or hot. (MF.) [Hence,] lui SU, 

(9, A,?, &c.,) and ♦ lui, (Msb,) TTa^er fAaf 

&»nw by its saltness : (A :) or salt water : or 2>tf^^ 
water : (TA :) or salt, bitter water : (S, K :) or 
very salt water : (I' Ab :) or bitter and very salt 
water: (Mfb :) or very salt water, tliat bums by 
reason *of its saltness : or very bitter water : or 
mmter very salt and bitter, like the water of the 
sea : (TA :) or water of which no use is made for 
drinking, or for watering seedrproduce, or for 
other purposes : (El-^asan :) or very hot water : 

(TA:) the pL is the same [as the sing. ; or ».U.t 
is abo Hied as a quasi-pl. n.]. (TA.) 

jH^J: 8ee ^M- 

pp^XCHeing light; shining ; or shining Irightly. 

^fmd^\ inf. n. of 1, which see : and see also 2^7, 

in three places. 

• it • X 

•-Vt jifl^ [-^ vehemently hot, or fiercely- 

burning, summer-midday]. (A.) 

2" J ^t 

•-t ; fem. with S : see 9mM^]^*^\, below. 

t : see ». ^m^^, below. 

Tf^h^^ ^Lo^Jt [7^ fiercely-buming hot 

winds; the latter word being pi. of "^ A».t, fem. of 

* •-t, which is the act. part n. of *-! ;] is used by 

^ i ^t ^ 

poetic licence for »-t3*^t. (TA.) 

•-U^JIIjI inf. n. of 8, which see : and see also 

• it 

^U : see what foUows. 
^•cLu One who walks quiekly, and runs, in 

J jV 

this and that manner, (5,* T A.) — ~«fc.l:» and 
t p-yt^lo, (S, Msb, 50 imperfectly decl., (S,) [Gog 
and Magog;] two tribes of God's creatures; 
(TA ;) or two great nations ; (Msb ;) or two tribes 
of the children of Japheth the son of Noah : or, 
as some say, the former, of the Turks ; and the 
latter, of the Jeel [meaning JeeUJeeldn, said in 
the TA in art. y)tf^, on the authority of ISd, to 
be a people beyond the Deylem; and on the 
authority of Az, to be believers in a plurality of 
gods; (the Oeli and Oeke of Ptolemy and Strabo, 
as observed by Sale, in a note on ch. xviii. y. 93 
of the l$Mr, on the authority of Golius in Alfrag. 
p. 207 ;)] : (Bd in xviii. 93 :) [said by the Arabs 
to be Scythians of tfie frrtliest East; particularly 
those on the north of the Chinese : (Golius :) or, 
as some say, the descendants of Japheth, and all 
the nations inhabiting the north of Asia and of 
Europe: (Freytag:)] said in a trad., (TA,) on 
the authority of I'Ab, (Msb,) to compose nine 

tenths of mankind : (Msb, T A :) or p^y^^ is the 

name of tlie m>ales, and ff-^<^U is that of the 
females : (Msb :^ he who pronounces them thus, 
and makes the t a radical letter, says that the 
former is of the measure Jyuu, and the latter of 
the measure JyiiU; as though from jUt M^t; 

( Akh, S, Msb ;♦) or from lui lU ; (T A ;) or 

ii ^ 

from 9pA said of an ostrich ; and imperfectly decl. 

as being determinate and fem. : (Bd ubi suprii:) 
he who pronounces them without ft, making the I 
in each an augmentadve letter, says that the former 
is from c 

and the latter from w 

(Akh, S, 5 ^^s ^8 ^® ^^^® i^ ^®y ^ Arabic : 
(TA :) but some say that they are foreign names ; 
(Msb, TA ;) their being imperfectly decl. is said 
to indicate this ; (Bd ubi supr^ ;) and if so, the t 

in them is similar to that in OjijU and Oj^^U and 

>««t> and the like ; and the » , anomalous, as that 

9 ft ^ J J ^ 

in ^U and the like ; and their measure is J^U. 
(Msb.) Ru-beh used to read t ».^c^t and ;^>^U 

[in the Cl^ ?ryt^^] } and Aboo-Mo'adh, ^ 



1. cja!^\, aor. - and - , (S, Mgh, Msb, 5>) which 
latter form of the aor., though known to most of 


the lexicologists, is disacknowledged by a few of 

them, (TA,) inf. n.^^t; (S,Msb;) and t ^^f, 

(S, Mgh, Msb, El,) a form disacknowledged by 

As, but said by some to be the more chaste of the 

^ ^ §t * * * 

two, of the form Jjbl, not J^U, as lEltt by 

evident inadvertence makes it to be by saying that 
its aor. is ji^lji, (TA,) inf. n. \\^\\ (S;) He 
(God, S, A, Mgh, Mfb, and a man, Mgh) recom- 
pensed, compensated, or rewarded, him, (S, A, Mgh, 

Msb, 5,) Jji3 U ^^for what he had done, (A.) 

[See -fc.!, below.] ojJ* o-* 3--,^ J^J^^ [^«*^^ 

a one became entitled to a reward for five of his 

children, by tlieir death, (for it is believed that the 

Muslim will be rewarded in Paradise for a child 

J ^** * ft 
that has died in infancy)], (S,) and djJ^ ^\, (A,) 

and «>*>!UI |V J^^ (5>) mean that his children 
died, and became [causes of] his reward. (S, A, 

]^.)..d^i^t, (^,) aor. - , (S,) [JETe served him 
for hire, pay, or wages;] he became his hired 
man, or hireling. (S, 151.) So in the Klur xxviii. 27. 

(TA.) ijii-t, aor. '- , (L, Msb, ?,) and ^ , 

(Msb, K,) inf. n.jt^S, (L, K,) He let him (namely 
his slave) on hire, or for pay, or wages; (L,* 
Msb,* El ;) as also * 6ja^\, inf. n. jt^^t ; ('Eyn, 
Mgh, Msb, K ;) and t i^, inf. n. S^t> : X^ :) 
all these are good forms of speech, used by the 
Arabs : (L :) or ^ ^ja^S having for its inf. n. S^|y« 
signifies he appointed him (namely another man) 
hire, pay, or wages, for his work ; (Mj, Mgh ;) or 
lie engaged with him to give him hire, ]}ay, or 
wages ; (A, Mgh, Msb *,) and can have only one 
objective complement: whereas, ^ when it is of 

the measure Jji^I it is doubly trans. ; (Mgh, Msb ;) 
so that one says, A£r>3JL»>o t ^J^T Se let me his 
slave on hire. (Mgh.) One also says, jljjt j^\, 
aor. - and ? , inf. n. jt^\. He let the house on hire; 
andso JWI t^, [inf. n. jU^jl:] (Msb,TA:) 
and j1 jj) t ^^i^T, [inf. n. jUnit ,] He let to him tJie 
house on hire : (S, A, Mgh, Msb :) the latter vferb 
being of the measure Jj6\, not of the measure 
jiU : (A, Mgh, Msb :) and the vulgar Ba,y,jm^\^ : 
(S :) some, however, say, j1 jJI ▼ ^j^^y inf. n. 

tLd, making: the verb of the measure J^\i : 

(Msb, TA :) some also say, Ijuj j1 jJI ▼ Oj.*.l [J 
let the house to Zeyd], inverting the order of 
the words : (Msb, TA :) and the lawyers say, 

jjj ^j^ jljJI t c^jLa [in the same sense, like as 

j\ji\ juj ^>« sZ^jLf means the same as tjuj wjv 
jljj!].* (Mfb: [but in the Mgh, the like of this 
is said to be vulgar.]) 

9" ^ * i 

3. j^Sl inf. n. 5;i^t> : see 1, latter half, in 
three places : and see 10. One says also, of a 
woman, (K,) or a whorish female slave, (TA,) 

oJiLT, [of the measure cJIpU, not c-ijb!,(see^^, 
below,)] meaning Bhe prostituted herself for hire. 

• ^ 

4. jm-\, inf. n. jU^' : see 1, first sentence:— 
and see the latter half of the same paragraph, in 
seven places. 

8. jaig^\ [written with the disjunctive alif jjj*i»l] 

He gave alms, seeking thereby to obtain a reward 


[from God] : (L, IgL* :) and a^ «|JJI He gave It 

a« a/m9, seeking thereby a reward. (L.) >%»^t for 
jUi ,?.iM is not allowable^ because » cannot be incor- 
porated into O : [or, accord, to some, this is 

allowable^as injj3t forjjJLSt, and^^^^^l for^^^l, 
&;c. :] Hr allows it ; and cites an ex. in a trad. ; 
but lAth says that the proper reading in this 

instance is jj^Jb, not j^t^ j or, if the latter be 
allowed, it is from Sj^JJI, not from j^*j\. (L.) 
.^ \jSii d^ j^3^ [u^ which the radical » is 
changed into ^ because the alif preceding it is 
made disjunctive and with damm, (in one copy of 
the S, and in the L and TA, erroneously written 

jd^t,) He was hired to do it for such a sum or 
thing, (seejaJ|^y below,)] is from S^^)). (S,L.) 

10. i^lwl, (S, K,) and t J^T, (K,) [the 

latter of the measure J^l^, as has been clearly shown 
above, from the A and Mgh and Msb,] Se hired 
him; took him as a hired man, or hireling, (S, 

]B:, TA.) You say also, jUJI^lwl [He hired the 
house; took it on hire]. (A, Mgh.) 

tjA A recompense, compensation, or reward, 
(S,]^, &c.,) for what one has done; (B[;) i, q. 

v!5^ ; (S ;) as also ^ lj\L.\ and ^ SjU.1 and ^ SjWt, 
Qi^,) of which three forms the first is the most 
generally known and the most chaste, (TA,) and 

▼ lja^\ : (T A :) or, as some say, there is a distinc- 

tion between ^^t and ^\y> : £l**'£ynee says, in 
the Expos, of £l-Bukhdree, that what is obtained by 
the fundamental practices of the law, and by obli- 
gatory religious services, is termed v!y ^ ^^^ what 
is obtained by supererogatory acts of religion, ^i^t ; 
for v!y ^^ properly a substitute for a thing itself; 
and ^i^t, for the profit arising from a thing ; though 
each is sometimes used in the sense of the other : 
(TA :) it is well known that jmA signifies a 
recompense, or reward, from Ood to a man, for 
righteous conduct ; (MF ;) and t SjWt , recom- 
pense, coinpensation, hire, pay, or wa^es, from 
one man to another, for work; (Mgh, MF;) and 

hence jd^H\ ; (MF ;) and t ij^\ also has this 
latter signification, (Mgh, TA,) and is syn. with 
ST^; (S,Mgh,5;) [signifying likewise r^n^ for 
a house, and the like ;] but^^l is used [sometimes] 
in the sense of 5jU.1 and in that of $^t : (Msb :) 
the pi. of jL\ is j^l (Msb, K) and juLT; (K ;) 

but the latter form was unknown to MF : (TA :) 
the pi. of ▼ 5^1 IS ^^1 and CAyt^X and OU».l. 

(Msb.) [One says, M ^ J^| Tliy rearm- 
pense is due from Ood. And, to console a person 
for the death of a relation or fnend, J)^\ M^^k 
4^ May Ood largely compensate thee for him ! 
\. e., for the loss of him.] By the expression 
jfj^ ^' in the T^\xr xxxvi. 10 is said to be 
meant Paradise. (T A.) _ J -4. dowry, or nup- 
tial gift ; a gift that is given to, or for, a bride : 

0^ pi- J^' • 80 in the J^ur xxxiii. 49 [&c.]. 
(TA.) — f Praise; good fame. (5.) So, as 
some say, in the ]gLur xxix. 26. (TA.) 

jtf^\ and^^t : see^i^t. 

iji^\ : see ji^t, in three places. 


5 • 

#•« • 

^ w 

^J and iU^I : see \Jjd^l' 

.t : see «*.!. 

fc.1 (S, IS., &c.) A hired man ; a hireling : 

(L :) or of the measure Af^i in the sense of the 

measure J^UU, i. e. a man with whom one has 
engaged to give him hire, pay, or wages: (Mgh, 

M§b :♦) pi. i\^\. (L, Msb.) 

SjVt and SjVt and SjU.1 : see j^\, m four 
places. .».SjU.t also signifies The^mn^ of usur 
fructsfor a compensation. (Mgh.)... And Land 
which its owners have let to him who will build 
Mj9on t^; so explained by. the lawyers. (Mgh.) 

• fi 


>l^ (S, M, lAth, Mgh, T^) and t 5jU».| (M) 
and ^ j^\ (Mgh, Igl) The flat top, or roof, of a 
house, (S, M, IAth,Mgh,K,) that has not around 
it anything to prevent a person^ s falling from it : 
(M,* lAth :) of the dial, of the people of Syria 
and of El-Hijdz : (S :) pi. [of the first and second] 
j^UI and l^lJ ; (A'Obeyd, S, IS. ;) and [of 
the third] je-oT (Mgh,?!.) 


« s 

a • 


• ^ f 

SjUl: seejV-!. 

^S^\ (ISk, EL) and t l^j and t TJ^I (S in 

^Ti. jafJb) A custom; a habit. (ISk, IBI, and S 
ubi suprii.) The hemzeh is said to be a substitute 

for d [in iC»tHH^ &c.] (TA.) You say, Jlj U 

^Syti^S dU3 That ceased not to be hu custom, or 

habit. (iSk.) 

U and ^;i^t and jt^\, and the pis. OA^* ^^d 
^j^^t : see what next follows. 

J4.r^(§, Mgh, MBb, ?) and ♦ J^-KAA, Ks,]^) 

and t *^T (S, T^) and t *j^\ and ^^W (?) and 

t^^l (as in some copies of the K) and ▼^^l, (as 
in some copies of the El and in the TA,) or 

t^i^l, (as in other copies of the 50 ^^^ ^ J^^ 

[to which is erroneously added in the CEl ly^\] 

and [the pk] ^ 0^y^\ and t O^^^l (?) are syn., 

(S,K1,) of Persian origin, (S,) [fromj^l or^l,] 
arabicized, (S, Mgh, \^ signifying Baked bricks; 
(Msb ;) baked clay, (Mgh, L,) with which one 

builds : (S, L :) Jtf^ and jy^\ and jt^\ [&c.] are 
pis., [or rather coll. gen. ns., except the two forms 
ending with ^ and ^,] and their sings, [or rather 

na un.] are with S, i. e. S^l &c. (L.) 

• ^ * 

I: see ^1^1 

j^Jh seejW.1. 

jt^y^ [A slave, or] a house, let on hire; (Akh, 
T, Msb;) as also ▼j^i^.U; (L;) and some say,;. (Akh,M§b.) 

•».Ld One n?^ lets on hire [a slave, or] a house : 
one should not say ^ •».|Ld; for this is wrong 
with respect to the classical language, and abomi- 
nable with respect to the conventional acceptation 
and common usage ; a foul reproach being meant 
thereby [as is shown by the explanation of O^l, 
given above : or, accord, to some, it is allowable 

when it relates to a house : (see ^ya^X :) it seems 
to be disallowed only when used absolutely]. 
(A, Mgh.) 

[Book 1. 

^ J 

• J 

U>6: see>i^>. 

% , ^0 » 

^ J J 

j^^ [part n. of jj^Jj^t]. Mohammad Ibn- 
Bishr El-Kh&rijee, not [as is said in the S] Aboo- 
Dahbal, says, (L,) 

^ ^ *• 

[ would that I were, with my clothes and my 
riding^camel, a hired slave to thy family, this 
month] : (S, L.) i. e., ^y|y t %^. (?.) 

jt^i^U: see^. 

• s 

i^V.t [The plum;] a certain fruit, (5, TA,) 
o/' ^A« description termed ^ly^U, (T A,) well known; 
(Msb, ]5 ;) coW and moist ; or, as some say, of 
moderate temperature ; (T A ;) which facilitates 
the flaw of the yellow bile; (^;) i. e., its juice, or 
water, does so, when drunk with sugar^andy 
(3J^J9) and manna (^J<^■i^i■»p) a(2<i^(2 fo tV; 
(T A ;) and aZ2ay5 thirst, and heat of the heart ; 
(El;) but it relaxes the stomach, and does not 
agree with it; and it generates a watery mixture; 
and its injurious effect is repelled by the drinking 

of sugary ^>k%^>^ [or oxymel] : it is of several 
kinds : (TA :) [the most common is the Damasc, 
or ^Damascene, plum :] the best is (5> TA) tlie 
Armenian, (TA,) tliat which is sweet and large : 
(J^, TA :) the sour, or a/nd, is less laxative, and 
more cold : (TA :) the n. un. is with S : (S, Msb, 

]^ :) you should not say i^t^t ; (Ya^J^oob, S, 
]5 ;) or this is a word of weak authority, (^, T A,) 
and you say i^Wt and t^V-^t hke as one says 

9 6 « ^ • *JJ * 

jW) and jt^) : (TA :) in the diaL of the Syrians, 
the 4^Wt [or i^t^t or ^Ufe»JI accord, to com- 
mon modem usage among them] is the [pear 
which they* formerly called] jl^JLo and [which 
others call] \^j^>.^ : (^:) it is of the growth of 


the country of the Arabs : (AHn :) u^ V^ is an 
adventitious word, (S, EL,) or arabicized, (M^b,) 
because «^ and u^ do not both occur in any 

Arabic word : (S, Msb, 1$. :) or, accord, to Az, 

they do so occur ; as, for instance, in ^^^mm^, and 

in*^. (TA.) 

L Jifc.1, aor. - , (Msb, 5>) inf n. Jji.1, (Msb,) 
It (a thing, Msb, [as, for instance, a thing pur- 
chased, and the price thereof, and a thing pro- 
mised or threatened or foretold, and also payment 
for a thing purchased, and the fulfilment of a 
promise or threat or prediction, and any event,]) 
was, or became, delayed, postponed, kept back ; 

[and therefore, /tt<t^r«;] syn. j^\j; (^;) and 

fjs^\, aor. - , in£ n. Jytt^\, signifies the same. 

• ** • ^ t 

(Msb.) [See ^^t and ^)*-t. The primary signi- 
fication seems to be. It had a term, or period, 
appointed for it, at which it should fall due, or 

and ^ t^U«, also, eignifies delayed, deferred, or 
postponed, to the time of the end of a period ; 
originally, contr. of ,JtL»Z». (Mgh.) [See also 

Jb*-'.] [Hence,] iii-^l T/ie [future,] latter, 

ultimate, or latt, dwelling, or abode, or life; the 
world to coine; syn. sj*.^l } (5,TA;) contr, of 
iL^UJI. {^,'£A.)^ Committing a crime; or a 
committer of a crime. (8, TA.) 

t^^ Determined, defined, or limited, as to 
time; applied to a writing: so in the Kur iii. 139: 
(B4, Jel, TA :) and to a debt ; contr. of JU., 
q. T. (Mgh in art. J^.)._ See also j«i^t. 

J^ui : Bee JM- 


1. ii^', with kear, [aor. - ,] (AZ, S, O,) inf. n. 
^1 ; (KL, P§ ;) or i^^l, aor. ; , (so in the K:,) 
inf. n. JXW (.T%i) [I»itJ^I is the form com- 
monly known ; and if it were incorrect, the 
author of the ^ would probably, accord, to his 
usiial custom, have charged J with error respect- 
ing it;] Me loathed it; disliked it; was, or 
became, diegusted with it; namely, food; (AZ, 
8,0,5;) "tc. ; (^t;) from constantly keeping 
to it; (AZ,§,0;) or because of its not agreeing 
with him: (TA:) he reckoned it bad: (KL:) 
and f A«%U also signifies he disliked, disapproved, 
or hated, it ; or he expressed, or showed, dislike, 
disapprobation, or hatred, of it; syn. *h^. 
(TA.) ». t'^'^l, aor. ,, (?,) inf. n. J^\, 
(T^,) Se incited, or urged, such a one to do 
that mhiek he disliked, disapproved, or hated. (^.) 

2: see 4. 

4. ^Ul >«.Jj, or ^u\ ^j^t-^, [accord, to 
difierent copies of the 5, the former being the 
reading in the TA,] Se makes inen's own selves 
to be objects of dislike, disapprobation, or katred, 
to them, (j^ Tocejjt^l.) [Accord, to the T$, 
you say, A.U ■i«i^l, inf. n. >>l^l, meaning Se 
made him to be an object of dielike, disapproba- 
tion, or katred, to him.} 

0. .^^U Se (a lion) entered his iU^I [or 
thicket], (5.)aB^&: seel. 

^,4^1 Any square, roofed, house: (5:) men- 
tioned by ISd as on the authority of Ya^^oob: 
but see j^ as expluned by J [in the S] on the 
same authority. (TA.) 

_,^fi: see>B-I.HHlt is also a pi. of 2^1. 

^,«rbt : see i^^. 

J^l A fortress; (Mgh.Mjb^^j) like ^1 : 
(Mgh :) pl-jlvl (Mgh, Msb, ?.) JJ!f.^\ [is the 
name of] A fortress (8, "K.) in El-Medeeneh, 
(IJ,) built of stones by the people of that city : 
and Ya^oob says that^,,».l signifies any square, 
roofed, house. (S, Sgh.) Imra-eU^eys says, [di 
scribing a vehement rain,] 

[And Teymd, (a town so called,) it left not 

therein a trunk of a palm-tree, nor a square, 
roofed, kouse, unless raised high with stones : but 
in the Calc. ed. of the Mo'allaPt, (p. 64,) for 
\^\, we find 0*1, which has the same meaning]. 
(§,8gh.) See alsoJU-t- (TA.) Accord, to Aj, 
it is also pronounced ^„«4>t. (S.) 

i«^l A thicket, wood, or forest ; a collection, 
(Mgh, Msb,) or an abundant collection, (^,) of 
tangled, confused, or dense, trees, or shrubs : 
(Mgh, Msb,?:) or ilia of reeds, or canes: (S :) 
or a [place such as is termed] ^a^ii* of water 
collected together, in which, in consequence thereof, 
trees grow: (^ in arL ^^^ ;) [or] it signifies 
also a bed, or place of growth, of canes or reeds : 
(Mgh :) tlie pi. is oC*-! andji^l ($, M, 5) and 
JiJ-I (M,]8:) and tji-t, (8, M, Mgh, Msb, ?,) 
[or rather this last is a coll. gen. n., of which 
ijji is the n. nn.,] and >VJ (S, M, $) and [pi. 
ofpauc] Jvf, (8,M, Mgh, 5,) or the last but 
one is pi. of^,,*.!, (M,) and so is the last. (L^, M, 
Msb.) And hence. The kaunt of a lion. (TA 

in art. vj^O 'M [in t^e Cl^ ^Ul] also 

signifies Frogs. (Sgh, %..) [App. because frogs 
are generally found in beds of canes or reeds.] 

>ji».l signifies ,j-U)t,^jj ^,or y^\ii\^\^; 
[accord, to difierent copies of the ]^ ; see 4 ;] i. e. 
One who makes merii own selves to be objects of 
dislike, disapprobation, or katred, to them. (^) 

„*fcl Loathing, duiiking, or regarding with 
disgust. (S, TA.)—:^! lU i. q. * [Water 
tliat is loathed, disliked, or regarded with disgust]. 

1. J^l, (8, Mgh, Mfb, 5,) aor. ; and''; (S, 
Msb, 5 ;) and o^\, (8, Mgh, &c.,) aor. - , (S, 
Msb,) mentioned by Yz ; (8 ;) inf. n. of the 
former Jlj*-! (§, Mgh, Mfb, 5-) andjl^-li (S, 
MBh,:^;*) and of the latter ^t; (8, Mgh, 
Msb,?.;) It (water) became altered for the 
worse (S, Mgh, M^b, K) in taste and colour, 
(S, Mgh, ?j) from some such cause as long 
standing, (TA,) but was drinkable: (Mgh, Msb:) 
or became altered for the worse in its odour by 
oldness : or became covered nnth [the green sub- 
stance called] „fJ»J» aTid with leaves .- (Mgh :) 
j>^l, also, said of water, signifies it became altered 
for the worse: (Th:) and in the l^tijif occurs 
,y^', aor. - , which is nnknown, but may be a 
mixture of two dial. vars. [namely of ^>^t having 
for its aor. ; and - , and ^>^tj having for its pret. 
^1]. (MF)««J^f He (a jlli, or whitener 
of cloth) beat a piece of cloth or a garment [in 
washing it]. (S, ]?.) 

. « > see ^>^l. 

ii^\ (8, 5) and a;^! aud iim.\ (?) t. q. <L^j 
[The bail, or elevated part, of the cheek]. (S, ]^.) 

[Book I. 

a^i^i ($, Mgh, M;b, 5) and ta;vji , (L];,?,) 

the latter of the dial, of Teiyi, (L^, TA,) or this 
is a vulgar form, (Mgh,) not allowable, (^,) and 
♦ aJW^I, (?,) with ij, (TA,) A thing well 
known; (?;) a vessel in which clothes are 
washed; (Msb;) a [vessel also called] ^^^y», 
resembling a ,^^ [which is a kind of basin], in 
which clothes are washed: (Mgh:) or what is 
called in Persian fjlC^ [i. e. O^ ^ small cup] : 
(PS :) [it probably received this last meaning, 
and some others, in post-classical times : Golius 
explains it as meaning " lagena, pkiala, crater : " 
adding, " hioc vulgo Fingi^na [i. e. 2>l%-ii] calix 
vocatur: item Urceus: hydria: [referring to 
John ii. 6:] Vas dimidia serite simile, in quo 
aquaetsimiliaponunlur:" on theautliority of Ibn- 
Mafroof : and, on the same authority, "Labrum 
sen vas lapideum instar pelvis, in quo lavantur 
vestes : "] pi. Cw^-I^-I : (?, Mgh, Msb, 5 :) mean- 
ing [also] what resemble troughs, surrounding 
trees. (Msb.) 

^T (S, Mgh, Mjb, ^) and t J^t (S, Msb, 
?) aaA t ^\ (IS4, TA) and t i^I (TA) 
Water altered for the worse (S, Mgh, M^b, K) 
in taste and colour, (S, Mgh, ^,)from some such 
cause as long standing, (TA,) but still drinkable : 
(Mgh, Msb :) or altered for the worse in its 
odour by oldness: or covered with [the green 
substance called] ^^JuLL and with leaves : (M^ :) 
pi. oyt-^ > thought by ISd to be pi. of ,j^] and 
>>».t. (TA.) 

43UMt: ) 

S^^Ja [in GoUus's Lex. <>4JU] The instrument 
for beating used by the jtai [or whitens of cloth, 
inwashing]: but better without*, [written i.^.««,] 
because the pi. is o^'>* > '^'t accord, to IB, the 
pi. is ^U. (TA.) ' 

2. «J>^I, [inf. n. jie^U,] ffe made it one ; or 
called it one : as also >j*>j. (TA in art. j.^'j.) 
You say, o^^"^' ^^^ Make thou the two to be- 
come one. (!?.) It is related in a trad., that 
Mohammad said to a man who was making a 
ngn with his two tore fingers in repeating the 
testimony of the iaith, [There is no deity but God, 
ice.,] j^ ,t»-\ [meaning that he should make the 
sign with one finger only]. (8.) And <Jit a»-l 
means He declared God to be one ,- he declared, 
or professed, the unity of God; as also #,>».j. 
(T and L in art. j«.j.) — . ijijiti jl-i, (S,S:,) 

inf. n. ji^U, 0^,) Make thou the ten to become 

eleven, (S, K.,) is a phrase mentioned by Fr on 
the authority of an Arab of the desert. (S.) 

8. jiakJI : see art >».j : and see what here 
next follows. 

10. o^l^l He (a man, S) mas, or became, 
alone, by himself, apart from ot/iers, or SoUtary; 

(Mfb.) So too in the l^ni Ix. 11, accord, to the 
reading of Ibn-Mes'ood : (Mfb :) but others there 
read *i^, which may mean any one or any thing. 

(Bd,Jel.) j^^l, (?,,) as also ji-'ril JrJi, (8, 

Msb,) as a proper name, (Msb,) is applied to 
A certain day ; (^t ;) [Sunday i1 thejirsl day of 
the week ; or, as some say, [i. e. as some tenn it,] 
the ucond of the meek ; (TA ;) for the Arabs are 
said, by lA^, to have reckoned the Sabbath, or 
Satordfly, as the first, thou^ they called Sunday 
the first of die days: (Hsb in art. ^««-:) it is 
sing., and masc. : (LI;:) pl- [^ above, i.e.] 
aCT (S, Msb, ?:) and o'j-^t : (? :) or it h" "o 
pi. (^z [but in the TA this last observation is 
very properly restricted, as relating only to j«>l 
as syn. with (A^tj, and as apphed to any unknown 
person.]) In this sense, it has no dim. (Sb, in S, 
art ,,^>i«l.)_aU-'^t in lexicology signifies What 
have been transmitted by some of the lexicologuts, 
but not by ruck a number of them at cannot be 
tupposed to have agreed to a falsehood: what has 
been transmitted by this larger number is termed 
j3\^. (MzSrdpy.) 

a^j».l The tmity of God; (Mgb;) as also 

jWI [accuB. of >W.I] is imperfectly decl., be- 
cause of its deviation from its original, (S, ]^,) 
both in form and in meaning ; (S f) [being 
changed in form from t.»»lj, and in meaning 
from Iji^lj to \^».\^ t.*fclj : (see ^^ :)] you 
say, >U.I jWt Ij^Vi [>^^ being repeated for 
the purpose of corroboration,] meaning, T^ey 
came one [and] one, one [and] one; orone [by] one, 
one [by] one. (8,?,.) Thedim. of iwiis * J^l, 
perfectly decl., like i^ [q. v.] &o. (S, in art. 

^ • J- lems. of jifcl, q. ■ 

gic^t dim. of ji^l, q. ^ 

l^j>eB.l dim. of {JJ^\ fem. of ji*.!, q. v. 

1. Ofl (?. Mfb, ?) y*, (9, TA,) aor. - , 
(Msb, ]^,) inf. n. o^\, (Mfb,) or ^t, and liil , 
(TA,) or this last is a simple snbst. ; (M;b ;) and 
4i* O^-l, aor. - , inf. n. o^\ ; (Kr, TA ;) He 
retained enmity againtt him in hie bog<mi, watching 
for an opportunity to indulge it, or ex&rcite it ; 
or hid enmity againtt him in hit botom; or b<tre 
rancour, malevolence^ malice, or ^ie, agatntt 
him : (S, Msb, ^ :•) and he wot affected with 
anger (^, TA) againtt him, tuch at came upon 
him euddenly from the retention or hiding of 
enmity in the botom, or from rancour, male- 
volence, malice, or ^te. (TA.) 

3. i^l, (TA,) inf. n. L^lj^, (§, ?,) He 
treated him, or regarded him, mith enmity, or 
hoitUity. (§,•?:,• TA.) 

J*t — ^t 

i^t Retention of enmity in the botom, with 
matchfuhteit for an opportunity to indulge it, 
or exerdte it ; or concealment of enmity in the 
botom ; or rancour, malevolence, malice, or spite ; 
(S, Msb, K :) and anger (^, TA) coming upon 
one suddenly therefrom : (TA :) pi. i^jm^^. (S, 
Msb, ^.) It is said in the S that one should 
not say 2^ ; and this is disallowed by Af and 
Fr and Ibn-EI-Faraj : in the T it is said that it is 
not of the langu^e of the Arabs; and A? is 
related to have disapproved of Et-Tirimm&h for 
using its pi. in poetry : but it is said in a trad., 
ifc vS*" 0*i3 ij^ ^ [There is not between 
me and the Arabs retention of enmity in the 
bosom, &c.j; and it occurs in another trad., in 
a similar phrase ; and the pi., in a third trad. ; 
therefore we aay that it is a dial. var. of rare 
occurrence. (TA.) 

»l : see art ^dJ. 

i.:^^! fem. of «-l, q. v. in art. yL\. 

1. ji.t, (S, A,L, &c.,) in the first pers. of 
which, o,>^t, [and the like,] the ) is generally 
changed into O, and incorporated into the [aug- 
mentative] O, [but in pronunciation only, for 
one writes cij>^t and the like,] aor. - , imperative 
J^, originally j*.y, (S, L,) which latter form 
sometimes occurs, [but with j in the place of 3 
when the 1 is pronounced with damm,] (TA,) 
inf. n. jll (8, L, Mfb, ^, &c) and Jli-fe, (S, 
L, S^,) the latter having an intensive signification ; 
(MP;) and JA.j is a dial, yar., as mentioned 
by Ibn-Umm-^dsim and others on the authority 
of A^ei J (MP in art J-i-3 ;) He tooh ; he tooh 
with hit hand; lut tooh hold of; (§, A, L, Msb, 
^0 A thing. ($,L.) YouBay.v^liuUI ji.and 
>li»>Jl^ J,^ Take thou, or take thou with thy 
hand, or take thou hold of, the note-rein of the 
camel : (S, L, M;b :) the «^ in the latter phrase 
being redundant (M^b.) [And tj,^ ^*-^> lit. 
He tooh hit hand, or arm ; meaning f he aided, 
or agisted, him: a phrase of frequent occurrence.] 
And r)"^ ^ ^^Xa J.^1 f He prevented, restrained, 
or mitliheld, such a one from, doing that which he 
detiredi at though he laid hold upon hit hand, 
or arm : (L :) and ej^ U C>Ji ;-*i \^ J*-' 
[signifies the same]. (K in art. jjJ.)_Also, 
inf. n. J>^t, He took, or received; eontr. of 
ijWI. (L.) [Hence,] 'Jj^ Xl.\, i He received 
from him traditions, and the like. (TA passim.) 
_ t [He took, or derived, or deduced, a word, 
a phrase, and ameaning.]^! jffe tooh, received, 
or admitted, willingly, or with approbation ; he 
accepUd. (B, MP.) So in the Kur [vii. 198], 
yUll <iA. X [Take thou willingly, or accept thou, 
tuperfiuous property, or tuch as it easily spared 
by others]. (MF.) So too in the same [iii. 75], 
^Jfoi jjii^ ^^ ^J"*-!? I {And do ye accept 
my covenant to tltat effect?]. (B.) [And in the 
phrases, t}^\ J^ W y)^W J^4f uii-l 

[Book I. 

(Jel ii. 60,) and ilj^l ^ W ipJI ,>*, (Idem 
ii. 67,} f We accepted your covenant to do 
according to whcU it in the Book of the JLaw 
revealed to Motes.] iUc J>A. [is ellipdcal, and] 
means (tj«)lj <^l iJL^ c>j Jy t L* J>^ t [Accept • 
thou what I tay, and dismiss from thee doubt 
and obstinate disputation], (8, L.)__^e took 
a thing to, or for, himself ; took possession of it i 
got, or acquired, it; syn. jW. ; (Z, £r-R^hib, B ;) 
which, accord, to Z and £r-Ri^hib and others, 
is the primary significafion; (MF;) and J.^^. 

(B.) [See also 8.] [He took and kept ;] he 

retained; he detained: as in the JK^ur [xii. 78], 
AiU;!^ \iS^\ S^ [Therefore retain thou one of 
us in hit stead]. (B.)^[^e took, as meaning 
he tooh away. Hence,] je— Jl au ji^l Journeying, 
or travel, took from him. strength ; («5*J1 being 
understood;) weakened him. (Har p. 529.) And 
y^lijl j>. S^^, (Mgh,) and jiill Of. (Msb,) 
He clipped, or cut ojf^om,' (Mgh, Mfb,) the 
mustache, (Mgh,) and t!ie hair. (N.ab.)^He, 
or it, took by force ; or seized : (B :) t he, or it, 
overcame, overpowered, or tubdued : said by some 
to be the primary signification. (MF.) [See 
also I^A» »J*J, Sec, in nrt. yic : and J^ ^^ ••*^S 
kc, in art jy.] It is said in the l^ur [ii. 256], 
jty "^j Ij-i « ji^U "j t Neither dromtinett nor 
sleep shall seize [or overcome] Htm. (B.) [And 
you say, ij^j dj ji^t t A tremour seized, tooh, 
affected, or infiuenced, him. And dlL^ *Ji^l 
t Hit beUy affected him with a desire to evacuate 
it.] You say also, v!/-^' ^ •*^' t The wine 
affected him,OTittfluenced kim,iothat he became in- 
toxicaUd. (TAinart. J,,3.) And^\J\ Ji-t (Msb 
in art j^, &c.) and ^yi^ ji-l (K in art ,jt^, 
&c.) t [H had an overporvering influence upon 
the head] ; meaning wine. (Msb, K..) And 
^^LjW J^t [/( (food, &c.) choked]. (IA?r in 
art. i,,,JtJ in the TA, and ^ in art. *^, &c.) And 
Jili Jyi A^ jdJ^i "9 t [Nothing that any one 
may say will have any power, or effect, or iV 
fluence, upon him] ; meaning that he obeyeth do 
one. (L in art. >Z^.)_^e took captive. (L, 
M|b, B.) So in the ^ur [ix. 5], Oe^j-i^l^U 
>k)ji.j >h^j^j *i.B^ [Then tlay ye the be- 
lievers in a plurality of gads wherever, or when- 
ever, ye find theim, and take them captives]. (Bd, 
L, B.) .._ See also 2, in three places. ^ He 
gained the mattery over a person, and killed, or 
slew, him ; (Zj, L;) as also ^ Ji^t : (X :) or simply, 
t he killed, or ilew. (B.) It is said in the Slur 
[xl. 5], »3^^^Jn^i^ji •L«> J^ C-^j, meaning 
[And every nation hath purpoted against their 
apostle] that they might gain the mastery over 
him, and slay him; (Zj, L;) or fthat they might 

tlay him. (B.) i He (God, Msb) destroyed » 

person : (Mfb, MP :) and t extirpated, or exter- 
minated. (MF.) ^yiSi 4liT>m>U [in the 
H^ur iii. 9 and xl. 32] means But Ood destroyed 
them for their tint. {Je\.)^X He punislted, or 
chastised; (L,MBb,B,5,MF;) as also » jA-T: 
(L, Mfb, MF:) as in the phrases, d^St »SaA - 

85 ;)] I did to kirn a benefit, or favour i syn. 
*^\ '*^j^\. (Mjb in art. ^J«.) — J^'i also 
■ignifiea ffe made a thing; syn. JU* ; like ^ij, 
[aor. - ,] inf. n. ^dJ and jJ-3: (L:) Ae nuuie, or 
I'^, a bow, a water-skin, &c., 1,^ 4>« 
^^ auch a thing : he made, or prepared, a disli 
of food, a medicine, &c. : either absolutely or 
/i?r himsetf. (The Lexicons passim.) ^ Also 
J2c mWe, or constituted, or appointed; syn. 
^,jj«^ ; doubly trana. ; (B, Msb ;) and so SdJ. 
(IMsb in art. J*r3.) You say, Uj.x^ aJk^.JI .He 
trt^de him [or (ooA Aim tw] a friend ; (Meb in 
the present art. ;) and so »Ji^J. (Idem in art. 
>«U.) And l)> «J«Jl [in 'the Kur ii. 63 and 
231, &c.,] means He made him, or it, a tubjeet 
of derinion. (Bd, Jel.) And IjJj #J«^1 [in 
the same, zii. 31 and xxriii. 8,] Se made him, 
or took or adopted him at, a ion. (Bd. See 
also above.) 

10. J>^L<T, written with the disjunctiTe alif 
J^iTift ; see 8, in four places. [Other meanings 
may be inferred from explanations of JAIJ >, 
q, V. infHt.] 

Aa-\ inf. n. of J.^1, q. T 1 -^ n^y, or "tan- 

««•, o/"/t^fl; asabot j*.l. (8,L,?;.) You say, 

t^^iiit, (L, 5,5 *l'e former of the dial, of 
Temeem, and the latter of the dial, of El-Hij4z, 
(TA,) meaning \The sons of suck a one went 
away, or passed away, and those who took to their 
way of life, (S, L, K,) and adopted theirmanners, 
or dispositions : {&. :) and ^Ja-I ^A^ t>« and 
t .^«*j>».l , and ^«*J^1 «^1 c^ [in the C^ 
_^h},i I] and ^_^Ja1, signify [virtually] the 
sttme : (^ :) or >kjXl ji.1 ^ and t>kJ>l.l 
signify [properly] .^gyJjgij^J'* 1 •J^l O* [(Ao»e 
roAwn (Ae»r way o/'/i/e tooh, or influenced]. (ISk, 
S, L.) One says also, ^lltl ^Ji ot** j**^f 
''' sji^l Jk^l Laj, with kesr, meaning t [Such a 
one was appointed prefect over Syria,'\ and he 
did not take to that good way of life which it mas 
incumbent on him to adopt : yon should not sey 
tji^l: (AA, S, L:) or it means and what was 
adjacent to it : (Fr, L :) or, accord, to the WA'ee, 
one says, in this case, t « J,^t Jt^l Uj and «ji^l 
and f «.)<^t, with kesr and fet-h and damm [to the 
hemzeh, and with the i marfoo§h, as in instances 
before]. (Et-Tedmuree, MF.) One also says, 
t UJ.^W O jl-*^' ti* O^ ^, (S, L,) with kesr to 
the 1, (L,) [in a copy of the $ I^J>^V> which 
seems to be also allowable, accord, to the dial, of 
Temeem,] meaning Wert thou of us, then thou 
hadst taken to, or wonldst take to, our manners, 
or dispositions, and fashion, (S, L,) and garb, and 
way of life. (L.) The words of the poet, 

lAfT explains as meaning And were ye of us, me 
had caught and restored to you your camels : but 
no other says so. (L.) _ J>».^|l >>}%-i Ths Man- 
sions of the Moon ; (S, L, ^E ;) also called jt 
*V^'> (^> [*" ""^ •yil) called by the former 

appellation because the moon every night enters 
(_i S^^) one of those mansions : (S, L :) or the 
stars which are cast at those [devils] who listen by 
stealth [to the conversations of the angels}: (L, ^i) 
but the former explanation is the more correct. 
(L.) _ See also >U.I. 

J^\, whence •jiA.t JA.1 U : see J.Zl It is 

also a pi. of \\^ ; (§, L ;) and of ji.^ or t'jL\, 
explained below with iWt. (L-) 

kt [The act of taking, taking wUh the hand, 
&c.], a Bubst. from j^t. (S, L, Msb.)_See 
also Jk^t, in nine places. ^ And see iW. ^ 
Also A mark made with a hot iron upon a cameVs 
side when a disease therein is feared. (5.) 

J.1.1 Heavineu of the stomach, and indigestion, 
of a young camel, from the milk. (K.) [See 
j^l.]_See also j^\. 

Ji^l A young camel disordered in his beUyi and 
%ffected with heaviness of the stomach, and indi- 
gestion, from taking much milk. (AZ, Fr, L.) 
[See also ^U-,^.] _— A camel, or a young camel, 
or a sheep or goat, qffected by what resembles 
madness, or demoniacal possession. (L.)^A 
man affected with inflammation of the eye; mtth 
pain and swelling of the eye; with ophthalmia; 
(S, L ;) as also t JaUU. (L.) See also this 
latter.^ See also j^l. 

J-Lt (S, L, ?) and ♦ ji.1, (Ibn-Es-Seed, L, 
5,) which latter is the regular form, (L,) Inflam- 
mation of the eye; pain and smelling of the eye ; 
ophthalmia. (S.L,?:.) 

S,iL.\ [inf. n. un. ol J>^I, .^n act of taking, 
ice. : an act of punishment, or chastisement, or 
^Ae like; as in the ^ur Izix. 10: pi. OtJ>^l].~- 
^\^\ ljJiA.1 They tooh their places of abode. 
(lAth and L, from a trad.) 

IJ^I A manner of taking, or seizing, of a man 
with whom one is wrestling: pi. J.^1. (L.)_ 
A kind of enchantment, or fascinatioh, like jm,-*, 
(S, X>, Msb,* ]^,) mAicA captivates the eye and the 
like, (L,) and by which enchantresses withhold 
their ktisbands from other women ; called by the 

Igar h\ij and jJi« ; and practised by the women 
in the time of ignorance : (TA :) or a hind of 
bead (}}j^, S, L, K) with which one captivates, 
or fascinates, or restrains ; (5 ;) with which 
moTnen captivate, or fascinate, or restrain, men, 
(S, L,) and withhold them from other women ; 
(L:) or i. q. vj. (A.)_^ pUfaU dug for 
catching a lion. (A, TA.)_^LJUiA.I i).*5vjii; 
[Strive thou to be before the tiTne called (that of^ 
jUI A ji^t with thy wooden instrument for pro- 
ducing fire ; i. e. haste thou to use it b^ore that 
tiTne;} means the time a little after the prayer 
of sunset; asserted to be the worst time in which 
to strike fire. pS..) 

sil.t : see 3U.I. 

iU.1 and ♦ li\i.\ A pool of water left by e 
torrent : pi. ji.1 : (AO, 5 :) both signify (he 
same: (L:) or '*' «3U>t signifies a thing like 

[Book I. 
pool of water left by a torrent; and 3U-I is its 
pi. [or a coll. gen. n.] ; and the pi. of this latter 
is Jt^l, like as ^■:A is pi. of v'-^i and some- 
times It IS contracted into .^t : ($, L :) the like 
of this is said W Aboo-'Adn&n : (L :) and Ollt^l 
is also a pi. of i^^l, occurring in a trad., and sig- 
nifying pools which receive the rain^^eater, and 
retain it for drinkers : (lAth, L :) or the correct 
word is SWI, without S, and it signifies a place 
where beasts assemble at a pool of water lefi by a 
torrent; and its pi. is J^\ (A A, A'Obeyd, L) 
and iWt, which latter is extr. : (L :) but as to 
• UU-I, it has a difierent signification, which will 
be found below ; i. e. land of which a man takes 
possession for himself, &c. : (AA, L :) or >l^l is 
a coD. gen. n., and ^ S^l^l is its n. un., and sig- 
nifies a receptacle made for water to collect therein -■ 
and * J^l signifies a thing that one digs for him- 
self, in the form of a matering-trough, which 
retains water for soTne days ; and its pi. is 
OlJ^I : (L :) and t jZj and ♦ S^t also signify 
a thing that one digs in the form of a watering- 
trough; and the pi. is j^l and iU-l. . (L.) In a 
trad, of MesroolF Ibn-El-Ajda', 5U-I are likened 
to the Companions of Mohammad ; and it is added, 
that one ♦ iiU.1 suffices for a rider j and one, fiw 
two riders; and one, for a company of men : (8 
L :) meaning that among them were the young 
and the old, and the possessor of knowledge and 

the possessor of more knowledge. (L.) See 

also Uu.1. 

^1 t. q. t i^U [Taken ; taken with the 
hand; &c.]. (M8b.)_J[ captive: (8, L, Msb, 
5. :) fem. with S. (§, L.) Hence the saying, 
tAe%JI iii**-' O^ v^' ^ore lying than the 
captive of the army : meaning him whom his 
enemies have taken captive, and whom they desire 
to conduct them to his people, and who lies 
to them to his utmost. (Fr, L.) [See another 
ex. voce tjU-l-e.]__>l strange, or foreign, old 
man. (IJl.) 

SjU-t Land which a man, (S, L, 5,) or a Sul- 
tdn, (8, 1,) taken for himself; as also 'iU.! : (S, 
L, 5 :) or land which a man takes for himself, and 
brings into a state of cultivation afier iu having 
been waste : (AA, Mgh, L :) or waste land which 
the owner gives to him who shall cultivate it .- 
(Mgh :) and land which the Imdm give$ to one, 
not being property, (K,) or not being the property 

oj anotk^. (TA, as from the ?;.) See also 

iVi.|, in five places Also The handle of a 

[shield of the kind called] J*nir ; (Bi; [in the L 
written uL^, with the ^' before the m. ;]) also 
called its ^UJ. (L.) *" ^ 

#J>eA.I A thing that is taken by force. (L.) 
[See also X^l.] 

iU-l One who takes eagerly, or greedily : whence 
the saying, ily iU.1 4 cJf U Thou art none 
other than one who taketh a thing eagerly, or 
greedily, and then thrOToeth it away quickly. (A,) 

■ii^, (as in some copies of the T^, in both of 


though a pi. : but when you name thereby a man, 
it is perfectly deal., when inderminate, accord, to 
Akh, or imperfectly decl. accord, to Sb. (S, L.) 

The dim. of ji,T is ^^^^\; the \ with the ^ 

suppressed following the same rule as the t in 
^jl^: (TA:) and the dim. of jj>kl is ^{J^\. 

(S.) See also \Jj^^\ voce^T {Jj^^ aUIi *3 

^djl, (S,K,) or o^\ Jj^\, (?,) means I 
will not do it ever : (S, '^ :) or the latter, I will 

not do it to the end of time, (S.) And \Jlj^\ 
^yUt, The last of the people. (S,K.) One says, 

j»yU) ^j^-'S ^ fW Se came amxmg the last of 

the people. (TA.) And ^IJI Objl.1 ^^ «V 
-ffe came anumg those who were the last of the 
people. (S, A, K.) [See also ^t.] ... In jjt^\ 

j^'^S 4LUl, the last word b a mistake for j*>*^t, 
q. V. (Meshdrik of ' lydd.) 

• f 

kl, (S, Msb, K,) an epithet, of the measure 

J^li, (S,) and ^\eJ^\y (S, Msb,) The last ; after- 
most; hindmost: and the latter; after; hinder: 
and [as a subst.] the end : contr. of J^l : [or of 

9 Si 

J^l when used as a subst. :] (A, M?b, K,:) or of 
j^jjlU : (Lth, Msb :) or what is after the first or 
former : (S :) fem. of the former 5^1 : (S, Msb, 
Kl :) pi. [masc] O^J^^ (^^^ xx\i. 84, &c.,) and 
(masc. and fem., Msb) j^\^^ (S, Msb) and fem. 
sL)\jkS\ also: (Th:) and "^J^^U is syn. with 

^t^t \ as in |J«)Dt >«^U [occurring m the S and 
SL in ^T\.jt^^j meaning The last, or latter, parts, 
or portions, of the night], (T!Bl in art. j^^t^,) 

You say, \j^\ ^ and t \j^\ and "^ \jL\ and 
t ^^l^, all meaning the same [Se cams lastly, or 
latterly] : and in like manner, * \jtJ^\ *^t ^^ U 
and "^ ijmXi *9t [J ti^tc? no^ hnow it save at the last, 
or lastly, or Za^^^/y] : (S :) or 1 1^^| t\^ and 

t tj^t and t s^l and t 5^1^ and t s^t and 

1 5^g, (K,) or t sjll and t s^g, (Lh, L,) and 

ljm!x^ (TA) and t CjL\ and t CJ.t and t U^t 

and "^ »AiJ (K) mean A^ cam« lastly of everything. 
(K.) It is said in a trad., respecting Mohammad, 

c^~^^» c>- >»yst o' >b' 'M * b^ Jyy o^^ 

M£9^ t J^ Se used to say, at the end of his sitting, 
when he desired to rise from the place of assembly, 
thus and thus : or, accord, to lAth, it may mean, 
in the last, or latter, part of his life, (TA.) And 

you say, O^j^ J^^ ^^^s^l and 0*>« ?^^ (IA?^r, 
M, ^) app. meaning (M) [J cam« fo ^^^e the 
latter of two times;] the second of two times. 

(M, K:.*) And ji^l >.T i^l -^ J rwT/ no< 
xp«a^ ^0 Atm [<o f A€ cn^;? q/* ^tm«, or] ever, (A.) 
[See a similar phrase above, voce >»»T.] And 
^^wkt ,j^ U3V [^^ c«»i^ wt7A ^^6 Za5f o/" 
f Aem ; ^^ being here syn. with ^ ; meaning 
they came all, without exception], (A.) [And 
jUJ' >-^ L^ ^^ 6^1 and iifjl; and .J 

Ujb;^)^t, 7%a^ was in the end of tlie month, and 
of the year ; and in the last days thereof.] And 




ftj jlpt [Tfie day lengthens] hour 
by hour. (A.) See also^l, last sentence... 

J 9» 

je^^\ is a name of God, signifying \Tlie last ; or] 
Me who remaineth after all his creatures, both 

• X ^ 

vocal and mute, have perished. (Nh.) »«. oli^*^^ 
The two hinder dugs of the she-camel ; opposed 

X X 

to the sJU>^ 9 C^-^ ^^ ^^^ ^^i7< ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ 
the thighs, (E..) 5^^% (K,) for SJ^'^tjljJI, 

(Bd in ii. 3,) [and i^^\ SUalJI,] and t j^g^*^!, 

(K,) [2%^ latter, ultimate, or tof, and </e« ofA^, 
dwelling, or abode, and /(/!? ; i. e. ^/i^ latter, ulti- 
mate, or Zewf, and the other, world; the world, or 
life, to come ; and the ultim/ite state of existence, 
in the world to come;] the dwelling, or abode, 
[and life,] of everlasting duration : (K :) [each] 
an epithet in which the quality of a subst pre- 
dominates. (Z, and Bd ubi supr^.) [Opposed to 

y» i •x *« 

IjJjJt. And cj^\ also signifies The enjoyments, 

blessings, or good, of the ultimate state; of the 
other world; or of the world, or life, to come : in 

which sense likewise it is opposed to V^^ : (see 

XX •^•^\T 

an ex. of both voce c V, in art. *^ : so too ▼ ^jd^\')] 
_^JJI sJiU, (S,M8b,K,) find^^\, (Msb,) 

and »^t, (S in art. ^j^, and K,) and ▼ djj^^, 

(S, Mgh, Msb, ]g[,) which is a rare form, or, 
accord, to Ya^^oob, not allowable, (S,) and 

▼ ^/^>6, and * djj^yt, and ' ^j^y^y (S m art 
j»jj, and ]^,) and ^ aJj^^, (Msb, K,) or this is 
a mistake, (Mgh, Msb,) and ▼ ^j^y^j (J^j) ^^^ 
the first of all is the most chaste, (Msb,) The thing, 
(S,) or piece of wood, (Msb,) of the cameVs 
saddle, (S, Msb,) and of^ the horse's, (Msb,) 
against which the rider leans [his back] ; (S, 

X ^ 

Msb;) the contr. of its 2U>li [by which term 2u^\3 

X -^ 

is meant the Jsuil^] : (K :) the Jsuil^ of the camel's 

saddle is the tall fore part which is next to the 

breast of the rider ; and its S;*»t is its hinder part; 
(Az, L;) i. e. its broad piece of wood, (Mgh,) or 
its tall and broad piece of wood, (Az, L,) which 

is against, or opposite to, (^3U»J,) the head [and 

bach] of the rider : (Az, Mgh, L:) [for] the cj^\ 

X # X 

and the Jsuil^ are the O^j^y between which the 
rider sits: this is the description given by En- 
Nadr [ISh] ; and all of it is correct : there is no 
doubt respecting it: (Az, L:) the pi. of Sj^\ is 
is >^UI. (Msb.) ..- r^\ sl^T: see ^j-jOI J^U. 
^mmj^\ and ^ >«<w) [accord, to some] also signify 
Absent, (S^O But see j^l, second sentence. 

\ij^\', see^t. 


» * f 

j^^S dim. of >.!, q. v. (TA.) 

J^\[ji:y, (T, §, A, Mgh, Msb, ?, [in the 

C^ U^XjI,]) said by AO, (Msb,) or A'Obeyd, 
(TA,) to be better without teshdeed, from which 
observation it is to be understood that teshdeed in 
this case is allowable, though rare, but Az dis- 
allows it, (Msb, TA,) and U^U, and t U^T, 

(K[,) [The outer angle of the eye ;] the part of 
the eye next the temple ; (S, A, Mgh, Msb ;) the 

part next the J^laJ : (EL :) opposed to its j»jJU, 


which is the extremity thereof next the nose : (S, 
Mgh, Msb :) pi. j*Ju. (Mgh.) You say, ^\ 


« • 

* -^ 

6 J 

[Book I. 

[Se looked at, or towards, me from 
(lit Toiih) ilie outer angle of his eye], (S.) ..— 

S J • J JJx«J •*» 

J*.^t j^yt, and Ajj6^yA : see j^\. 

€ s ^ J 


The back, hinder, or latter, part of any- 
thing: its hindemiost, or last, part: contr. of 

9 S ^ J jEx ^ S * i XXX 

j»jJU : as in the phrase, a^\^ j^^ ^r>^ [Se 
struck the back, or hinder part, of his Jiead]. 

(S,Msb.) [See also >.! And >.T.] J^J^'J^^y 

and Aij6m.yA : see ^t. 

J ^ ^ * 

^3^t a name of God, [TJie Posfponer, or 
Delayer ;] Se who postpones, or delays, things, 
and puts them in their phices : [or Se who puts, 
or keeps, ba^k, or backward: or Se who degrades:] 

contr, o/>jiil. (TA.) 
see »^t. 

X ~ X 

O d 



J H( X J 


• ^ » 

• ^ ^ 

Lj a palm-tree of which the fruit 

remains until the end of winter : (AHn, K :) and 
until the end of the time of cutting off the fruit 
of palm-trees : (S, M, 1^ :) contr, of j\S^ and 

• Jx J ««x ^ 

j^: pL^^U (A.) 

J f- 

• . " * 

^U [reg. pi. of jW^] : see •*»!, first sentence. 

^ XX 

• « (xj 

^uo : see its verb. ... [An author, or other 
person, of the later, or more modern, times,] 



^ •^UUJI in the Kur xv. 24 is said by Th to 

XX * 

mean Those who come to the mosque after others, 
or late : (TA :) or it means those who are later 
in birth and death : or those who have not yet 
come forth from the loins of men : or those who 
are late, or backward, in adopting the Muslim 
religion and infighting against wibelievers and in 
obedience, (Bd.) 


1. O^f, [third pers. U.(,] (S, K,) aor. ^iu, 
(S,) inf. n. Iji.! ; (S, K, &c. ;) and t ^4^.1, (K, 

J • X X 

TA,) [in the CKl C«^1, which is wrong in 
respect of the pers., and otherwise, for it is cor- 
rectly] with medd, (TA,) inf. n. {U.t and Sl^^Ld; 

- X AS f^ • 

(Lth ;) and ▼ C-ts*-U ; (K ;) Thou becamest a 
brother [in the proper sense of this word, and also 
as meaning a friend, or companion, or the like], 

(S,* K,* TA.) t 5^1 is also [used as] a simple 
subst, (TA,) signifying Brotherhood; fraternity; 
the relation of brother; as also * »V^t and SW.)J^ ; 
and ^ fl^u : (Lth, TA :) and the relation of sister. 
(S.) You say, 1^! i^^ ^ and t JU.| [&c., 
meaning] Between me and him is brotherhood. 


X «x 

(JK,TA.) And VU awU«J!^ a^U-JI ^>rf f [Be- 
tween liberality and courage is a relation like that 

«A J 

of brothers], (TA.) And o^ is a dial. var. of 

9S st 

ly^\, occurring in a trad. (lAth, TA.):^[It is 

^ X X J • X C 

also trans.] You say, Ijl^ ^^\ I wcu, or be- 
came, a brotlier to ten, (TA.) 

A a 

J 0St 

^ ¥t « 

2. a^ljJU o^l, (S, K,) or a^ljJI, (Mfb, [90 

accord, to a copy of that work, but probably this 

• x |x 

is a mistranscription,]) inf. n. Ad*-0, (S, Msb, 
K,) I made an i^\ [q. v.] for the beast, (Mfb, 
J^,) and tied the beast therewith ; (Msb;) [and 

[t Our journeying u laborious : see an ex. in the 
first psragraph of art. jjA]. (TA.) _ ,j,fc 
0,t^')\ t -A /ever that affacU the patient tmo 
day$, and quiti him two dayt; or that attacks on 
Saturday, and quits for three days, and comes 
[again] on Thursday; and so on, (M$b.)~- 
^j^-^l jt'i : see^S, in art ^Jay 



Cn^t : eee >.l, in four places. 

3.2 *».l tt • • ) 

[^1 and 3^\ dims, of ^t and C.A.I.] 

\J^\ Brotherly; fraternal; of, or relating 
to, a brother, and a friend or companion : and 
also, sisterly; of, or relating to, a sister; because 
you say dt^t [meaning "sisters"]; but Yoo 
used to say * ,^j^^, wliicii is not agreeable with 
anal(^. (8,TA.) 
8 .J " a .. 

(jS*.! : see j^^l. 

^t^l, besides being a pi. of ^1, q. v., ii 
dial. var. of J,1^. (TA. [See art o^-]) 
!jU.t : see 3. 

S)ll an inf. n. of 1 : and also [used as] a 
simple aubst (TA.) See I. — When it does 
not relate to birth, it means f Conformity, or 
similarity; and combination, agreement, orunuon, 
in action. (Ibn-'Arafeh, TA.) 

i^'l, (Lth,S, M9b,:^,&c.,) originally of the 
measure iJ^U, [i. e. iiiL\,} (Msb,) and J^ili, 
(Lth,M?b,?:,) and V-'t. (JK,§:,TA, [but' in 
the ^ the orthogmphy of these three words is 
differently expressed in different copies, and some- 
what obscurely in all that I have seen,]) A piece 
of rope of which the two ends are buried in the 
ground, (ISk,JK, §,) n>ith a small staff or stick, 
or a small stone, attached thereto, (ISk^S,) a 
portion thereof, resanbling a loop, being apparent, 
or exposed, to which the beast is tied; (ISk, JK, 
$;) it is made in soil ground, as being more 
commodious to horses than pegs, or stakes, pro* 
truding from the ground, and more firm in soft 
ground than the peg, or stake : (TA ;) or a loop 
tied to a peg, or stake, driven [into the ground], 
to which the beast is attached: (M;b:) or a 
stick, or piece of wood, (]^, T A,) placed crosswise 
(TA) in a wall, or tit a rope of which the two ends 
are buried in the ground, the [other] end [or 
portion] protruding, like a ring, to which the 
beast is tied : (1^, TA :) or a peg, or stake, to 
which horses are tied: (Qar p. 43:) [see also 
^jT:] the pi. of the first U ^\^t; (JK.S.Mjb, 
' ]^;*) and of the second, •blj)); (M;b;) and of 
the third, gu.1, (JK,:^,*) like as t^iU. is pi. 
of ael>A.. (TA.) In a trad., the believer and 
belief aie likened to a horse attached to his 2^T ; 
because the horse wfaeeb about, and then returns 
to hie i^\ ; and the believer is heedless, and then 
returns to believe. (TA.) And in another, men 
are forbidden to make their backs like the tjdl 

of beasts; i. e., in prayer; meaning that they 
should not arch them therein, so as to make them 

like the loops thus called. (TA.) Also t. q. 

>; (?;) i. e. The kind of tent-rope thus 
called. (TA in art. ,.^, q. v.)_And ^A 
sacred, or an inviolable, right or the like; syn, 
UjL and Uy (8, T^.) You say, ^^ljl J^ 
^J3 vWb [t ^'' ""^^ " <'"* belong sacred, or 
inviolable, rights, and ties of relationship and love, 
to be regarded]. (S.) And l^T ,^J^ «J t -He 
has, with me, or tn my estimation, a strong, 
sacred, or inviolable, right; and a near tie or 
connexion, or means of access or intimacy or in- 
gratitUion. (TA.) .^ In s trad, of 'Omar, in 
which it is related that he said to El-'Abb^, 
<a>t tJi-'j *W •'e^' C^l] it is used in the sense of 
S^kf ; [and the words may therefore be rendered 
ITtou art the most excellent of the ancestors of 
the Apostle of Ood;] as though he meant, thou 
art he upon whom one stays himself, and to 
whom one clings, of the stock of the Apostle of 
God. (TA) 

1. ae»l> 3Ji\, aor i (T, §, M, K) and ; , (M, 
K,) but this latter is strange, [anomalous,] and 
unknown, (TA,) and - , (M, ^,) mentioned by 
Lh, whence it seems that he made the pret to 
be of the measure ,3*^> o^ that it is co-ordinate to 
^\, aor Ji, (M,) inf. n. >(, (T,S,M,) A 
calamity befell him. (M, ^.) And in Uke man- 
ner, jm\ #jl, aor. and inf. n. as above. An event 
befell him : (M :) or oppressed him, distressed 
him, or afflicted kirn. (Bd in xiz. 91.) ^ Set 
also 8. 

8. wU; (T,^;) and *?, inf n. 5'; (TA;) 
t, q, >j>ij [He acted, or behaved, with forced 
hardnessjjirmness, strength, vigour, kc.]. (T,^.) 

l\ (?,M,5) and tjl (T,]?) and » ^ (K) 
Strength ; power ; force : (8, M, T^ :) superior 
power or force or influence ; mastery ; conquest 

predominance. (M, j^, TA.).. Sec also jl, in 

two places. ._ Also, the first. The sound of tread- 
in,. (T.) 

i\: see >l. ^ Also, and ^ !>!, A wonder, or 
wonderful thing : (M,L,50 a very evil, abomi- 
nable, severe, thing, or affair : (§, M, A, L, Ij; :) 
a calamity; (8, A, L, ^;) or thus the formei 
word signifies; (M;) as also t>l, (as In the 
copies of the ]^,) or * jl, [originally »1,] of the 
measure J«U : (so in the 8 and L :) pi. (of ^1 , 
M,TA) Sbj, (¥;,TA,) or Jljl, (T,C5, [but this, 
if correct, is a quasi-pL n.,]) or ^bt, (M,) and (of 
Sjl, 9, M) «(. (T, §, M, 5.) You say also 
>I jrfl [meaning as above], using il as an epithet 
accord to LI?. (M.) And * Sjt a^l> [A very 
evil, abominable, or severe, calamity], (A) Henci' 
the saying in the ?.ur [xix. 91], 1j1 u#i >^ J^ 
Verily ye have done a very evil, or abominable, 
thing : (S, M :•) or, accord, to one reading, *bl ; 
both meaning threat, or (^rtmoiM.- and some of the 

[Book I. 

Arabs say, t^i j^jLi, which means the same. 

ii\ : see jt, in two places. 

8.* Si S 

i\: see >l :_and see jl, m two places. 

1. v>'* ^^^- -, > '"^^ °- V^'i ^^ invited (people, 
S, or a man, IK^) to his repast, or banquet ; (8, ^ ;) 
as also f v^^ C^r) °' A-«Ufe ^1 v^S ^o' V>3i 
[or v>ij]> (^^>?r) >°''- 1- v'^l [originally 
Vtjil].' (AZ, 8, K:.) You 8ay,^j«l» v*l> (?.) 
or>i^t ^^^ ^jt, aor. as above, (T,) He invited 
the people to his repast. (T, S.) And^^_,«y{>l 
^.••^1 Me collected them together for the affair, 
(A.) And_^j^\^ J\i\^ ^ ^»j\ [I will collect 
thy neighbours in order that thou mayest consult 
with them]. (A.) The primary signification of 

vil is The act of inviting. (T.) [Hence,] 

^ jl, aor. ; ; (Mf b, ^ ;) or ^»\, aor. -; (so in a 
copy of the M ;) in£ n. va', (M, Mgh, Msb,) or 
V>l t (^ t) ^^ made a repast, or banquet, (M, 
M;b, ^,) and invited people to it; (Msb;) as 
also ^ v)l, (M,) aor. and inf. n. ae above : 
(TA ;) or he collected and invited people to his 
repast. (Mgh.) ^ [Hence also, as will be seen 

below, voce v^M ^^'i ■^''- ; 1 i'^'^' ^ V^'i ^^ 
taught him the discipline of the mind, and the 
acquisition of good qualities and attributes of 
the mind or soul; (Msb;) and ^«^j1, [inf. n. 
^^i\3, signifies the same;] he taught him what 
is termed »^it [or good discipline of the mind 
and manners, kc. ; \. e. he disciplined him, or 
educated him, well; rendered him well-bred, weU' 
mannered, polite; instructed him in polite ac- 
complishments ; &c.] : (S, M, A, Mgh, ^ :) or 
the latter verb, inf. n. «^jU, signifies he taught 
him welt, or much, the discipline of the mind, 
and the acquisition of good qualities and attributes 
of the mind or soul : and hence, this latter also 
signifies he disciplined him, chastised him, cor- 
rected him, OT punished him, for his evil conduct ; 
because discipline, or chastisement, is a means 
of inviting a person to what is properly termed 
Vi**l- (MBb.)M»vi'>a«''-.(AZ,T,S,M,5,) 
inf. n. ^i\, (M,^,) He was or became, charac- 
terized by wliat is termed i^i\ [or good discipline 
of the mind and manners, kc ; i. e., well dis- 
ciplined, well-educated, well-bred, or TveU-man- 
nered, polite, instructed tn polite accomplish- 
ments, kc.]. (AZ, T, 8, M, ?:.) 

2 : see 1. 

4: see 1, in three places. _>^1 ^>l, aor. 
and inf. n. as above, -^ He filled the provinces, 
or country, with justice, or equity. (T^,* TA.) 

5. -fj^u He learned, or was tatiglu, what is 
termed ^>l [or good discipline of the mind and 
manners, kc. ; i. e. Ae became, or was rendered, 
well-disciplined, well-educated, well-bred, well- 
mannered, polite, instructed in jtolite accomplish- 
ments, kc] ; as also * .^i\Z^\. (8, Mgh, ^.) 

10 : see A. 

women,] do not lore any tate one kKo m made an 
object of love [by hia good qualities], (T, ^,) a 
proper object of late. (T.)»-^i'. (T, M,5,) 
aor. -, , (T,) or ^ , (M, ?:,) inf. n. XiS, (M.) I He 
wot, or became, la them, wkat is termed Xa^t ; 
(T, M, ^ ;) i. e., one who made people to knoro 
them; (T;) or a pattern, an exemplar, an ex- 
ample, or one irho nas imitated, or to be imitated ; 
and one by meant of mhom they mere hnovcn : 
(M,]?::) 80 save IA»r. m.)mm^>^\ ^i\ He 
pared, or removed the mperfi^ial part of, the 
hide : (T,' TA :) and Jgi>^\ *^>T, with inedd, he 
pared off the iijt [q. v.] of the hide : (TA :) or 
the latter signifies he expoted to view the i«jl [in 
the C5f erroneously, the iU>l] of the hide. (M, 
?.) — J.3I, aor. - , (M, 5,) inf. n. Jit } (T? ;) 
and J.jt, aor. i , (M, ?,) inf. n. aijjl (T, ?:) [or, 
more probably, 3Ui\, like i^«-> &c.]; He (a 
camel, and a gazelle, and s man,) nuu, or became, 
of the colour termed i«il, q. v. infr&, (M, ^.) 

2. (M>l, inf. n. _^jU, ^e put mucA ^l>l [or 
teatoning] into it. (TA.) 

4 ; see 1, in five places. 

8. AijtX^^ [written with the disjunctive aUf 
jsjJ^I] He made km of it [to render his bread 
plfosant, or savoury] ; namely _^)\, (M,* TA,) or 
>.ljl. (M.) [^^i[ is explained in the T and S 
&C. by the words a^ jtSi^ U, meaning That 
which is used for seasoning bread.] .^ ^yttl >jmSI 
I The wood, or branch, had the sap {X^\') flowing 
in it. (Z,?.) 

10. A«jU-r1 He sought, or demanded, of him 
>t>l [oT seasoning]. (Z, TA.) 

1.1 *..< .( iif ,j «,'( 

^jl: see aU^LMHAJUI^jl ^: >ee aUjt. 

^al: see^Ijt.__*U1j»ali»: and *e/'^J»a': 

^>t; see,^^!, in two places :^and i«>l. ^ 
jti': see^il. 

aJLaI lUjI ^: see 2^^!. 

«Uj1 A state of mixing, or mingling, together 
[in familiar, or social, intercourse}. (Lth,T, M, 
^.) You say, <Laat I , ^lii Between them two is a 

mixing, kc. (tth, T.) Also, (M, ?;,) or tjiji, 

(S,) Agreement: (S,M,?;,TA:) andfamUiarity, 
sociableness, companionship, or friendship. (S, 
TA. [The meanings in this sentence are assigned 
in the S only to the latter word : in the TA, only 
to the former.]) ... And the former. Relationship. 
(M, If.) — And -* «<««» of access (aie-ij,Fr,T, 
9, M, K) to a thing, (Fr, T, ^,) and to i perwm ; 
(Fr,T}) as also »iiil. (5) You aay, J,*^ 
iyi ,jl«3' Such a one is my means of access to 
thee. (Fr,T.) — And [hence,] ^ ^trewnf frAtc^ 
one take* with him in visiting a friend or a great 
man; in Persian Jjjl Cmj. (E^,L.)^J^>I ^ 

Ajjkt: ando^'^>l>*: see lU^I.^ In camels, 
A colour intermixed, or tinged, mith blackness, or 


with whiteness; or clear tvkiteness; (>I,K;) or, 
Bome Bay, (TA,) intense whiteness; (S, TA;) 
whiteness, teith blackness of the eyeballs: (Nh, 
TA :) and in gazelles, a colour intermixed, or 
tinged, with whiteness : (M, ^ :) or in gazelles 
and in camels, mhileness: (T:) and in human 
beings, (M,5i) « tamny colour; or darkness of 
complexion; syn. Sj.^^ [q- t.] ; (S, M, 50 ora« 
intermixture, or a tinge, of blackness ; (Lth, T ;) 
or intense Ij^^ [or tawnirass] ; and it is said to 
be from \jb^\ ^>l, meaning f&e colour of the 
earth : (Nh, TA :) or [in men,] t. q. l^ [which, 
in this case, aignifies mhiteness of complexion] : 
(TA;) accord, to AHn, it aignifies whiteness; 
syn.^j^Q. (M.) [Sea also ^i?.] 

2i>l: see Ljt aUi 'Ci\ '^, (M,^,) and 

*^i{,^(M,) or tJ^Sl, (?,) and C^>t, (M,) 
or ♦^>1, and *.^lil , (K,) \Heisthe pattern, 
exemplar, example, or object of imitation, of hit 
people, or family, by mean* of whom they are 
known: (M, K :) so says lAjr. (M.) And 
,_^l ^>l Ut^ cJji^ i I made such a one to be 
the pattern, exemplar, example, or object of 
imitation, of my people, or family. (T,S.) And 
Jiii iijl yfc, and ♦ iijl, xHeUa pattern, kc., 
to such a one. (Fr, TA.) And ^ iijl jj-jU 
1^"^ t Such a one it he who makespeople to know 
the son* of such a one. (T.) And aa^J iLa>t 3* 
t He is the chief, and provost, of hi* people. (A, 
TA.) And *•]! tilil oS*, and -*^1 ^ »>jl, 
t Such a one is the aider, and manager of the 
affair*, and the support, and right orderer of 
the affairs, of hit people, and of the son* of his 
father. (A,TA.)^[The inturr ^Atn; the cutis, 
or derma;] the interior of the thin, which is next 
to the flesh : (S, M, ?. j) the exterior thereof 
being called the I^ : (^ :) or (as some say, M) 
the exterior thereof, upon which is the hair ; the 
interior thereof being called the Ijlf : (M, E^ :) 
and *j»>l may be its pi, ; [or rather, a coU. gen. 
n. ;] or, accord, to Sb, it is a qua«-pl. n. (M.) 
_ Accord, to some, (M,) What appears of the 

shin of the head. (M,]^. [See 1^.]) And 

t The interior of the earth or ground ; (M, ]^ ;) 
the surface thereof being called its ,^^1 ; (M, 
TA :) or, as some say, its surface. (TA.) 

^il A seller of [^^I, or] skins, or kides : 
(TA :) and t«lj1 signifies the same ; and par^ 
ticularly a seller of goats' skint. (GoUua, from 
the lai^rwork entitled Mir^t el-Loghah.) 

^U^l and iiltii : see jn\. 

Jlil (T, S, M, Mgh, M(b, ?;) and Oil (the 
same except the 5) {Seasoning, or condiment, for 
bread; bhA any savoury food ;] what is used for 
seasoning (a/ ^|^ U, T, S, M,* Mgh, M(b, '^) 
with bread; (T, TA ;) that which renders bread 
pleasant and good and savoury; (lAmb, Mgh ;) 
whether fluid or not fluid; (Mgh, Meb;) 11« 
and &U« being peculiarly applied to that which 
ie fluid : (Mgh :) or^il is anything that is eaten 
with bread: (TA :) the pi. [of mult] of Jllit is 
jn\, (Mgh, Msb,) and, by contiaction,>il, which 

[Book I. 

is alsoosed as the sing., (M;h,) and [pi. of pane] 
Lit (M,K) andJliT; (?.;) or thia last is pi. 
of Jlil. (M, Mgh, Mab, TA.) It is said in a 
trad., jijl jiliSt ^ [Excellent, or most excel- 
lent, is the uasoning, vinegar!]. (T, TA.) And 
in another, JUlt 3^^tj \^ji\j>\i\ j^ [The 
prince of the seasonings of the present world and 
of the world to come is ^fiesh-meat]. (TA.) ^ 
AUt^lit y», and 4A^j>\iU aee i«il._Any> 
thing conforming, or conformable; agreeing, or 
agreeable; suiting, or suitable. (M,^.) [Used 
also as a pi. : thus,] 'Adiyeh Ed-Dubeyreeyeh 

[They Kcre, to those who mixed with them in 
social intercourse, conformable, or agreeable.} 

JijI t. q. TjIjiU {Seasoned] : (T :) or Jui 
^J>S>^ {seasoned food] ; (M, ^ ;) food in which 
u^lit. (TA.) Hence the prov., J^ -a^^ 
-•^3' (J* [your clarified butter it poured into 
your teasoned food] ; (T, TA ;) applied to a 
niggardly man ; (^ar p. 462 ;) meaning, your 
good, or wealth, retams unto you : (TA :) or, as 
some say, the meaning is, into your Ak^ {or skin]: 
(T, ?ar* tibi supri:) and the vulgar say, ^ 
_^^ii^i [into your fimr], (TA.) And the aaying, 
Jfr*ii^ ^* Jr » • {Their clarified butter is in 
their seasoned food] ; meaning, their good, or 
wealth, returns unto them. (M.) And the say- 
ing of Khadeejeh to the Prophet, t,-<v'J Jli) 
Jjitjl^^i *>jiUjl (M,TA) Verily thou 
gainest what is denied to others, or makett others 
to gain what they have not, of the things they 
want, or tnakesl the poor to gain, (TA in art 
>j«,) and givest to eat food in which is j»lit. 
(TA in the present art) [Hence also,] iii^l 

thee my excuse ; or, perhaps, my virginity ; see 
ij J*] : (5 :) [or,] ae some say, the meaning is, 
my good manners : said by the wife of Dureyd 
Ibn-E^immeh, on the occasion of his divorcing 

her. (M, TA.) And hence, (^am p. 205, 

'Mgh,) Tanned skin OT hide : leather: (M,9am, 
Mgh, M;b :) or skin, or hide, (M, 1^,) in whatever 
state it be : (M :) or red skin or ktde : (M, ^ :) 
or skin, or hide, in the state after that in mhich 
it it termed J^t ; that is, when it it complete {in 
its tanning] and kas become red: (M :) or the 
exterior of the skin of anything : (T :) pi. [of 
pane] l«iT(S, M, K) and^lil and [of mult.]»1, 
(M, 5,) the last from Lh, and [says ISd] t hold 
that he who says J-y sayB»l, (M,) and ♦»!, 
(T, §, Mab, ?,) or this is a quaa-pl. n., (Sb, M, 
Mgh,) [often used ae a gen. n.,] of which ^I>l 
may be pi. (M.)— .^it ywl and o«^3' tlw' 
and aii? aJ:ji ^1 : Bee o*\' »•» ^ (j^ One 
says, t^\ ^J^hi s^' UjI [Ht.] Only the 
hide that has the exterior part, upon which the 
hair grows, i* put again into the tan: (T:) b 
proT. ; (TA ;) meaning, only he is disciplined, or 


equipments, equipage, accoutrements, furniture, 
gear, tackling, implements, tools, or the like; 

Byn. allt : (S, TA :) the pi. of l\>\ is Oiy>!. 

(T, S, Msb, K.) You say, 2\>\ iit [He took 
his apparatus, &c. ; or prepared, furnished, 

equipped, or accoutred, himself] ; (S, M, SL ;) >*>J 

[for the affair], and jJuM [for joumej/ing, or 

^>1 — J1 

[Book I. 


the journey], (M,) and >AjJi3 [for the vicissi- 
tudes oi fortune]; (T, S,K:) and it is related 
on the authority of Ks, that they said Aj\jJk j^\ ; 
substituting t for t. (Lh, M). And Jb Jj O j^t 

^ Ai>' ^o*^' i- e« A^^< [ J^ ^oo/i ybr that affair 
its apparatus, &c.]. (S, TA.) And jJLp O*^ 

5^1*aU ▼ L<>l TFc ar« «n a state of preparation 

* * ^f ^ „— 

ybr prayer. (S,TA.)_ [Hence, in grammar, 

A particle ; as being a kind of auxiliary ; in- 
cluding the article J I, the preposition, the con- 
junction, and the interjection ; but not the adver- 
bial noun.] 

ir>t : see l\^\, in three places, sbs Also A 
journey; or a journeying : from jLmS^ j^>t. (M.) 

Sjbt : see Sbl. 

^\\\i.q.l^', (S,M,Mgh,Msb,KO i.e. 
A small vessel [or bag] of skin, made for water, 
like the ^ ftk..> : (TA :) or, as some say, only 
of two skins put face to face : (M, TA«:) pi. 
{J3^>^ f (§> Mgh, Msb, K ;) originally, by rule, 
^t>t ', which is changed, as in the cases of 

IfUxo and bUa^, from the measure J^U^ to the 

measure ^U^, so that the^ in (Jf^bt is a sub- 
stitute for the augmentative \ in the sing., and 

the final alif [written ^] in ^^\>\ is a substitute 

* 'f 

for the ^ in the sing. (S.) .. See also St>t. 


^>t [a noun denoting the comparative and 
superlative degrees, irregularly formed from the 

verb \^^\ ; like as the noun ^^\ in art ^>1 is 

irregularly formed from the verb ^^^1 in that 

art.]. You say, 5j-w ^^\ ^, meaning «|yt and 

dtj^t [Jif t« tlie strongest kind of thing, and, app., 
tlie most effectual to aid or assist, or to auew^e]. 
(TA.) BBS See also art. ^>t. 

• J 

>3-« part. n. of the intrans. verb j^>i [q. v.]. 
(T, S, M, &c.) BBS [And act. part. n. of «t>T.]aBB 
w, without *, is from ^^^\ signifying "he 
perished" [&c.]. (S.) 


J ••» 

•. t 

2. *b1, (T, S, M, &c.,) inf. n. ij^U (T, S, K) 

and 5bt, (T,) or the latter is a simple subst., 
(S, M, Msb, 5,) [and so, accord, to the Msb, 
is the former also, but this is a mistake,] He 
made it, or caused it, to reach, arrive, or come 
[to the appointed person or place &c.] ; he brought, 

conveyed, or delivered, it; syn. aLo^S ; (M, Mfb, 
Igl;) namely, a thing; (M;) as, for instance, 

l^JUbl ^J\ 2JW^\ [the thing committed to his 
trust and care, to its owner] : (Msb :) he de- 
livered it, gave it up, or surrendered it : (T :) 
lie payed it, or discharged it; (S,K;) namely, 
his debt, (S,) a bloodwit, a responsibility, and 

the like ; (Mfb in art. j^jk ;) [and hence,] U^>t 
• ^ ^ 
A^ [he acquitted himself of that which was 

incumbent on him ; or payed, or discharged, 
what he owed] : (T :) he performed, fulfilled, 
or accomplished, it ; namely, [for instance,] 

»,fcH [the pilgriTnage] ; (Msb in art. ^^aS ;) 

and in like manner, %sl^Up3t [the religious rites 

and ceremonies of the pilgrimage], (Jel in ii. 
196, and Msb ubi supr^.) It is said in the Kxlt 

[xliv. 17], 4tDI >Uft jJI l^^l ^j\, meaning Deliver 
ye to ms [the servants of Ood,] the children of 

S" if 

Israel : or, as some say, the meaning is, ^\ \^^\ 
Su\ y^ b d^ 4ii\j^jA\ U [perform ye to me 

tliat which Ood hath commanded you to do, O 
servants of Ood] : or it may mean listen ye, 
or give ye ear, to me; as though the spedker said, 

j^^JL^^ ^\ t^^t ; the verb being used in this sense 
by the Arabs. (T.) And one says, d) ▼ wo>u, 
Ate. ^>«, (K, TA,) and A^Jt , in the place of d), 

meaning dJJ^t ; (TA ;) i. e. / payed him his 

due, or right. (K, TA.) And a man says, 

. a ^( "9 ^ 9f X 

▼iC^UI (Ju^ Liij>' ^ [J^now nof how to pay]. 

(TA.) One says also, a;p ^^>I [meaning -Hie 

payed, or Tn^z^i^ satisfaction, for him] : and ^>l 


».t^dJt a;^ [He payed for him, or in his stead, 

the land-tax]. (Mgh in art. (>»»•) [Hence,] 
El-Akhnas says. 

^>t : see art. ^y, 


' ir« 

J tfxo'tf^ ^ 

X X ^^x 

X ^ 


X* -» 

♦ ^^^l£>3 ^\j ji,^\ ^jj^ Jl^^ 

X ^ X ^ X X 

i. e. i?M^ J Aat?« jm// an^ay from me [what I had 
borrowed, or assumed, of tlie foolishness of youth, 
and amorous dalliance,] and now I am [or 
there is at my abode] a keeper and collector to 
the camels, or cattle, or property. (Ham p. 346.) 

XX X if 

«. [\ji£9 ^\ ^>t is a phrase often used as 

meaning It brought, conducted, led, or conduced, 
to such a thing or state ; as, for instance, crime 
to punishment or to ignominy.] 

4. ^>t, intrans. and trans. : see art. ^>1. 

J^ ^ Ax «l» 

5. j^im^\ Af}\ (^^U Tfie information, or news, 

rea^lied him. (S.) aae See also 2, in two places. 

« " J » 
10. *^U dt^Unit He desired, or sought, to obtain 

from him property, or sued, or prosecuted, him 

for it, or demanded it of him, (S, ]§1,) am;? 

extradited it, (S,) or fooA it, or received it, (]^,) 

^rom Am. (S, ]&.) bbb See also art. ^>t. 

St>t a subst. from 2 [signifying The a/:t of 
making, or causing, to reach, arrive, or come 
to the appointed person or place &c. ; of bringing, 
conveying, or delivering; of giving up, or sur- 
rendering ; payment, or discharge, of a debt &c. ; 
the act of acquitting oneself of that which is 
incumbent on him ; performance, fulfilment, or 
accomplishment]. (S, M, Msb, JS^.) .. [Hence,] 

^^f Jxx ^ J _^^ 

^\y^\ ^>--»- 3* -He has a good manner of pro- 

nouncing, or uttering, the letters. (TA.) .. Jl>< 

as a term of the law signifies The performance 

of an act of religious service [such as prayer &c.] 

^ X X 

at the appointed time: opposed to l^tcS, per- 
formance at a time other than that which is 
appointed. (Msb and TA in art. irc3.) 

^y] [a noun denoting the comparative and 

superlative degrees, irregularly formed from the 

^f ''•» 

verb i<>t; like as the noun ^>t mentioned in 

^*^ x*» 

art. ^>l is irregularly formed ftom. the verb ^>l]. 
You say, iiU^Jb ^^^1 ^a [He is mare, or better, 

disposed to deliver, give up, or surrender, the 
thing committed to his trust and care] (T, S, 
M, ?L) JJLu [than thou], (S,) or cj^ ,>• [than 

X * -• <» X 

another than he]. (M,* Igl.) [Az says,] the 

X x(« fit 

vulgar say, 2DU^ iS^^* ^^^ ^^ ^^ incorrect, 
and not allowable ; and I have not known any 

X»» X •( 

one of the grammarians allow ^>t, because ^}ji9\ 
denoting wonder [and the comparative and super- 
lative degrees] is not formed but from the tri- 

literal [verb], and one does not say, ^^\ in the 

sense of ^>t : the proper phrase is t\^\ L*>w^t. 
(T.) BBS See also art. ^>t. 

iX^ : see art. ^>t. 


31 a word denoting past time : (Lth, T, §, M, 
L, Mughnee, 1^ :) it is a noun, (S, L, Mughnee, 
IgL,) indecl., with its last letter quiescent; and 
properly is prefixed to a proposition ; (S, L, K ;) 

% 9^ ^ ^ 9 xJA 

as in jL»j jM 31 ^U.^ [/ came to thee wlien Zeyd 

• ^x AOx^A J Jx • Ox « 

^oo(f|, and^UI jl)j 31 and>yu jjj 31 [When 

X P B 

Z^c? was standing], (S, L.) The proposition to 
which it is prefixed is either nominal, as in [the 

words of the Kur viii. 26,] J^ JU^I 31 hj^^^h 
[And remember ye when ye were few] ; or verbal, 
having the verb in the pret. as to the letter and 
as to the meaning, as in [the ELur ii. 28, &c.,] 

dSij'j^ iU J^ 31^ [And when thy Lord said 

XXX ft 

unto the angels] ; or verbal with the verb in the 
pret. as to the meaning but not as to the letter, as 

in [the ^ui ii. 121,] J^iyJI J^^l ji;^ 3li 

[And wlien Abraham was rearing the founda^ 
tions] ; all three of which kinds are comprised in 

the ELur where it is said, [ix. 40,] jJli ty^^oiii ^\ 

X J • Ox^^ ^ f J X X X ii» J X X f }\^ Jx X * 

U* ij t^« yj<i »j!^ OiJJI *«•>.• ii -*» oj-^ 

^ * ^ ^\ 00 i OxOx X _.x JJx0 X 

Ujuo aDI o' CJi^ ^ A-^to) Jyu 31 jU)1 ^ 

^^0 *W* XXX X ft X ^^x 

[7/* y« n^/ no^ ai£? Am, t>ertZy Ood aided him, 
when those who disbelieved expelled him, being the 
second of two, when they two were in the cave, 
when he was saying to his companion, Orieve not 
thou, for Ood is with us], (Mughnee.) But 
sometimes one half of the proposition is suppressed, 

as in i)l3 31, [also written iltSl^] meaning i)l3 31 
iui^ [When tliat was so], or ^\^ i>l3 31 
[When that was, i. e. then, at that time], (Mugh- 
nee.) And sometimes the whole of the proposition 
is suppressed, (M, Mughnee,) as being known, 
(Mughnee,) and tenween is substituted for it ; the 
3 receiving kesreh because of the occurrence of 
two quiescent letters together, (M, Mughnee,) 
namely the 3 and the tenween, (M,) and thus one 
says, J^^; the kesreh of the 3 not being, as 
Akh liolds it to be, the kesreh of declension, 
although 31 here occupies the place of a noun 
governed in the gen. case by another prefixed to 
it, (M, Mughnee,) for it still requires a proposition 

Book I.] 

to be understood after it, (Mughnee,) and is held 
to be indecL (M, Mughnee) by general consent, 
like j^ and ^>«, (M,) as being composed of two 
letters. (Mughnee.) [J says,] when >! is not 
prefixed to a proposition, it has tenween: (S:) 
and hence Aboo-Dliu-eyb says, (S, M,) 

[I forbade thy suing UmmrAmr in health, thou 
being then sound] ; (S, M, L, Mughnee, T A ; [but 
in two copies of the S, for ^U^, I find ^U^ ; 
and in the L it is without any point ;]) in which 
[J says] the poet means >il^>^, like as one says 
' ii andJbliXe' ' (S and Fr says that some of 

# " 

^ » ^ 

^ •' X 

the Arabs say, j«^-d 31 3A5 IJ^^ IJ^ 0^> 

meaning ^^s^ ^13 3^ 3A [)SucA and such things 
were J he being then a boy], (T.) ^3^ also occurs 
for 3t [app. 3^9 but whether this or 3^ is not clear 
in the MS. fo)m which I take this]. (M.) When 
3t is adjoined to nouns signifying times, the Arabs 
join it therewith in writing, in certain instances : 
namely J^'.^ [At that time, or then], and J>S^^ 
\In, or on, or at, that day], and JJUy [In, or 
09t, or at, that night], and JJLHtj^ [ J;», or on, 

S ^ 

<Aa^ morning], and J^*j;;«ih»^ [Jn, or on, that even- 
«n^], and JSS^L* [In that hour : or at that time; 
tA^n], and JJUU [Zn that year], [and JJtJJ^ J.t 
f Aat ^im« ; then] ; but they did not say J>S3^\, 

because ^*^t denotes the nearest present time, 
except in the dial, of Hudheyl, in which it has 
been found to occur. (T.) When it is followed by 
a verb, or by a noun not having the article Jl pre- 
fibced to it, or [rather] by any movent letter, the 
> of 3t is quiescent ; but when it is followed by a 
noun with Jt, [or by any 1,] the 3 is mejroorah, 
as in the saying, 

[When the people, or company of men, were 
alighting, or taking up their abode, at Kddhimeh], 
(T.)_In general, (Mughnee, ]gL,) it is an ad- 
verbial noun denoting past time, (M, Mughnee, 
]^,) when it is a noun denoting such time, 

(Mughnee, T^,) as in 3Sii^ J^j J13 3b [ex- 
plained above], (M,) and in 3t 4S)\ tj^oj jJb 
tji^^A£> \J-iJi\ difcji^l [also explamed above, and in 
other instances already mentioned]: (Mughnee, 
]^ :) in the former of which instanc^es, AO says 
that it is redundant ; (M, Mughnee ;) but Aboo- 
l8-h&^ says that this is a bold assertion of his ; 
(M ;) [and IHsh says,] this assertion is of no 
account, and so is that of him who says that it 
here denotes certainty, like jJ : (Mughnee :) [J 
holds the opinion of AO on this point ; for he 
says,] 31 is sometimes redundant, like t3l , as in 
the saying in the Kur [ii. 48], i^y^ U j^t^ 3U, 

meaning ^^>o 0j^t53 [And We appointed a 
time with Moses; but instances of this kind are 
most probably elliptical : see the next sentence]. 
(^.) As a noun denoting past time, it is [said to 
be] also an objective complement of a verb^ as in 

[the yur vii. 84,] ^JJ^ M bi^Sb [And 

remember ye when ye were few] : (Mughnee, K :) 

31 — «3« 

and generally in the commencements of narratives 
in the ]§Lur, it may be an objective complement of 

^3t understood^ as in SSi^'j^ Jkfj JU l\J 

[before cited], and the like. (Mughnee : but see 
the third of the sentences here following.) As 
such^ it is [said to be] also a substitute for the 
objective complement of a verb, as in [the ^ur 

xk. 16,] OJ^I S!,,^ v*^l yj J^y^ [^Mi 
mention thou, or remember thou, in the Scripture, 
Mary, the time when she withdrew aside], where 
3 ns a substitute of implication ior j^j^. (Mugh- 
nee, K : but see the second of the sentences here 
following.) As such, it also has prefixed to it a 
noun of time, of such a kind that it is without 

need thereof, as in ^^yi, or not of such a kind 

that it is without need thereof, as in [the Kur iii.6,] 

t^JJ^' 3t JJK^ [After the tim£ wlien Thou hast 

directed us aright]. (Mughnee, K.) And it is 
generally asserted, that it never occurs otherwise 
than as an adverbial noun, or as having a noun 

prefixed to it ; that in the hke of^^Z;;^ 3t tjj^3t3 

^HtkJli, it is an adverbial noun relating to an objeo- 

tive complement suppressed, i. e. 4LDt ^L^ bj^^b 

* " 0J0J OJ0^^ " ^ 

yi<sJl3 j^!^^ ^\ SA^ [And remember ye the grax^e 
of Ood towards you when ye were few] ; and in 
the Uke of Ojul^t ^\, that it is an adverbial noun 

relating to a suppressed prefixed noun to [that 
which becomes by the suppression] the objective 
complement of a verb, i. e. [in this instance] 

^ ^0 ^ , Si J 0*0^ * 

^j^ 2bc3 j^^\y [And mention thou, or rememr 
ber thou, the case of Mary] : and this assertion 
is strengthened by the express mention of the 
[proper] objective complement in [the BLur iii. 98,] 

J* ^ 0% J0 J i0^ ^ \ tm ^ ^ J i 0io^ ^ ^ 

member ye the grace of Ood towards you when ye 
were enemies]. (Mughnee.) — Also, (Mughnee, 
K,) accord, to some, (T, Mughnee,) it is used (T, 
Mughnee, ^) as a noun (Mughnee, K) to indi- 
cate future time, (T, Mughnee, K,) and I3I is 

said to denote past time, (T,) [i. e.] each of these 
occurs in the place of the other ; (TA ;) the former 

being used to indicate future time in the Kur 

J ^ * ^ ^ ^ 

[xxxiv. 50], where it is said, ty^ 3t ^^ ^3 

[And couldst thou see the time when they shall be 
terrified], meaning the day of resurrection ; this 
usage being allowable, says Fr, only because the 
proposition is like one expressing a positive fact, 
since there is no doubt of the comine of that day ; 
(T;) and in [the Kur xcix. 4,] \MjCL\ ijLJ J^jJ 

[ On that day, she (the earth) shall tell her tidings] ; 
(Mughnee, K ;) this being generally regarded as 
similar to the expression of a future event which 
must necessarily happen as though it had already 
happened ; but it may be urged in favour of those 
who hold a different opinion that it is said in the 

]?:ur [xl. 72 and 73], ^ jii^\ 31 O^^ ^i^ 
j9^\^\ [They shall hereafter know, when the 
collars shall be on their necks] ; for ^3 p Uj is a 
future as to the letter and the meaning because of 
its having ij|^ conjoined with it, and it governs 

31, which is therefore in the place o£\^\. (Mugh- 
nee.) -i. It also indicates a cause, as in [the Kur 
xliii. d8,] JJ^jJ^ h^ji>^\JJjJJji oJ [It will not 

profit you this day, since, or because, ye have 
acted Tvrongfully], (Mughnee, ]&,) i. e. because 


of your having acted wrongfully in the sublunary 
state of existence ; (Bd, Mughnee ;) but it is dis- 
puted whether it be in this instance a particle in 
the place of the causative J, or an adverbial 
noun : (Mughnee :) Aboo-'Alee seems to hold 
ihaXj^L^^ 3t [as meaning when ye have acted 
wrongfully] is a substitute for, or a kind of repe- 
tition of, >5<JI ; an event happening in the present 
world being spoken of as though it happened in 
the world to come because the latter immediately 
follows the former. (IJ, M, L, Mughnee.) You 

say also, cJ». 31 ^ JLU^t [Praise be to Ood 

because, or that, thou earnest, or hast come]. (§ 

in art Vj^.)«.It is also used to denote one's 
experiencing the occurrence of a thing when he 
is in a particular state ; (S, L ;) or to denote a 
thing's happening suddenly, or unexpectedly ; (S, 

Mughnee, 1^ ;) like I3I ; (S ;) and in this case is 

only followed by a verb expressing an event as a 

^0^ ^ *■ 0^ 

positive fact, (S,L,) and occurs after U^^ and W^; 

^ 0^ 

(Mughnee, 5 ;) as [in exs. voce ^^j^ ; and] in 

% 0* I* ^ ^ ^ ^tx f0^ 

ju; (U. 3t t jk£» Ut U^ [While I was thus, or in 

this state, lo, or behold, or there, or then, at that 

time, (accord, to different authorities, as will be 

seen below,) Zeyd came] ; (S, L y) and as in the 
saying of a poet, 

S ^ *0i»^ ^0" ^it* 0^0 

*> ^ 

J J 0*» ^ <• 0<'X 

[Beg thou Ood to appoint for thee good, and do 
thou be content therewith; for while there has 
been difficulty, lo, easy circumstances have come 
about] : (Mughnee, K :*) but it is disputed whe- 
ther it be [in this case] an adverbial noun of 
place, (Mughnee, 1^,) as Zj and AHei hold; 
(TA j) or of time, (Mughnee, K,) as Mbr holds; 
(TA ;) or a particle denoting the sudden, or 
unexpected, occurrence of a thing, (Mughnee, K,) 
as IB and Ibn-Mdlik hold; (TA;) or a corrobo- 
rative, i. e. [grammatically] redundant, particle, 
(Mughnee, EL,) an opinion which Ibn-Ya'eesh 
holds, and to which Ei^Radee incHnes. (TA.) «i» 
It is also a conditional particle, but only used as 
such coupled with U, (S, L, Mughnee,*) and 

causes two aorists to assume the mejzoom form, 

X ^ t^ 4>0 
(Mughnee,) as when you say, ^\ ^y3U U3I 

[When, or whenever, thou shalt come to me, I 

* 0^ t^ 
will come to thee], like as you say, Uij l<3U ^\ 

^t [If thou come to me at some, or any, time, I 
' ^ 0^t ^ 

will come to thee] ; and you say also c^t U3I 

^ 0*t ^ 

[like as you say, CUpt ^\ , using the pret in the 

sense of the future] : (S, L :) it is a particle 

accord, to Sb, used in the manner of the condi- 

tional ^1 ; but it is an adverbial noun accord, to 

Mbr and Ibn-Es-Sarrdj and El-F4risee. (Mugh- 
nee.).. [What I have translated from the S, L, 
K, and TA, in this art., is mostly from Ij^S J^cA 
of JIJJ! vW : the rest, from i^JJI uU*^! vWO 


' !3l denotes a thing's happening suddenly, or un- 
expectedly ; (Mughnee, TS. ;) or one's experiencing 
the occurrence of a thing when he is in a particular 
state; (S ;) like 3J: (? voce 31 it pertains 
only to nominal phrases; does not require to 

be followed fay a reply, or the complement of 
a condition; does not occur at the commencemenl 
of a Bentence; and signifies the present time, 
(Mugbnee, ]^,) not the fiiture ; (Mughnee;) a* 
in vOW J^**' 'il* *=4-^ II ment forth, and lo, 
or behold, or th^e, or then, at that ■present time, 
(accord, to different authorities, as will be seen 
below,) the lion was at the door] ; and (in the 
saying in the ^ur [xx. 21], TA,) J^ ^y, tij* 
^JuJi {And lo, or behold, kc, it wtu a serpent 
running] ; (Mughnee, K ;) and iu the saying, 
^\3 j>jj t^U Cp^-j*', which means / Tvent forth, 
and Zeyd presented himseff to me mddeniy, or 
unexpectedly, at the time, by standing. (§, TA.) 
Accord, to Akh, it is a particle, (Mughnee, ]^,) 
and his opinion is rendered preferable by their 
saying, vWW '•^j O' '^^ '^^-^j^ V^ foent forth, 
and lo, or bettold, verily Zeyd was at the door} ; 
for [t>l cannot here be a noun governed In the 
accus. case, as] what follows ^Jl, which is with 
kear, does not govern what precedes it: (Mugh- 
nee :) accord, to Mbr, it is an adverbial noun of 
place : accord, to Zj, an adverbial noun of ti: 
(Mughnee, ^.) Ibn-Mdlik adopts the first of 
these opinions ; Ibn-'Osfoor, the second ; (Mugb- 
nee ;) and so El-Fenjedeebee ; (TA ;) and Z, 
the third ; and he asserts that its governing word 
is a verb understood, derived from iUbU^I ; 
[^rceably with the explanation cited above from 
the S;] but others bold that the word which 
governs it in the accus. case is the enunciative, 
which is either expressed, as in juj t^U <Z-^j^ 
tjjlita \.I went forth, and there, m that place, 
or then, at that time, Zeyd mas sitting], or meant 
to be understood, as in j-.>'^)t l>U, i. e. j^U. ^And 
there, or then, the lion mas present] ; or if it 
be supposed to be [itself] the ennnciative, its 
governing word is j *:...« or ^JLmI [understood] : 
and in the last of the phrases here mentioned, it 
may be an enunciative accord, to the opinion of 
Mbr, the meaning being jw^t ij.^UJti [And 
among the things present was the lion] ; but not 
accord, to the opinion of Zj, because a noun signi- 
fying time cannot be the enunciative of one signi- 
^ng a corporeal thing ; nor accord, to the opinion 
of Akb, because a particle cannot be used to denote 
the enunciative of such a thing; or, as signifying 
time, it may be the enunciative of such a thing 
if we suppose a prefixed noun to be suppressed, 
the meaning of j>m*^|I IJU being Jm^I ^-om. tSU 
\_And then was the presence of the liim]. (Mugh- 
nee.) You may say either uJbb j^} liu >Z-^ji. 
or I— 11^ [J went forth, and lo, or behold, &c., 
Zeyd was sitting or Zeyd was there sitting], with 
the nom. as an enunciative and with the accus. 
as a denotative of state. (Mnghnee.) The Arabs 

< , a. i-t , .,. it i .t I n t- 

■aid, ^>a 2x_] ^1 w>^1 ot t>»l •C-.i£-t Ji 
^[J* yfc IJU jj-J" [■'" MMrf to think that the 
scorpion wat more vehement in stinging than 
the hornet, and lo, he is (a» vehement as) she], 
and also, ul^l ^ I^U, which 6b disallowed, 
in contending with Kb, who allowed it, and 
appealed for confirmation thereof to certain Arabs, 
'gmoBt waa pronounced in his favour ; 


but it is said that they were bribed to give 
this judgment, or that they knew the place which 
Ks held in the estimation of Er-Rasheed ; and 
if the latter expression be of established authority, 
it is irregular and unchaste. (Mughnee.) ^ It 
also denotes the complement of a condition, like 
<^, (S, M;b,) with which it is in this case syn., 
(Msb,) as in the words of the %.\ii [xxx. 35], 

[And if an evU befall them for that which their 
hands have sent before, (i. e. for sins which they 
have committed,) then they despair]. (S, Msb.) 
^ It is also an adverbial noun denoting future 
time, (S, M^b, Mughnee, ^,*) and implying the 
meaning of a condition, (M?b, Mughnee,) and 
this is generally the case when it is not used 
in the manner first explained above. (Mughnee.) 
In this case it is not used otherwise than as 
prefixed to a proposition, (S, Mughnee,) which is 
always verbal, es in the words of the I^ur [xxx. 
Oi»4.j^' Ja'i 1st ui>'ih\ J>- i^j^lij iSl^ 
[Then, when He sliall call you, or when He 
calleth you, (for, as in Arabic, so in English, 
a verb which is properly present is often tropically 
future,) with a single call from out the earth, 
lo, or behold, or then, ye shaU come forth}, in 
which occur both the usages of t^l here mentioned; 
(Mughnee;) and In the phrase, ida^t wJ^ W 
[When thou shalt come, I will treat thee with 
hojuntr] ; (Msb ;) and in the phrase, 1^1 S)^t^ 
jLj\ j<«fcl [/ rtnll come to thee when the full- 
grown unripe dates shall become red], and ^jj tjt 
ij'^ [when such a one sltall arrive], which shows 
it to be a noun because this is equivalent to 
^J'^ jtMi j>^ [on the day when snch a one 
shall arrive] : (S :) or in the phrase j^^\ Ijj^ 
j_-4)l [and in many other cases] it denotes time 
divested of any accessory idea, the meaning being 
[Arise thou] at the time of the fuU-^oron unripe 
dates' becoming red: and so in the sayingof Esh- 
Sb^'ee, If a man were to say, j^ l^t |^U> t^l 
.iLxL^I, or jUI^I _J ^', [Thou art divorced 
when I do not divorce thee,] and then be silent 
for a time sufficient for the divorce to be pro- 
nounced therein, she would be divorced; but 
should he make it dependent upon a thing in the 
future, the divorce would be delayed to that time, 
he said, j~^t J^^^ ISl [using it in the sense 
first assigned to this phrase above]. (Mfb.) The 
verb after it is in most cases a pret. : in other 
cases, an aor. : both occur in the saying of Aboo- 

i^j tji i;fci; JjWli 
J^J«W JijjStiii 

[And the soul u desirous when thou makest it 
dedrous; and nihen thou feducest it, or restrictest 
it, to little, it is content]. (Mughnee.) When it 
is immediately foUowed fay a noun, as in [the 
phrase in the ^ur Ixxxiv. 1,] C^LL V l .L^-Jt 13J, 
the noun is an agent with a verb suppressed, 
explained by what follows it; contr. to the opinion 
Akh ; (Mughnee ;) the complete phrase being 
iijTiL^I i.-ff^" \i\ [Wlien the heaven shall 
be deft, (when) it shall be cleft} ; and in like 

[Book I. 
manner, ^\, as in the saying, in the IK^ur [ix. 6], 
i)j^-L;T^f^*&^I ^ J-Ll ojj- (I 'Atp.123.) 
And in the saying of the poet, 

J ^\i lit 
• £jj^l iJlii \^'^y^ ' 

^l^ is meant to be understood after l^l [so that 
the meaning is. When a Sdhilee (a man of the 
tribe of B^ileh) has, or shall have, as his wife a 
Handkaleeyeh (a woman of the tribe of Handha- 
leh, who were renowned for generosity), he having 
offspring from her, that (oflspring) is, or mil 
be, the maH-clad}. (Mughnee.)—-. Sometimes it 
denotes past time, (Mughnee, E^,) like as >l some- 
times denotes future time, (Mughnee,) as in [ihe 
saying in tiie ?;ur IxU. II,] ij^ jl ij^J ij^ lil j 
\if\ I^iaUI [And when they saw merchandise or 
sport, they dispersed themselves to it]. (Mughnee, 
^.) [Thus] it occurs in the place of Si, like as SI 
occors in the place of iSl- (TA.) _ And some- 
times it denotes the present time ; and this ts after 
an oath, as in [the phrase in the ]S^iir xdi. 1,] 
^Jiij^i W i,Mllj [By the night when it coveretk 
with its darkness], (Mughnee, ]^.) — It also 
occurs in the sense of the conditional ^1, as in 
the saying, ^yZ^ J £ s ^^ ISl .iU^I, meaning ^t 
^^^ J i>\ [Z will treat thee with honour if thou 
treat me with honour] : (T :) [for] what is pofr 
sible is made dependent upon it as well as what is 
known to be certidn, as in the phrases, jwj i\^ ISt 
[If Zeyd come] and j^l J*lj i^. tsl [When the 
beginning of the month shall come] ; or, accord, 
to Th, there is a difference between tSI and ^^1 ; 
(Mfb ;) the latter being held by him to denote 
what is possible, and the former to denote what is 
ascertained; so that one says, ^ ^ ^1 and 

_^t ^Ij ;U. Isj. (M?b in art. o'O When a 

verb in the first person dng. of the pret is 
explained by another verb after it immediately 
preceded by tSI, [J9«3 is understood before the 
former verb, and therefore] the latter verb must 
be in the second pers. sing., as in 43j)l 1st tli^ 
A^ i^ [meaning Thou sayest (of a thing) *^^ 
when, or if, thou hast turned U about in thy 
ith]. (MF in art. •.y. See also J;l; last 
sentence but one.)^It is sometimes redundant, 
like as St is sometimes [accord, to some], as 
tlie saying of 'Abd-Men4f Ibn-Ribf El-IIu- 

[Until they made them to pass along Kutdideh, 
(here meaning a certain mountain-road so named, 
8 in art. jiS,) urging on, Uhe as the owners, or 
\ttendants, of camels drive those that take fright 
and run away] ; for it is the end of the poem : or 
he may have abstained from mentioning the enun- 
ciative because of its being known to the hearer. 
(S.) When Isl is preceded by ,j^, [as in this 
instance,] it is generally held that ISl la not 

Book I.] 

governed by ^J*. in the gen. case, but is still an 

^^ Ml 

adverbial noun, -^S^. being an inceptive particle 
without government (Mughnee.) «. As to what 

it is that governs t^t in the accus. case, there are 

two opinions ; that it is its conditional proposition ; 
or a verb, or the like, in the complement thereof: 
(Mughnee, K :) the former is the opinion of the 
critical judges ; so that it is in the predicament of 

^JU and U^^ and ^^^i^U (Mughnee.) .. Some- 
times it is used so as not to denote a condition, 

' ' ' 
as in the words of the l^ur [xlii. 35], U 13^3 

Q^jkki j^ l^iyofr \And when^ or whenever y they 
are angryy they forgive]^ in which it is an ad- 
verbial noun relating to the enunciative of the 
inchoative after it ; for if it denoted a condition, 
and the nominal proposition were a complement, 

it would be connected by w^ : and the same is the 
case when it is used after an oath, as in an 
ex. given above. (Mughnee.) .. See also what 

tV , (Msb, TA, the latter as on the authority of 
Lth,) with tenween, (TA,) or ^^Sj, (T,S,M, 

Mf b, Mughnee, 1^, the first as on the authority of 
Lth,) written in the former manner, (TA,) or in 
the latter, (T,) when connected with a following 
proposition, (T, TA,) and in a case of pause 
written 1 1^1, (T, S, M, Msb, Mughnee, !§., TA,) 
and therefore the Baf rees hold that in other cases 
it should be written \i\ , (Msb,) though £1-Md- 

zinee and Mbr hold that it should be in this case 
also with ^y while Fr holds that it should be 
written with t when it governs, and otherwise 
with ^, in order to distinguish between it and 

[the adverbial noun] \^\ : (Mughnee :) a particle, 

(1^, Mfb, Mughnee, TA,) accord, to the general 
opinion ; and accord, to this opinion, it is a simple 

word, not compounded of 3t &nd ^t ; and as 
being simple, it is that which renders an aor. 

mansoob, not i^ suppressed and meant to be 
understood after it : some say that it is a noun : 
(Mughnee :) [but a knowledge of its meaning is 
necessary to the understanding of the reason given 
for asserting it to be a noun.] It denotes a 
response, or reply, corroborating a condition; 
(Ldi, T, TA ;) or compensation, or the comple- 
ment of a condition ; (Msb ;) or a response, or 
reply, (Sb, S, Mughnee, K,) in every instance ; 
(TA ;) and compensation, or the complement of a 
condition, (Sb, S, M, Mughnee, E^,) though not 
always : (Mughnee, TA :) and its virtual meaning 
is [Then; i. e., in that case; or] if the cassy or 
affair y he an thou hast mentioned, (M, B[, TA,) 
or as has happened: (M, TA:) [and hence,] 
accord, to those who say that it is a noun, the 

original form of the phrase «2i«j£»t ^>1 [Then, or 
til that casey or if the case be so, I will treat thee 
with honour, said in reply to one who says " I 

win come to thee,"] is JlijL\ ,V^ ^Sl [When 
Hum shalt come to me, I will treat thee with 
honour] ; then the proposition [^^^ V ] is thrown 
out, and tenween [or q] is substituted for it, 
(Mughnee,) for which reason, and to distinguish 

between it and [the adverbial] tS^y the Koofees 

liold that it diould be written with ^, (Msb,) and 

l^t [preceded by ^J^ v«^*^ or the like] is sup- 
Bk. I. 

»il — Oi< 

pressed and meant to be understood [as that which 
renders the aor. mansoob ; so that when one says 

iUji>t ^jl\ , it is as though he said ^^/^^ tSt 

^^^S ^\ (JLp ^%jfci ^» When thou shalt corns to 

m£, it will he incumbent, or ohligatory, on me to 
treat thee with honour], (Mughnee.) It renders 
an aor. following it mansoob on certain conditions : 
(Mughnee, TA :) to have this effect, the aor. must 
have a ftiture signification, (T, S, Mughnee, TA,) 
not present : (TA :) \^\ must commence the phrase 
in which the aor. occurs j . (Mughnee, TA ;) [or, 
in other words,] the aor. must not be syntactically 
dependent upon what precedes 13 1: (TA:) and 
there must be nothing intervening between \^\ and 
the aor., (T, Mughnee, TA,) unless It is a particle, 

(T,) or an oath, (T, Mughnee,) or the negative •^: 
(Mughnee :) therefore, to a person who says, 
" To-night I will visit thee," (S,) or who says, 
" I will come to thee," (Mughnee,) you say, 

^iltj^S Q^\ \Theny or in that casey &c., I will 

treat thee with honour] ; (T, S, Mughnee ;) and 
to one who says, " I will treat thee with honour," 

you say, ^SKu^S \^\ [Then, or if the case he so, I 
will come to thee], (TA.) When the verb after 
^3t has the present signification, it does not 
govern : (S, Mughnee, TA :) therefore, to a per- 

son who says, "I love thee, you say, ^Lh\ ^31 
l9>li0 [Then, or if the case he so, I think tliee 
veracious] ; for this is a mere reply : (Mughnee :) 

and to one talking to thee, if}^£9 iU»t t3| [Then 
I think tfiee to he lying]. (TA.) When it is put 
in a middle place, (S,) not commencing the phrase, 
(Mughnee,) the verb after it not being syntacti- 
cally dependent upon what is before it, (S, TA,) 
it does not govern : (S, Mughnee, TA :) there- 
fore, to one who says, " I will come to thee," 

(Mughnee, TA,) you say, JX^jL\ ^^3] CI [/, in 
that case, wiU treat thee with honour] : (S, Mugh- 
nee, TA :) for ^^^3^ among the words which govern 

verbs is likened to ^>k)t among those which 
govern nouns: (S:) and when it is. put at the 
end, it does not govern ; as when you say, 


\ [I will treat thee with honour in that 

case]. (S.) The saying [of the poet, or rdjiz], 


«« ^ >• ^ 


t »$ 

of * 

is explained by regarding it as an instance of the 
suppression of the enunciative of ^t , so that the 

meaning is, ^3 ^^^ j^^ ^ ^^^7 ^^^ then a 
new phrase commences [wherefore the verse means 
Do not thou leave me among them rewrote, or 
a stranger : verily I cannot endure that : in that 
ca^e I should perish, or I should flee], (Mugh- 
nee.) When it is immediately preceded by a 
conjunction such as ^ or ^, the aor. may be 
either marfoo^t or mansoob. (S, Mughnee.) 
When a noun is introduced between it and the 
aor., the latter is marfooa, (T, Mughnee,) as 
in the saying, d^jxj j)^\ ^31 [TTien, or in 
that case, thy hrother will treat thee with honour], 

(T,) or S\JijL\ 4ir JlJc C 131 [Then, or in that 

COM, O *Ahd- Allah, Twill treat thee with honour] ; 
but Ibn-'Osfoor allows the intervention of an 


adverbial noun [without annulling the govern* 
ment] ; and Ibn-B4bsh4dh, that of the vocative, 
and of a prayer ; and Ks and Hishdm, that of a 
word governed by the verb ; but Ks in this case 
prefers nasb; and Hish&m, ref^ (Mughnee.) 
When you put an oath in the place of the noun, 
you make the aor. manfoob, as in the saying, 
^Ui 43[HJ 131 [^^ or if the case he so, hy 
Ood, thou wilt sleep] : but if you prefix J to 
the verb with the oath, you make the aor. marfoo^, 

saying, jijXJ ^iiS^ ^^\ [Then, or if the case he 

SO, hy Oody OMuredly thou wilt regret y or repent], 
(T.) YiHien you introduce a particle between it 
and the aor., you make the latter either marfoo^ 

or mansoob, saying, »iUAI ^ ^^\ and dUAl ^ 
[Then, or in that case, I will not treat thee with 
honour], (T.) .. Sometimes the t is rejected, 
and they say, Jjiil •^ ^3 [2%^n, (a word exactly 


agreeing with ^^^3 in sound as well as in mean- 
ing,) or in that ca^e, I wiU not do such a thing]. 
(M, Ek,* TA.) ..i. IJ relates, on the authority of 

EJidlid, that t3l is used in the dial, of Hudheyl 

for 3t. (M.) .. [(J3l or t3l is mentioned and 

explained in the S and 1^ and TA in art. ^j^\y 

and in the TA in a^XIt Ud^\ vW also.] 


J ^*» 

jl3l The sixth of the Greek [or Syrian] months 
[corresponding to March O, S,], (K.) [This 

is not to be confounded with j^\ or j3^ which 
is the ninth month of the Persian calendar.] 


1. dj oV (T,S,M,Mfb,]^) and d^Jt, (M,?,) 

aor. :: , (T,'M8b, K,) inf. n. o3^ (T, S, Msb, Kl,) 
He [gave ear or] listened to it, (T, S, M, Mf b,K,) 
or him : (T, S, M, KL :*) or it signifies, (?L,) or 
signifies also, (M,) he listened to it, or him, 
pleasedy or heing pleased, (M, ]^.) It is said in 

a trad., (T,) ,v*ii ^ *ii\£» i,Jj M oi» t. 

^Ua)V^ (T, S) God hath not listened to anything 

[in a manner] like his listening [to a prophet 
chanting the Kur-dn], (T.) And in the Jglur 

^,t^ ^ f* 

[Ixxxiv. 2 and 5], lw>) wn>3|3 A.nd shall listen 
to its Lord, (M, Bd, Jel,) and ohey ; ( Jel ;) i. e., 
shall submit to the influence of his power as one 
listens to the commander and submits to him. 

os ^ f 

(Bd.) And you say, y^ ^3t He listened and 
inclined to sport, or play. (M.) _ [Hence, 

x2 ^ ^ ^ f 

perhaps,] >UJaJt ImZSj^ ^"^S f He desired eagerly, 

or longed for, the food, [perceiving its odour,] 
(ISh, ^,) and inclined to it, (ISh, TA.) 

[Hence also, app.,] ^^\ ^ 2 o3l, (8, M, T^,) 
or ij^ j^\ ^, (T,) or 1ji>'^, (Msb,) aor. -, 
(T, K,) 'inf. n. o^S , (T, S, M, K,) or this is a 
simple subst., (Msb,) and ^3^ (^0 [as though 
originally signifying He gave ear to him in 
respect of such a thing ; and then] he permitted 
him, allowed him, or gave him permission or 
leave, to do the thing, or such a thing, (M, 
Msb, 5^.) [See also Q^S, below.] You say, 
l^\af^S ^ JUAJJ wo3l [I gave permission, or 
leave, to the slave to traffic], (M8b.)«^^^3i 


tf^ «J He took, or got, permurion, or leave, 
for him from. km. (M.) You Bay, ^J^^ ^JJ^^ 

Jff*^' \J^ (?> '^A) ^<^ '*^> '*'' S^ '*^' 
permunon Jvr me Jrom the commander, or 
governor, or j»rw«w. (TA.) El-A'azz Ibn-'Abd- 

[^niJ wri'y /, rnken the prince it niggardly of 
hit permisiion, am able to tako permitnon of 
mytelf mkm I mOl]. (TA.) And a poet sayg, 

■ _ tijli *<'jJ V|>^, C-3j 

[J itud to a door-keeper, near by Tohom wot 
'her hou»e, take thou, or get tkou, permiuion for 
me to enter, for I am her hutbanSs father, and 
her neighbourl ; meantag, says Aboo-Ja^fitr, 
^^C^J ; for the snppre§Bioii of the J is allowable 
in poetry, and the pronimciation with keer to the 
C is accord, to the dial, of him who says wJI 
^. (8.)_.J,iJV Oil (§.'M,Mfb,JS,^ 
Bor. - , (S,M,5,) inf. n. ^ij and j^jil and i^jlil 
and iUI>lt (M, ^,) He knew the thing} hnen 
of it ; had knowledge of it ; became informed, 
apprized, of it. (S, M, Msb,^.) It is said in 

the ^ur [ii. 279], ^^j) JbT o^ vj^ ViU 
(§, M, ^) l%en be ye informed, or apprised, 
of mar [that shall come upon you] from God 
and his apostle : (M, ?. ;) or then be ye sure, 
or amtred, &c. (T.) [See also ^;)il, below.] ■« 
iiJI, (T,9,M,?:,) inf. n. o3), (T,) He kit, 
' or hurt, hi* ear; (T,8, M, ^;) or tiruck hia 
ear; (so in some copies of the Sj) and ^*iy 
signifies the same, (M, ^,) inf. n. oWJ- (TA.) 
[See also ^O^O^^ [^ though originally eigni- 
fying He had hit ear hit or hurt ; ] he complained, 
or had a complaint, if hie ear ; (^ ;) said of 
a man. (TA.) 

8. iiil, (S,M,?,) inf n. ^JD, (?;,) He 
mrvTig, or twitted, (iJ^,) Am (a boy's, S) ear .- 
(8, 50 or Ae »(r«cA, (vj^. TA,) or rtrucA »w(A 
hie finger, at fUipped, {jij, M,TA,) Am ear. 
(M,TA.) [See also ii SI.] They say, (in a proT., 
TA in art.Ji^,) Oiji^ ?ii^ ^V ^, (M, 
TA,) i. e. For every one that comet to mater it a 
single watering for his &nuly and his cattle; 
then kit ear it struck, to apprize him that he 
has nothing more to receive from them ; (TA 
in the present art., and the like is said in the 
same in art. j^^ :) or, f ''*«» ke it repelled from 
the mater : (TA in art. jy^ :) [for iiil signifiea 
also] ^.fHe repelled him, (lA^r, T, M, E^,) 
namely, a man, (IA»r, T, M,) from drinking, 
(5,) and did not give him to drink. (M, 5-) 
You say also, Qjl ^ IjJit, [in which the 
pronoun appears, from the context, to relate to 
camels,] t Send ye away from me the fret ones 
of them. (En-Na4r, T.)i™jJSjI J^\, (inf. 
as above, §,) He put to the tandaJ what is termed 
^5I,q.v.inM; (§,M,?:) and in like maane 

one sayg with respect to other things. ($, 5-) ^m 
i^\, (M, 5,) inf. D. as above, (5,) also signi- 
fies He made known, or notified, a thing (.,^1^) 
muck; (M,5;*) ke proclaimed, or m^ide pro- 
clamation; syn. \^i^: (Jel in vii. 4&, and 
B4 and Jel in xii. 70 and xzil. 28 :) fib 
says that some of the Arabs make ,jV ^d 
^Oi' ^ '^ syn.: but some say that the former 
signifies he called out publickh/; and the latter, 
i. q.j^l [he made to know. Ice. : see 1]. (M, 
TA.) It is said in the\5ur [xiii. 28], ^J^ Jjilj 
^^^V h^wl (M) Andproclaim tkou, among the 
people, tke pilgrimage. (Bd, Jel.) ^ Also, (S, 
]^,) or rjJjlj ^l\, (Mfb,) inf. n. as above, (M, 
5,) or J|lif, (8,) or both, (TA,) or the latter 
is [properly speaking] a simple subst. [used 
an inf. n.], as in the instances of Ul>j e>j and 
Ci^ JS. and U-ii* J^ &c., (Msb,) He 
called to prayer ; (M, ^.\) he notified, or made 
knonm, or proclaimed, [i. e., chanted, from the 
3jji»,] the time of prayer; (8,' Msb,' TA ;) 
and ' oi' fiignifics the same, (K,) inf. n. o^.J-!l. 
(TA.) IB says, the phrase j.^t ^)t, with the 
verb in the act. form, [a phrase commonly obtain- 
ing in the present day,] is wrong; the correct 
ezpression being ji^^ \^^ [The time of the 
prayer of afternoon mat proclaimed, i. e., chanted], 
with the verb in the pass, form, and with the 
preposition to connect it with its sabject. (Msb.) 
^Yon say also, eX/) jCjb ^^t He spoke of 
tending amay kit camelt. (£a-Nadr, T.) 

•Jl: see 1, last sentence but one. -^[Hence, 
app.,] inf. n. oW'> t He prevented Aim, or^ 
' ' '%; (^\) «aA repelled kim. (TA.) [See 
also 2.]^ And ^ It (a thing, M) pleated, or 
rejoiced. Aim, (M, 5,) and he therefore listened 
to it. (M.)^i^y, inf. n. olJ^jl, (T, Msb,) in 
the place of which the subst. ^I^t is also used, 
(T,) signifies aC«Jicl [J made him to know, or 
have knomkdge ; informed, apprized, advertited, 
or advised, htm; gave kitn information, intelli- 
gence, notice, or advice : and I made it known, 
notifed it, or announced it] : (T, Msb :) and 
t wJ^O, also, signifies w>«i«l [as meaning / made 
to know, ice. : and I made known, &g.]. (Mgb.) 
You say, ^^ 4ii,i, (T,5, [in the C?, errone- 
ously, iiji,]) or t^Kl, (8,) and^'-^t iiil, (M, 
5,) inf n. o'-J^'i (T,) meaning a^I [He made 
him to know, or kave knowledge of, the thing; 
informed, apprized, advertited, or advited, him of 
it; gave him information, inteUigence, notice, or 
advice, of it; made it known, notified it, or 
announced it, to him]; (T, 8, M, ]^;) as also 
j*'j\^^iQ. (M.) So, accord, to one reading, 
in the ^ur [ii. 279], Jsn ^ yj-^ ^yi^ ^^ 
maAe ye known, or notify ye, or announce ye, war 
from God. (M. [For the more common reading, 
see 1, latter part]) And so in the j^ur [vii. 166], 
J)^j '^(Ji^ ilj -^"^ when thy Lord made known, 
or notified, or announced: (Zj, S, M, 5:*) or 
the meaning here is, mwwe .• (M, ]gL;") [for] yon 
say, ^>^llieI '' OliO, meaning ke tmore that he 
\ would atturedly do [such a thing]; (M:) Lth 

[Book I. 

says that \J£»^ \J£» ,>Xiiis * cJs^ signifies the 
making the action obligatory. (T.) You aay also, 
^utl ^ jf*')^ * cjy^ 2^ commander, or gover- 
nor, or prince, proclaimed (x$}i^) among the 
people, with threatening (8,]^) and prokibition; 
i. e. ^jij and J^\. (8.) And you say of a 
building that has cracked in its sides, ^It^y**^ ^3l 
i»yZi\^ f [It gave notice of becoming a ruin 
ind tf falling down]. (Msb in art. ^^i.) [See 
also a similar ex. in a verse cited voce "^1. And 
hence,] 4-i«l' OiT [in the C^ (erroneously) oji] 
J l^e herbage began to dry up ; part of it being 
ttiU succulent, and part already dried up. (M, 
¥:,TA.) A3:iA,.r^\ ^i,\\ The grain put forth 
itt a^il, or leavet. (TA.) See also 2, latter half, 
in two places, an ^3 1 and t ^^U are [also] used 
in one and the same sense [ae meaning He knew ; 
had knowledge; or became informed, apprized, 
advertised, or advised, of a thing] ; like as one 
says ^\ and ^^. (8, TA.) You say, t j^j6, 
meaning ^jUl [Know tkou] ; like as yon say 
^,«I«3, meaning ,,«jUl. (M.^ 

S: see 4, in eight places. 

10. 4ii\;i^\ He asked, or demanded, of Am 
permission, or leave, (M, M;b, 5,) M^ ^ to 
do suck a tkxng. (Mjb.) [You say, ^SUrfl mean- 
ing He asked, or demanded, permistion, or leave, 
to enter, or to come into tke pretence of another ; 
and to go. And aJ^ t)y^<^^ ^^ Oi^'i ^<1> 
elliptically, itgU Oi^'f ^^ ashed, or demanded, 
permittion, or leave, to go in to him.} 

• .i <^l 

0>I : see Oi'- 

^M [is held by some to be an inf. n,, like 
t t>jSI : (see 1 :) by others, to be] a simple subst ; 
(M|b;) signifying J'ermunon ; leave; or concet- 
turn of liberty, to do a thing: and sometimes 
command : and likewise mUl; (M;b, TA ;) as in 
the phrase Jb\ ^\^ by tke will of God ; (Msb :) 
or, accord, to El-]B[ai^llee, the withdrawal, or 
removal, of prevention or prokibition, and the 
giving of power or dbUity, in retpect of being 
and creation : or, accord, to Ibn-£1-Kem&l, the 
rescission of prokibition, and concession of free- 
dom of action, to him who has been prohibited by 
law : or, accord, to Er-Righib, the notifcation 
of the allowance oi permistion of a thing, and of 
indulgence in respect of it ; as in ^il/ plW "!)' 
d&l, [in the l^nr iv. 67,] meaning [but that he 
may he obeyed] by the will of God, and [also] 
by his command: (TA:) or, as explained in the 
Ksh, facilitation ; an explanation founded upon 
the opinion that the actions of men are by their 
own efiective power, but facilitated by God ; and 
in this sense, Esh-Shih&b regards it as a metaphor, 
or a non-metaphoHcal trope : (MF :) and accom- 
modalion ; syn. Je^ ; (Hr in explanation of a 
clause of iii. 139 of the ^i" [which see below] ;) 
but Es-Semeen says that this requires considera- 
tion. (TA.) ^ Also Knowledge ; syn. _JU ; 
(T,M,5;) and so 'oii'; (Mt?0 »» in Oie 
saying J>}li iiii (T.'M,'?:) and ♦ ^jXi (M, 
5) [He did it with my knowledge] : or i^l\ has a 

Book I.] 

more particular signification than JJ^, being 
scarcely ever, or never, used save of that [knanh 
ledge] wherein is wiUy conjoined with command or 
not conjoined therewith ; for in the saying [in the 
IJlar iii. 199, referred to above,] ^jJii^ ^\£9 U^ 
ibl ^h^ ^\ Cfy^ O^ [And it is not for a soul to 
die save with the knowledge of Ood], it is known 
that there are will and command; and in the 

saying [in the l^ur ii. 06], l>« a^ CK)^^ ^5 
^ O^W "^ *>^^ [But they do not injure thereby 
any one save with the knowledge of Ood]y there is 
will in one respect, for there is no difference of 
opinion as to the fact that God hath made to exist 
in man a &culty wherein is the power of injuring 
another : (Er-Rdghib :) but Es-Semeen says that 
this plea is adduced by Er-R&ghib because of his 
inclining to the persuasion of the Mo^ttezileh. 
(TA.) You say also, dji\f \S£9 cJLui meaning 

^x m^ 

J did thus by his command. (T.) 

^3t : see a^it. 

^i\ and t ^31, (8, M, Msb, 50 the latter a 
contraction of the former, [which is the more 
conmion,] (Msb,) [The ear;] one of the organs 
of sense; (M, TA ;) well known : (M :) of the 

fern, gender: (S, M, Mf b, 1^ :) as also ^o^3t: 
(? :) pi- 0^h\, (S, M, Msb, 5,) its only pi. form : 
(M :) dim. ▼ iJJ^\ ; but when used as a proper 
name of a man, ^it, though 3jj^\ has been 

heard. (S.) You say, 4^3 1 \^\S ;V [Se came 

spreading, or, as we say, pricking up, his ears : 
meaning] I he came in a state of covetousness, or 
eagerness. (T, T^, TA. [See also j^i.]) And 

4^31 W*^ ^^ ^^3 X I found each a one 
feigning himself inattentive, or heedless. (T, TA.) 

And a) ^i\ w%»><3 X I turned away from him, 
avoided him, or shunned him : or I feigned myself 
inattentive, or heedless, to him. (]^, TA. [See 
also i.r^.]) — X A man who listens to what is said 
to kim: (M, 5, TA:) or a man who hears the 
speech of every one : (S :) or who relies upon 

what is said to him; as also A^t ^i^^l^ : (M in 
art. ^/a^3 :) applied as an epithet to one and to a 
pi. number, (S, M, ]^,) alike, (S, M,) and to two, 
and to a woman ; not being pluralized nor dualized 
[nor having the fern, form given to it]: (IB:) 

you say ^i\ Ji^g (AZ, S, M) and ^J^\, and 

O^^ JW-j ^^^ O^^ [kc] : (AZ, M :) and some- 
times it is applied to a man as a name of evil 
import (M.) It is said in the ]g[ur [iz. 61], 

^.JU ^ Oi' J3 Oi' >» O^y^ (T, M) And 
they say, "Se is one who hears and believes 
everything that is said to him:" as though, by 
reason of the excess of his listening, he were 
altogether the organ of hearing ; like as a spy is 

termed r%^ ; or ijS? is here from ^^\ " he lis- 

tened," and is like ijb t and JJLtr in its derivation : 
(Bd:) for among the hypocrites was he who 
finind &ult with the Prophet, saying, " If any- 
iidog be told him from me, I swear to him, and 

he receives it from me, because he is an ^3t :" (M :) 
flierefore he is commanded to answer, Say, "A 
kearer of good for you." (T, M, Bd.) — iA 

sincere, or faithful, adviser of a people, who coun- 
sels to obedience : (Mfb :) a man's intimate, and 
special, or particular, friend. (TA.) .. X A cer^ 
tain appertenance of the heart; (M ;) [i. e. either 

auricle thereof;] ^.^JuUt U3t signifying two ap- 
pendages \\J^f) in the upper part of the heart : 
(K :) and | of a Jii^ [or arrow-head or the like ; 
i. e. either wing thereof] : and | of an arrow ; 

j^r^S O'i^ signifying the feathers of the arrow, 
as AHn says, when they are attached thereon ; 
and ^t3t ^*ii ^3 [a thing having three such 

feathers] meaning an arrow : all so called by 
way of comparison : (M :) and t of a sandal ; (S, 
M, K ;) i. e. the part thereof that surrounds the 

JIJ [q. v.] : (M :) or JjtUI Cil signifies the two 

parts, [or loops,] of the sandal, to which are tied 
X J X ^ 

the ^\jJ3^ of the ^|w, [or two branches of the 
thong that is attached to another thong between 
two of the toes, which two branches, however, 

sometimes pcus through the 0^3^ encompaesing 
tJie heel,] behind the narrow part (^«^t^) of the 
sole. (AO in an anonymous MS in my possession. 

See also >^t^.) — X A handle, (M,) or [a hop- 
shaped, or an ear^haped, handle, such as is 
termed] l^j^, (T, Igl,) of anything; (M, ]§L ;) as, 
for instance, (M,) of a J^^ [or mug] ; (T,M ;) and of a 

y > [or bucket] : so called by way of comparison : 
and in all cases fem. : (M :) pi. as above. (T.) 
-^ X What becomes sharp, or pointed, and then 

falls off, or out, of the plants called 9^j^ &nd 
jA^ when they put forth their u^y^ [q* v.]. 


or when their uoy^ become perfect ; because it 
has the shape of an ear. (AQn, M.) 

^^\ , also written \^\ : see art t^t. 

h\\ The leaves of trees, (En-Nadr, T,) or of 

grain. (K.) ... [The kind of leaf called ^^^ 

of the>U^.]-.t The young ones of camels and 
of sheep or goats ; (En-Nadr, T, Igl ;) as being 

likened to the a^^ of the^Ui. (TA.) A 

piece of straw : pi. [or rather coll. gen. n.] t q\\ 

[in the CJBl l)i\]. (lA^a*, T, l^.)sss Appetite, 
appetency, longing, yearning, or strong desire. 

(En-Nadr, T.) You say, A^'^1 1^ j^ hXf « jJL 

Sjujbw 2^^\ This is a herb for which the camels 
feel a strong appetite &c. (En-Nadr, T.) And 

'<0 a3St *^ J»Uib \jl This is food for the odour of 
which there is no appetite. (^,* TA.) 

^J\^\ A Tnaking known; a notification; an 
announcement. (T, S, Mgh.) [See 4.] So in 

the ?Lur [ix. 3], y-U)l ^\^ ^^J3 ^^ O^ O'^li 
[And a notification, or an announcement, from 
Ood and his apostle to men, or the people]. (T, 

Mgh.) Also, and ^Oii^, (T, S, M, 5,) and 

^3^> [the last an inf. n. of 2, and the second 


a quasi-inf. n. of the same, which see,] (M, ]^,) 
The notification, or announcement, of prayer, and 
of the time thereof; (T, S ;) the caU to prayer. 
(M,]gl.) [The words of this call (which is 

usually chanted from the 2U jJL, or turret of the 
mosque,) are j*£»l db\ (four times) 4)t ^ ^^^t j^t 
4i)\ y\^ (twice) aDI Jy^j \j^^m^ o' ^^ (twice) 
li^\ ^ ^ (twice) L'jSiS ^ l^ (twice) 

^\yj^ also 

j^S M (twice) M ^\ 4)1 %] « 
signifies The [notifcation, or announcement, 
called] 3u\3\ ; (M,K ;) because it is a notification 
to be present at the performance of the divinely- 
ordained prayers. (TA.) [This (which is chanted 
in the mosque) consists of the words of the 

former ^j)i\ with the addition of d^jUJt C%«li ji 

pronounced twice after ^"^S |Jl^ |>^.]«. 

OUt3*>)t signifies The ^j\^\ [more commonly so 
called] and the a^l^t. (TA.) 

Q^i] [An animal having an ear; as distin- 
guished fix)m f'^^^y which means '^having 
merely an ear-hole"]. (Msb in art cA^O 

CHi\: see ^^^31. aae See also ^i\, in three 

places., ■■■ And see ^j\^\.saBl. q. ^O^^ [Making 

to know or hat)e knowledge, j^Kf of a thing; in- 

forming, apprizing, advertising, or advising; 
giving information, intelligence, notice, or advice; 
m^aking known, notifying, or announcing] : like 

j^\ and ^j as meaning^ji and ^^. (M.) 

.. See also O^i^. w^ One who is responsible, 
answerable, amenable, or a surety; [>oW f^ a 
tking; and perhaps also p^ for anotker person;] 
syn. J«&£> (S,M, ]^) ^ndJ^fJ^ [which signifies 
the same as J^^^^ and is plainly shown in the 
M to be here used as a syn. of this latter ; but 
SM assigns to it here another meaning, namely 
^j^j, in which sense I find no instance of the 

^ 9 t 9 ^ 

use of Oi^\] ; (AO, M ;) and t ^31 also is syn. 

9 t' 9 ^ ^ 

with Qj^\ in the sense of yM^. (1^.) aae Also 

A place to which the ^Sy [or call to prayer] 
comes [or reaches] from [or on] every side. 

(S, ?.) 

lj^i\ dim. of o3^ q- ▼. (S.) 

^ilSl (S,M,Mgh,S:) and t^ST (M,]?:) Large- 
eared ; (S, M, Mgh, 5 long-eared ; (M ;) 
applied to a man, (S,M, ^,) and to a camel, 
and to a sheep or goat : (M :) [or] the latter 

epithet is applied to a ram ; and its fem. {\iy 
to a ewe. (T,S,M.) 


^^^\ One who hears everything that is said : 

9 jI 

but this is a vulgar word. (TA.) [See O^'O 

^^\ : see ,^<i<* 

^31 [act part. n. of 1. As such. Permitting, 
or allowing ; one who permits, or allows. And 

hence,] A doorkeeper, or chamberlain. (§,5«) 

9 t 
.. See also ^iH^t* 

• X • J 9 *t^ 

O^^ ' see \j3y^' 

• * 

•x • J 

« ^ 

J ^ 

^;)3^ : see ^}i\. You say, a^i^ >e^V *^^ 
jffw impress notifies [or w indicative of] good- 
ness. (TA.)— -0033^, signifying The women 
who notify, or announce, the times of festivity 
and rejoicing, [particularly on the occasions of 
weddings,] is a vulgar word. (TA.) bbb Herbage 
beginning to dry up; part of it being still succu- 
lent, and part already dried up : and a branch, 
or wood, that has dried, but has in it some succu- 
lency. (TA.) 


Sit: I 


see what next follows. 

lijb-* (whidi mey also be pronounced iij^a, 
M;b) The /t&ice [gftiendly a turret of a motque] 
upon which the time of prater u notified, made 
Antnm, or proclaimed; (T, M,*!^;*) i, q, ijU^ 
[which has this meaning and othere also] ; (AZ, 
T.SjMjb;) as also *aji|i: (AZ,T:) or it 
signifies, (as in some copies of the ]K^,) or signifies 
also, (as in other copies of the same,) i. q. •jU» 
and l]Mj<0 : [see these two words:] (^;) or 
J. q, *jU*, meaning i»*yie ; (Lh, M, TA ;) hy 
way of comparison [to the turret first mentioned]; 
but as to f ^iU) it is a vulgar word : (TA :) the 
pi. is ^iU, agreeably with the original form of 
the sing. (Mjb.) 

^>^ One mho noHJiet, vtahet known, or pro- 
clainu, [by a chant,] the time of prayer ; (M,' 
M^b,^;*) \\. e., who chantt the caU to prayer ;i 
as also ♦ ^>•SI. (M,^.) 

^jjU, as meaning A slave permitted, or 
having leave given him, by hie matter, to traffic, 
is used for 4} Oj^^i (^?^> 1'A,) by the lawyers, 
(Mab.) ^m Also Saving hie ear hit, or hurt ; 
and BO toil;. (TA.) 

1- iiil, aor. - , inf. n. ^Jt, (T, M, Mfb, j^,] 
in [some of] the copies of the J^ written \^\, and 
so by IB, (TA,) and iTjl, (C^, [but not found 
by me in any MS. copy of the ^ nor in any other 
lexicon,]) and, accord, to IB, i\i\ and 2^>l, 
(TA,) or these two ai« simple subete. ; (M, ]E:';) 
and *|^>U; (T, §, M, Msb, ^ ;) [^e wot, or 
became, annoyed, moleeted, harmed, or hurt;} 
he experienced, or tuffered, tlight evil, [i. e., 
annoyance, molestation, harm, or hurt,] leu than 
what it termed j'^A ; (El-Khat(Abee ;) or he 
ewperienced, or suffered, what mat ditagreeable, 
or hateful, or evil, (M;b, ^,) in a tmall degree ; 
(¥ ;) ^ ih A'wt. or it] ; (T, 8, M, }^ ;) [and 
4M»from him, or it .-] f ^3UJt signifies the being 
affected by mhat it termed ^3*^1 [i. e. what 
annoyt, molestt, harmt, or kurtt, one] i and also 
the showing the effect thereof; which is forbidden 
by the saying of 'Omar, ^uJl/ t^ijUJl^ ^iji 
[Avoid thou, or beware thou of, showing the 
being annoyed, molested, harmed, or hurt, by 
men] ; for this is what is within one's power. 
(Mgh.) ^_ Also, aor. end inf. n. as above, It 
(a thing) ivas unclean, dirty, orjilthy. (Msb.) 

4. j^iT signifies ^i^jH jii [He did what 
annoyed, molested, harmed, or hurt}. (M,^,) 
._ And ilit, (T, S, M, M^b, ?!,) aor. ^i^, (§,) 
inf. n, t\Sil t"^' ^^' ^^^^ ""^ [quasf-inf. n.] 
i^JI, (T,) or ^il and il>) and i^j', (§, ?,) but 
IB refuses his assent to this, saying that these 
three are inf. ns. of j^Jt, and "MF says of tlj^I, 
which is expressly disallowed by the author of 
the ]^, though be himself uses it, that others 
assert it to have been beard and transmitted, and 
to be required by rule, but he adda that he had 


searched for examples of it in the language 
the Arabs, and investigated their prose and their 
poetry, without finding this word ; (TA ;) [He, 
or it, annoyed him, molested him, harmed him, 
or hurt him ; or] he did what mat disagreeable, 
or hateful, or evil, to him. (Bd in xxxiii. 63, 
Mfb.) It is said in the ^ur [xxxiii. 47], 
Jtl>M\ eij, meaning And leave thou the requiting 
of them until thou receive a command respecting 
Aem ; (M, Bd, Jel ;) namely, the hypocrites 
(M :) or leave thou unregarded their doing to 
thee what is [annoying, maUtting, harmful, hurt- 
Jul, or] ditagreeable, kc, to thee. (Bd.) 
6: see 1, in three places. 

^il inf. n. of 1. (T, M, Msb, ?.) [As 8 
simple subst., A state of annoyance 
tion.] ^_ And [Amioyance, molestation, harm, 
hurt: quasi-] inf. n. of Uyi. (S,E:.)_It sig- 
nifies also, [like 1 2^31 tmd tiljl,] ^ C^>& U J^ 
[Anything by which thou art annoyed, molested, 
harmed, or hurt} ; (T ;) or ^i^ U [a thing 
that annoys, molestt, harms, or hurts thee] 
(Mgh :) or a slight evil; leu than what it termed 
j^. (El-Khattdbee.) You say, o* iJS*^' i"-' 
J^^LjI He reTnoved, or put away, or put at a 
distance, what was hurtful from the road, or way. 

(Mgh and TA in oxi. i»ed.) Also A thing 

held to be unclean, dirty, or filthy: so in the 
?;urii. 222. (Mgh, Mfb.) [Filth; impurity 
oAen used tn this sense in boolcs on practical law.] 

Jl Esfperiencing, or suffering, [annoyance, 
molestation, harm, hurt, or] what it disagreeable, 
or hateful, or evil, (M,» ^,* M;b,) tn a great, or 
vehement, degree ; (M, ]^ ;) applied to a man ; 
(MjMfb;) as also *|^il: (M,?;) and both 
signify the contr. ; i. e. doing what is disagreeable, 
or hateful, or evU, in a great, or vehement, degree. 
(B^.)_AIso, applied to a camel, That will not 
remain still in oneplace, by reason of a naturaldis- 
potition, not from pain, (El-Umawee, A'Obeyd, 
a,M,^,) nor disease; (?;) as also t j_jil : (M:) 
fern, of the former S^JI ; (El-Umawee &c.;) and 
of the latter ta^>f. (TA.) 

lit: andljt: see art lil. 

iljl an inf. n. of 1. (IB.) And [quasi-] 

inf n. of ilST. (S, ?.) See also ^^Jl and ij'jt. 

^il, and a^it as ite fem. : see it, in three 

a^il an inf. n. of 1. (IB.) And [quasi-] 

inf. n. of »\ii. (8, K..) _ And a subst. from «liT; 
(Msb ;) or, as also * i\y, a subst. from ^i) and 
iji,\3; (M, ^;) signifying A thing that is dit- 
agreeable, or hateful, or evil, in a small degree. 
(?.) See also i^it. 

ijii, (8, M, ^,&c,) with medd and teehdeed, 
(TA, [in the C^, erroneously, i^il,]) Waves (8, 
M, 'E,) of the sea : (§ :) or vehemerU waves : (TA :) 
or the (3^*' [^PP- meaning rollers, because they 
&11 over like folds,] which the mind raises from 
the surface of the water, less than (j^yi [but this 

[Book I. 

sometimes signifies abovey) what are termed ma : 
(ISh,TA:)pl. liilil. (6.) 

1. Ujl, aor. jji, (?,) inf. n. jl, (§, ?,) Jnivit 
earn; he compressed her. (^, ^.) 

jl jj, (M, TT, 1, [and so in the present day,]) 

or jl jl, (^,) A cry by mhioh sheep or goatt are 
called. (M.L,?.) 


^ A man (S,) much addicted to venery: (^, 
^ :) so accord, to A'Obeyd, as related by Sh and 
El-Iy&dee, but thought by A2 to be j^, of the 
same measure as j^m, i. e., ,^^ut, [originally 
^li,] fi^m tiji. (T.) 

1. vj'. aor. '-, (T, §, M, K,) inf. n. Sjljl (AZ, 
T, §, M.K:) and vjt, likeji^, (8,^,) He mas, 
or became, cunning, characterixed by intelligence 
with crafi and forecast, or simply intetHgeni, 
excellent tn judgment, sagacious, (T, [in which it 
is sud that As is related to have assigned this 
signification to vj^ ^°'- ' 1 "*^- °- Vj'>] ^i ^> 
?,) and knowing in affairs. (M.) [The TA 
assigns the former inf. n. to it when it signifies 
simply intelligence, and the latter when it has the 
more comprehensive signification of cunning.]^. 
•JjiJl; Vj'> [*or. - ,] He became expert, or skilful, 
in the thing : (M :) or he became accustomed to, 
or practised or exercised in, the thing, (8, 5,*) 
and became knowing, or skilful [tkerein]. (S.)_ 
Vj'i inf. n. %jij% is also syn. nt'tA ^^1 [app. as 
meaning He became familiar with a person or 
thing]. (M.)«.And '^j^^ vj' ^'^ signifies 
He devoted, ot addicted, himself, or clave, or kept, 
to the thing: (T, ]^:) and he mas, or became, 
niggardly, avaricious, or tenacious, of the thing. 

(T,M,TA.) And^'-JI^ v^l,and*e* ^^jV, 

He exerted, or employed, his power and ability 
in the affair, and understood it: (ISh, T:) or 
t^jU signifies he exerted his strength, force, or 
energy; or strained himself ; (Af,S, M;)>^j^l[jt 
[tn the thing]; (As, 8;) and «2^U. ^ [tn his 
needful affair, or tn tke accomplishment of his 
want]. (Af, $, M.)— ii«JI» ^j\ He had, or 
obtained, power over kim, or t(. (M.)hkvj'i 
- , (T, 8, ?.,) inf. n. ^j', (T, 8,) He mas, or 
became, in want, or need. (T, 8, ^.) [See «^jt 
•^^ iS^ O^t ^^^ ^o other phrases following 
a later part of Uiis paragraph.] ^ a^\ vjl, 
(M, Mfb,) or 4V, (T,) aor. and inf. n. as above. 
He mtatted it ; was, or became, tn mant, or need, 
of it ; (T, M, Mfb ;) and sought it, or desired it ; 

(T;) namely, a thing. (T, M?b.) 'Jt^X ^j* 

Fortune mas, or became, hard, or adverse : (T, §, 
:) as though it wanted something of us, for 
which it pressed hard. (M, TA.) And *J* vj' 
He was, or became, hard upon him in his demand. 
(TA, lTomatrad.)^*ijt, [fivm vjj.] Hetiruck 
upon a member, or limb, belonging to him. C^," 

Book L] 

TA.)_v^l (T, 8,?, TA,) HU member, or 
limb, (generally meaning the arm, or hand, M,) 
was cut off : (M, K :) or dropped off: (T :) and 
his members, or limbs, (generally relating to [the 
members, or fingers, of] the arm, or hand, TA,) 
dropped off, one after another, (S, ]KL, TA,) in 
consequence of his being affected by the disease 
termed jtSJ^ : (TA :) and it (said of a member, 
or limb,) dropped off, (TA.) The phrase, c^j! 

^.^. 1^3 Oi, (T, TA,) or ^^ ^^ Of i (?, 
TA, [and said in the latter to be likewise found 
in the T, but I have consulted two copies of the 
T and found only o^,]) or ^j^ ^h ^f (lA^u*, 
88 related by Sh,) or ixj j^ o^, (5,) but MF 

says that ^>« in this phrase is a mistranscription, 
(TA,) means, May the members [or fingers] of 
thy hands, or arms, drop off: (S, ]^, TA :) or it 
means, may what is in thy hands depart from 
thee, so that thou slialt be in want : occurring in 

a trad. (IA§tr, T, TA.) And d) U v^t, said by 

Mo^tammad on the occasion of a man's coming to 
him and asking him to acquaint him with some 
work that should introduce him into Paradise, 
means, accord, to ]^t. May his members, or limbs, 
drop off, or be cut off: what aileth him? (TA :) 
or, accord, to I A^, may he becoms in want : what 
aileth him? (T,TA:) but lAtfa says that this 
has been related in three different ways: first, 

%r^t, signifying an imprecation, [as rendered 
aboye,] and used as expressive of wonder: se- 

condly, a) U ▼ ^j\ ', i. e. d) ^U. ; U being 
[syntactically] redundant, denoting littleness ; the 
meaning being, he has some little want : or, as 
some say, a want hath brought him : what aileth 

him ? thirdly, ▼ ^j\ ; i. e. ^\\ ^ ; meaning he 

is intelligent, or sagacious, or skilful, [as is said in 
the T,] and perfect : wliat aileth him ? or what 
is his affair? the inchoative being suppressed. 
(TA.) • j^ C^^t dJ U, (M, ?,♦) another form of 
imprecation, (M,) means What aileth him ? may 
kis arm, or hand, be cut off: or, may he becoms 
poor, and want what is in the hands of others. 
(M, ^.*) — . [Hence, perhaps,] 43j>aU c^jl His 

stomach became vitiated, disordered, or in an 

, t 
unsound state. (]^.)-.%^jt also signifies Se 

prostrated himself firmly, or fixedly, upon his 

[seven] members [mentioned in the explanations 

of the word ^j\]. (T.) 

8. ^j\, inf. n. %f^jO, He, or it, [made, or 
rendered, cunning, or intelligent, excellent in judg- 
ment, sagacious, and knowing in affairs; (see 

- ^J^ '>)^ made to have knowledge, or skill ; or made 
to understand. (M, TA.) :aa He was, or became, 
avaricious; [in a state of vehement want of a 
thing ;] eagerly desirous. (A'Obeyd, TA.) [See 
also 1.] aae He cut up, or cut into pieces, (T, A, 
Mgfa,) a sheep, or goat, (A, Mgh,) limb by limb, 
(T, A, Mgh.) -. He cut off a member, or limb, 
emtire, (M, TA.) ^^He made entire, or complete, 
(T, §, M, Bl,) a thing, (S,) a lot, or portion, (T, 
TA,) or anything. (M.) 

8. Hj\, (S, A,) inf. n. Sijlji, (M, A,) He 

strove, or endeavoured, to outwit, deceive, beguile, 

J ^ " 

or circumvent, him ; syn. dUI>. (S, M,* A.*) 


f^^^ *§^ 

»*^ ^ * 

It is said in a trad., (TA,) V^^ j;*. ^^«9t a^jt^ 

[The striving to outwit the cunning, or intelligent, 
or sagacious, is ignorance, and labour without 
profit] : (A, TA :) i. e., the intelligent is not to 

be outwitted. (TA.) And a^ ^jT signifies He 

practised an artifice, a stratagem, or a fraud, 
upon him. (TA, from a trad.) 

• A^x 

4. ^^m^ Vj^ C^9 ^f ^9 ^0 ^^ ^® measure 
JjJf, (T,) inf. n. vlj^l [originally ^(j^l], (?,) 

He was successful against them, and overcame 
them. (T,§, M,5.) 


5. w>;U He affected, or endeavoured to acquire, 

),) cunning, or intelligence, and excellence 
of judgment, (]§1, TA,) and deceit, guile, or arti- 
fice, and wickedness, mischievousness, or ma- 

lignity. (TA.) [See ^j\.]—jp^\ ^ ^7^: 
see 1. 

• •t 

^j\ : see what next follows, in two places. 

• • 

^j\ Cunning, intelligence with craft and fore- 

cast, or simply intelligence, excellence of judgment, 
sagacity, (T, §, M, L, jgl,) and knowledge in 

affairs; (M, L ;) as also t aj^t and ^i^jS (M,5) 

and ^vj^ (^f^f) or ^Vj'* (1^0 You say, 
Vj! 3^ 3* l^^ is a possessor of cunning, or in- 
telligence, Sec. ] . (S.) ... Intelligence and religion. 

(Th, M, Bk.) ... Deceit, guile, artifice, or fraud ; 

♦ • ^ 

syn. jCo : so in the L and other lexicons : in 
the TSl, jLj [i. e. ''cunning," &c., as above] : 
(TA:) andsotijjl; syn.aigi^. (?.) Wicked- 
ness, mischievousness, or malignity; hidden ranr 
cour, malevolence, or malice. (K, TA.) [In a 
trad, it occurs in this sense written, in the TA, 

▼ Vj^*] ^* ^^ '^^ Vj^ ^^ ^^^^ places, aae Also 
A member ; a distinct and complete part of an 
animal body ; a limb ; (T, S, M, Mgh, Mf b, ]^ ;) 
or such as is made complete, or entire, not wanting 
anything : (M :) pi. ^tjt (S, M, Mgh, Msb) and 
y^\j\ ; (S, Mgh ;) the latter formed by transposi- 
tion. (Mgh.) You say, Vjl \^j\ dMa3 I cut him 
up, member by member, or limb by limb. (TA.) 

And ^\j\ 2jl^ ^^JLft >3Hi ...U or ^\j\ Prostration 

[in prayer] « [performed] on seven members; 
(S, Mgh ;) namely, the forehead, the hands, the 
knees, and the feet (TA.)...Also The mem- 

brum genitale; the pudendum; syn. ».ji : (M, 
]^:) but some say that this signification is not 

known : [see ^j\ :] in some copies of the "K., 

• ^^ 

the explanation is written ^^, with the unpointed 
•-. (TA.) ... ^\j\ [the pi.] also signifies Pieces 
of flesh, or of flesh-meat. (M.) 

• « 

see %^j1. aae TFan^, or n^ee?; (T, S, M, 
Mgh, Mfb, ]^ ;) as also t ^^t and ^ a^jI (the 

same, and A) and ▼ A^jt (^) and *a^jU and ▼ a^jU 
(T, S, M, A, Msb, B:) and taJjU (K) and t ^jti : 

TM, A :) the pi. [of ^jl or ^j\] is vb'^ ^^^ [^^ 
a^jt, and perhaps of the other sings, commencing 
with \,] w>jt ; (M ;) and the pi. of IjyU is vj^« 
(T, Msb.) It is said in a trad., respecting Mo- 
hammad, Aif^ jJSXi\ ^\£9 He had the most 
power, of you, over his want, and desire : (M,* 


Mgh,* Msb,* TA :) lAth says that the most 
common reading is ^.\^, meaning ^^^1^) : but 
some read ^ ^fi, [as in the M and Mgh,] i. e., 
either the same as above, [and so in the Mgh,] 
or ^pioa^, by which is specially meant the mem- 
brum genitale : (TA :) but this is not known. 
(M.) Respecting the phrase a) U ^jt, see 1. 
You say also, tjJL ^j'l tixjjl U WhaJt is [the 
reason of] thy want of this? (A.) And ^J U 
^j\ d^ I have no want of it. (A.) By ^ 

^^j^\ ijj^^f in the Kur [xxiv. 31], are meant 
Idiots; OT persons deficient in intellect: [fi*om 
i(j\ as meaning '' intelligence :"] (Sa'eed Ibn- 
Jube3rr, S :) or not such as have need of women. 

(Jel.) Z^\k^ ^^lijU, (S,A,)or6^\M^^1f^jU, 
(M,) is a proverb, (S, A,) meaning He only 
honours thee for the sake of something which fie 
wants of thee ; not for love of thee : (A, Meyd :) 
or only thy want brought thee ; not the object of 
paying extraordinary honour to me. (M.) [See 
also Freytag's Arab. Prov., ii. 690.] You say 

also, u^jy\ ,>• ▼dV^Uv J^^ meaning, Oo 

thou whither thou wilt [so as to attain thy 
want]. (A.) 

• s • t , ^ 

^j\: see «.^jt. ..Also [Expert; skilful: 

(see ^ji, of which it is the part. n. :) or] accus^ 
tomed to, or practised or exercised in, a thing, 
and knowing, or skilful. (S, TA.) See also 1, in 

the latter part of the paragraph. bbb ^j^ vjS 
[or ij-w jJI, (see VJ^)] ^^ * Vj^ of the measure 
J^U, (Msb,) Wanting, needing, or desiring, a 
thing. (Msb,* TA in art j^^, &c.) 

2^t : see %^jt : bbb and ^j\. 

2^jt : see w>;t, m two places : bob and ^jt, in 
two places. 

^j\ Calamity ; misfortune : (T, S, M, A, K :) 
[said to be] the only word of this measure except 

^j\ and ^Jjtf^ [names of two places]. (TA.) 

« j^l I dial. vars. of ^l^ and O^j^ 

O^KTA): ?^dj,3^. (M,.?:,.TA.) 
O>0> (TA): ) 

%^^ Cuntdng, characterized by intettigenee 
with craft and forecast, or simply intelligent [as 
in the S], excellent in judgment, sagacious, (T, S,* 
M,^,) and knowing in affairs; (M;) as also 

t ^^: (J^ :) pi. of the former 'Xij\. (T, M.)bbb 

Xujt jjJ A n^toe, an ample, or a capacious, 
cooking-pot. (K.) 

J ''•' 

^jT More, or mo«f, cunning, or intelligent, 
excellent in judgment, or sagacious. (A.) [See 

^j\ : see %^ji, 

^jU : see %^ji, in three places. 

a^jU and ^jU and d^jU: see ^y, in four 

^j^ A member, or limb, cutoff entire : (T:) 

or an entire, utAroken, member, or limb -. (S :) 
and anything mMU entire, c&mpUte, or perfect. 
C?,^) You «iy,i^'^J^ A ^toulder cut <if 
entire, (Mgh, TA,) having turns of Utjledi taken 
from it, (Mgh,) tntkout any deficiency. (TA.) 

1. iSjn we 2. 

8. ijt, (M, A,) inf. n. i^U, (T, S, ?:,) He 
kindled, or lighted, a fire; or made it to hum, 
bum up, bum brightly or fiercely, blaxe^ or 
jfaww; (T,8,M,A,5;) as also *i»jl, aor. ' , 
(T, ?.,) inf. n. ItJ; (?; in a copy of the A 
■Ljt ;} but this [saya SM] no leading lexico- 
grapher has mentioned, nor have I found any 
ezampleofit. (TA.) [Seealso ^jj.]^[Hence,] 
,*^l3 also signifies X The exciting discord, dit- 
teneion, ditorder, strife, quarreiling, at animotity, 
between a people, (S, ^.) You say, ,;^ ^jl 
^>l, (M,A,) and v^la j^'^i^^ ^7> (T. 
TA,) J He excited discord, disieneion, ditorder, 
strife, quarrelling, or ammosity, between, or 
among, the people, or company of men; (T, Mj 
A ;) kindled the fire of discord, dissension, &c., 
[or evil, and mar,] between them, or among them. 

5. jlJt <Z^ The fire became kindled, or 
lighted; or it burned, burned up, burned brightly 
or fiercely, blazed, or flamed. (S, M, ^.) 

i,t, ori^nally ^jj, (T,8,) Ttikeritance ; ora 
person's obtaining poisesnon of property left to 
him 6y otw who has died. (MF.)^jln w>A*r»- 
tance, or a heritage; what is inlierited. (9, A, 
^.)^ An oU condition, case, or ffafe o/' things, 
mhick the last has inherited from the first. (8, A, 
^.) So in the phrase, \^ ij^ >l>jl ^^ yk [^p 
if conforming, wt reject of such a thing, with an 
old state of things, or an old usage, which he has 
inherited from his attcestors]. (^.) And in the 
following ex., from a trad., ^^ ifjjl tJ^Ji^i*!^!-^*'' "-ill [I'w^y ye are conforming with 
an old state of things, or an old usage, which ye 
have inherited from your father Abraham}, the 
meaning is, that his religion was their heritage. 

(T,*TA.) [See also ij^.] A remainder, or 

what r^nains, (M, L, ^,) of a thing, (5,) or of 
the origiTtal of nibiag: (M, L;) pi. otji. (L.) 
_And [hence, app.,] Ashes. ("".Y) *'°" 
Origin, race, or stock. (8, M, A, Tf..) You say, 
J.fc^ ^jl ^^ y^ He is of an excellent origin, 
race, or stock. (^.) And .M)>^ wjjI ^ a!1 
[FffrWy ke is of a glorious origin, race, or stock] ; 
as also j.^^ tjjt, by a change of letters. (Ya?- 
^oab, M.) Accord, to lA^r, Ojl relates to ^^ 
[or grounds of pretension to respect or honour, on 
account of one's ancestors' or one's own deeds or 
qualities, &c.] ; and Cij^, to property, or wealth. 
(M.) [See art. ijj.] 

SJjl : see w'ljl , in three places. 
hiJlFire; (T,M,L,?i) as also tjiljl and 
f i£^1 : (TA:) or (so accord, to the M and L, 

but in the ^ " and") tinder, and the like, pre- 
pared for fire ; (M, L, ^ ;) [as also t Vljl and 

♦ aiji ; or these two words signify a means of 
ling or inflaming; as will be seen from what 

follows:] or a lumpofthe dung of a horse or the like, 
or a similar thing, with which one kindles afire; as 
also ^ ijjl : (A :) or this last signifies dung of 
camels or horses or the like, (§, 5,) or mood, or a 
stick, (T,) that isprepared, or put in readiness, 
by the ashes, (§, !^,) or buried in them, (T,) for 
the lime mhen it may be wanted (T, ^, ^) for 
fuel. (T.) It is sud in a prov., mentioned in 
the collection of Meyd, Sjljjtll f a3tjl K^\ 
[Calumny, or slander, is a means of hiiuUing, or 
inflaming, enmity]. (TA : but in Freytag's 
Arab. Prov., ii. 773, in the place of Dljl, we find 

• aiji.) 

<±>j;l : see the paragraph next preceding. 
myi : see •I'tjl, in three places. 

c'. , 

1. ^jt, aor. - , inf. n. Ijt (^, A, Mfb,^) and 
Li^\ (S, A, K) and Si^l, ($, [in which it is only 
mentioned as syn. with the first and second of 
these ns., so that it may be a simple subst.,]) It 
(perfume) diffused, or Bxkaled,its odour; (S,A;) 
as also t ..jU ; (A :) it had a hot, or strong 
odour; syn. «a>^ fr^i^- (^i ^t ^0 ~— -'^^ 
place) mas, or became, strongly fragrant. (Mfb.) 
an s-jl : see 2, in three places. 

2. m.j\, [and app. ^ ^^ also,] He perfumed a 
thing; jnade \t fragrant. (Qam p. 135.)^ 
[Both also app. signify He made perfume t 
diffuse, or exhale, its odour : or made it to have 
hot, 01 strong, odour. ^ And hence,] *-jt, inf. t 
yp ; (8, ^ and t ^J, (TA,) aor. * , (TKL,) 
inf. n. -.jl ; (?, TA ;) t He excited discord, dis- 
sension, disorder, strife, quarrelling, or aniTnosity, 
(S, ^, TA,) >j«)1 ^^^ between, or among, the 
people, or company of men, like t>ljl, (§, TA,) 
and y>^l 1^ in n^r. (TA.) And vj'-ll'rj'' 
(S,K,TA, and Ham nbi eupr&,) and * l^jl, (TA,) 
t He kindled war, or the mar ; ($, TA, and ^am 
ubi supHl ;) and in like manner, jLtt the fire. 
(IA»r, 5am.) 

S: seel. 

y (1) and 1 1^1 and * S^^l (ISd, TA) A 
smeet odour .- (ISd, L, TA :) pi. of the last, 1^(' 
(ISd,TA.) [See also 1.] 

M-jl Perfume diffusing, or exhaling, its odour .* 
having a hot, or Urong, odour. (TA.) _ Applied 
also to a place : you say, •.jl ^l£* A strongly 
fragrant place : (Mjb ;) and «,-cUV *-j' «=^ [o 
Aouw, OT chamber, fragrant, or strongly fragrant, 
with perfume]. (A.) 

lljl 09:) Rnd t ^>U (TA) t A liar i and one 

[Booi I. 

ntAo exeita diteord, diuenmm, ditorder, itrifa, 
qvarrellinfff or animotity, among people, (^,* 

-■ji* : see what next precedes. 
^^\i The Uon. «.) 

1. ,^»U£Jlljl: see 2. 

2. vl^fJ' ^J'' ^^' ^^''' *''*•' ^'^ "^- "■ 
LJs; (S, Mgh;) and » iijt, (!?«, M?b, ¥,) 
inf. n. f.j\; (TA;) but the former is the more 
common, (Msb,) and the latter is by some re- 
jected, though correct accord, to I^(f and otheia; 
(MF;) and ^ ij^J, (?,) inf. n. Sijlji; (TA;) 
as also o^j), inf. n. f^yi > (8, Mgh,* M;b ;) in 
which the J is a substitute for the > ; (Ya^i^oob, 
M^b;) a form seldom used; (Mjb;)^e dMed 
the writing, or letter; inscribed it with a date, or 
note of the time when it mas written. (8, Mgh, 
Msb,?.) Yon say also, li&>.^ v'^^' f-^ 
He ifucrihed the writing, or letter, with the date 
of such a day. (^, L.) And ^Jt 1^ .&> doted, 
or mentioned the date of, the evidence, proof, or 
voucher : in the contr. case saying, fjiS»\, (Mfb.) 
Some say that jMj^ is an arabicixed word, (L, 
Msb,) borrowed by the Muslims from the people 
of the Bible : [i. e., from the Jews or Christians; 
app. from the Hebr. tiy the " moon," or TV\* "a 
month ;" or from the Chald. TTT* "a month;" 
as observed by Oolius:] (L:) others say that it 
is [pure] Arabic: (Mfb, TA:) some, that it is 
formed by transposition from jtiM. (TA.) 

3 : see 2. 

<U.j1 : see what next follows. 

*^jU inf. n. of 2. ^ Also, [as a subst., gene- 
rallypronounced without >,] Af/ate; an era; an 
epoch; (Mfb;) and f ii^ji is a subst [signifying 
the same,] from m-j\. (T^.} W^JI *^o is 77te 
era, or epoch, of the Emigration [or flight (for 
such it really was)] of Mo^iammad [from Mekkeh 
to EI-Medeeneh], (L, Mfb,) which his com- 
panions, in Che time of 'Omar, agreed to make 
their era, commencing the year from the first 
appearance of the new moon of [the month] E1< 
Mo^arram, [two months before the Flight itself,] 
and making the day to commence from sonset : 
(Msb:) it is also called ^ff^C^\ LjfG the era, 
or epoch, of the Muslims. (L.)^Al80 The 
utmost limit, term, or time, of anything: whence 
the saying, 4^^ f^J^ O^ Such a one it the 
person from whom date the nobility, or eminence, 
and dominion, or authority, of his people. (Ef- 
^oolee, Mgh, TA.) _ [Also, A chronicle ; a book 
of annals ; a history : pi, i^j\^, from i-tj^.] 

[^X* A chronicler; a writer of annals; a 

Book I.] 


JjT and f^l The pine-tree; syn, ^y^t j^^ : 
(^:) or this b called ^ijjl, andjjl is the pi.: 
(A 'Obeyd, S :) [or rather jj\ is a coll. geu. n., 
and Ijjl i« the u. un. :] or the male of that kind 
of tree; (AQd,^;) as also tsj^; (^0 and 
die author of the Minhij adds, it is that which 
doe* itot produce fruit; hut pitch (sS^) u eay 
tractedjrom itt tTunks and roots, and its wood 
it employed as a means of light, like as candles 
are employed; and it ffrows not in the land of 
the Arabs: A'Obe^d says, ^ ijj I u the name 
t^ a tree nell hnomn in Syria, called ivith us 
jiy^, because of its fruit: he sayg alao, I have 
seen this kind of tree, called ijji, and it is called in 
E1-' IriUf. ^^, but this last is the name of the fruit 
of the Jjt : (TA :) or •• 9- j^j^ [& name given to 
the cypreu and to the Juniper-tree]. (^.) It 
is said in a trad., 2^.^-^t f S^^t j£^ ^l6l Ji^ 

ii«.i; I^ V;*lijjT oJh J^ c>0^' J>^ [The 
sinaKtude of the unbeliever is the similitude of 
the pine-tree standing Jtrmiy upon the ground 
until it is pulled up at once] : respecting which 
AA and AO say that it is *'*J[)'^I, with fet-^ to 
the J ; meaning the tree called ^j*jt : but 
A'Obeyd thinks this to be a mistake, and that 
it is ' ^^'i '*ith the J quiescent. (L.) 
Jjl : see Jjl : bbk and see also^l. 



Z}j\ : see jjl, in five places.- 

i)j\ The tree called ^^t [which is a hard hind, 
from rohich staves are made]: (AA, §, ^':) 
Bome say that it is ^ Sjjl, of the measure UcU ; 
but A'Obeyd dieapprovea of this. (TA.) See 

}^\ and tjjl and t^* ""^ *})' C^.M^b,?) 
and tjjl and tj? (Kr,]?) «">djlj (S.Mjb,?) and 
'^j, (§,?,) the first of which is the form com- 
monly obtaining among persons of distinction ; tho 
last bat one, that commonly obtaining among the 
vnlgar; (TA;) and the last, of the dial, of 'Abd- 
EI-^yB; (9,TA0 [Bice;\ a certain grain, (B, 
If.,) )mU knomt: (1^:) [said in die TA to be a 
Bpociesof^; but ihia is an improper explanation:] 
there are several hinds; Egyptian and Persian and 
IndiMt ; and the best hind is the ^J^y^ [perhaps 
a mistake for tj>««, or Egyptian] : it is cold 
and dry in the second degree ; or, ae some say, 
moderate ; or, as some say, hot in the frst degree i 
amd its husk is poisonous. (El-Minh&j, TA.) 

J,l: ) fc 


L -Ajl, (TA,) Bor. ', (T?;,) inf. n. ^jl, 
(^TA,) Me scratched with the nails, or lacerated. 
him, [a man,] or it, [the skin, or (as in the T^; 


the &ce,] little or much, so at to bring blood 

«<)(,- syn.iiji.. (K,*TA.) [This significa. 

n is probably derived &om t^jl as syn. vith 
,,4-^U, in which sense it seems to be the inf. n. 
D obsolete verb.j^A^jl, C^A,) inf. n. as 
above, (?, TA,) Se gave him (^,* TA) thejine, 
or mulct, for a nouttd. (TA.)^*^j1, inf. n. 
as ^M>ve, l^ey sold the milk of their camels for 
the mater of his well. (Sgb.) ■■ i^jt, like ^^^, 
(Sgh,) inf. n. as above, (8gh,^,) Se sought 
to obtain, or demanded, the fne, or mulct, for 
a Kound. Sgh, 5-*) 

2. ^iiJI c>rfuijl,(9.I',MBb,)and o^J" 'J^> 
[TA,) inf. n. J^P> (?. Mf b,) He made mischief; 
or excited disorder, disturbance, disagreement, 
discord, dissension, strife, or quarrelling ; (S, L, 
Msb, TA,;) between, or avumg, the people, or 
company of men, (8, L, Mjb,) and between the 
two men : (TA :) accord, to some, its original 
LB t,^^;^. (Msb.) ^ And jult t,Ajl, inf. n. as 
above,. Se kindled the fire; or iruide it to bum : 
(^, !^:) and in like manner, ^joJ\ fwar, or 
th,war. (?.) 

S. A^mXtt ibU u^j^' [written with the dis- 
joncdve alif u^j^l] Take thou from him the 
fine, or mulct, for thy uC^-i q- ▼■ (?■) 
' '-' 1-^ " ^jzSl [^e surrendered himself to pay 
the fins, or mulct, for the injury termed iiXj^,] 
islikeytfUilf^^ililt. (E:.) 

t^jl The making mischief; or exciting dis- 
order, disturbance, disagreement, discord, dissen- 
sion, strife, or quarrelling ; [like iJijfjQ ; see 2, 
and see also 1 ;] syn. ^Ci [in theseuBeof^Cil] ; 
(Mgb;) and i\jt\. (!^.^ ^ Disagreement, dis- 
cord, or dissension ; and contention, or altercation : 
you Bay, ^ijl ^t\-c{ Between tkem two is dis- 
agreement, ice. (K..) ^ A fine, or mulct, for 
a wound: (S, Mgh, M^b, ^ :) from the first 
of the significations in tbiB paragraph ; (Msb ;) 
or from its being one of the causes of contendon, 
or altercsdon ; or, accord, to AM, from the same 
word as inf. n. of ^ji in die first of the senses 
explained in this art. ; accord, to IF, originally 
J.^: (TA:) pi. Ji^\. (Mgh, Mjb.) Hence 
the Baying mentioned by lA^r, ,^y^ ^J^iLLJI 
iL^I -ll ^jl Uj.^ iU J4u Jm3 [Wait thoK 
for me until tkou accept a fine for a wound in 
lieu of retaliation ; for tkou kast no compensation 
for a wound to receive from us except the spear- 
heads] : meaning, thou sbalt not slay a man for 
whom we will ever give bloodwit. (L, TA.) ^ 
What is diminislted [of the price} by reason of 
a defect in a garment or piece of cloth : as being 
a cause of contendon, or altercadon. (T^,* TA.) 
^ What is payed [by way of adjustment of the 
differeriee] between freedom from defect and 
defect in an article of msrckandise : (Kt, ^ :) 
for when the purchaser of a garment or piece 
of cloth as being fi«e from defect discovers in it 
a hole or other defect, contention ensues between 
him and the seller. (TA.) — A bribe. (Aboo- 
Nahshal, Sh, ]^.) 

t^jljU Scratcked with the nails, or lacerated, 

dttle or muck, so as to bleed or not. Ru-beh 

J »( 

Then say thou to that man who is disquieted by 
envy, and as though he were stung, Act tkou 
gently, for [there is no scarf-skin scratcked; 
meaning,] my honour is uninjured, having in 
it no defect nor scratch. (L,* TA.) 

1. w^j"^! «S~ijt, (§, 5, [in two copies of tho 
S sImo;!, but this is evidently a mistake,]) with 
aamm,'(8,) like C^^, (?,) inf. n. iiy, (§, 
M, ?,) The land became thriving, or productive ; 
(S,^.;) as also ^c^^j\Z^]; (TA;) it became 
pleasing to the eye, and disposed by nature to 
yield good produce; (5,TA;) it became fruitful, 
and in good condition; (M;) it collected moisture, 
and became luxuriant with herbage; it became 
soft to tread upon, pleasant to sit upon, productive, 
and good in its herbage or vegetation: (AQn:) 
and ^J^/^^ ,Z^j\, (?,) aor. ^ , (TA,) the land 
became abundant in kerbage, or pasture. (!^.) 
_^jl, inf. n. iLoljl, is also said of a man, 
meanii^ f ^e was, or became, lowly, or sub- 
missive, and .naturally disposed to good, or to 
do good. (t,TA,)aB|^j'^l\>jl Se found the 
land to be abundant in herbage, or pasture. (K..) 
^ifUJ\ C^jt, (S, A, Msb, TA,) in the pass, 
form, (Mjb,) like ^, (TA,) aor. J,jp, (§, 
TA,) inf. n. ^J>j', (§,A,TA,) widi sukooa [to 
thcj]} (S, TA;) and some add Os-Ajl, aor. ^jU, 
inf. n. as above ; (TA ; [and so in a copy of 
the 9 <" the place of what here precedes ;]) 
Tke piece of wood was, or became, eaten by tht 
UJI, q. V. (^,A, M;b,TA.)^ir^l C^^l, 
(8,M. 5,) aor. S (S,^,) inf. n. J.jf, (8',m',) 
Tke ulcer, or sore, became blistered, (8, M,K,) 
and wide, (M,) and corrupt (S, M,5) hy reason 
of tkich purtdent matter, (8,) and dissundered; 
(M ;) so saye Ab ; (TA ;) as also f «=^l^l. 
(Sgh,?.) — Ji/ like j^, C?:,) inf.n.^^; 
(TA ;) or ^ji, like fc»i, aor. =, inf. n. ^jl ; 
(L ;) Se was, or became, affected with_/f£st} [or 
rheum]. (L,^.) 

2. wAJi, (T?,) inf. n. ^U, (T^,) Se depas- 
tured the herbage of the eartk, or latul : and he 
sought after it : (? :) or, accord, to some, j^ujU 
denotes diis latter signification with respect to a 
place of ahghdng, or abiding : (TA ;) and you say 
[also], Jiy^i * ij*jl3 he sought after, and cliose, 
the place for alighting, or abiding: (M, TA :) 
and g>ijb * Oy^% ^1 <ii»i5 I left the tribe 
seeking after a tract of country in which to 
alight, or abide. (TA.) ^ Se, or it, rendered 
heavy; [app. meaning dow, or sluggish; see 6;] 
syn. J-li. (Ibn-'Abbid, 5.)_^e made to 
tarry; to tarry arid wait, or expect; or to be 
patient, and tarry, and wait, or expect. (Ibn- 




:• '• 


«» *^ 

4. i^jt, inf. n. u^\fi\ : see 5. a^ t JJk i^jt U 
^bC^t ^0917 a5un£&(n^ t« the herbage (^>i.g) o/* 
fAt« place! or, as some say, (^j*^t «JJ^ u^j\ U 
J(OW ^6/; or soft, and productive, and good, is 
this land! (Lh,AHn.)mmi^j\, (S,K, [in the 
C5, incorrectly, a-^j^]) inf. n. as above, (S,) 

Se (God) caused him to be affected with ji\^j 
[or rheum]. (S, K.) 


5. (^jO Zit (herbage) became in such a state 

that it might be cut, (S, K.) hi Se clave, or 
kept, to the ground, not quitting it : (A :) and 

▼ j^jl, inf. n. u^\ji^, he remained upon the 
ground : and O^W uh^ ^« remained fixed in 
f A« place, not quitting it : or he waited, or ^a?- 
pected, and stood upon the ground : and, as also 
i^^lC^V^ t j^jU-»1, Ae remained, and tarried, or 
tarried in expectation, in the place : or he remained 
fixed therein : (TA :) and ,^jU alone, he tarried, 
loitered, stayed, waited, or paused in expectation : 
(S, TA :) and he was, or became, heavy, slow, or 
sluggish, inclining, or propending, to the ground; 

(S,50 [as ako t ^jU«,1, accord, to IB's expla- 
nation of its act. part, n.] You say, ^\j ^\ ^^Li 

uo/^t Umu« v^^ Oi^ u^j^ Ua^ [^ticA a 
owtf, if he see food, cleaves, or A«^«, to the 
ground, not quitting it ; and if he obtain food, 
turns away: or ,^jU may here be rendered 
agreeably with the explanation next following]. 

(A,TA.)_J J% o^ .u. (s,b:,*ta) 

Such a one cams asking, or petitioning, for a 

thing that he wanted, to me ; syn. ^j^^, and 

uojaCJ ; (S, K, TA ;) and cj-ij is also a syn. of 

^jU, used in this manner. (T A.) aae See also 2, 
in two places. 

^ » 

10 : see 5, in two places. ^.^ ^U^Jt (^jU«ft 
2^ clouds expanded, or spread: or, as some say, 
becarne fixed, or stationary, (M, TA.)iBSee 
also 1, first signification :8aB and see 1 again, last 
signification but one. 

\jof^\ [The earth;"] that whereon are mankind: 
(TA :) [and earth, ax opposed to heaven : and the 
ground, as meaning the surface of the earth, on 
which we tread and sit and lie; and thefioor: 
without J! signifying a land, or country: and 
a piece of land or ground: and land, or soil, or 
ground, considered in relation to its quality :] it is 
fem. : (S, A, Msb, K :) and is a coll. gen. n. ; (S, 

A, ^ ;) of which the n. un. should be iLcj\, but 
this they did not say : (S :) or a pi. haying no 
sing. ; (A, K, ;) ' for 2loj\ has not been heard : 
(E: :) its pi. is oUji, (S, K,) in [some of] the 
copies of the Igl oUojl, (TA,) for they sometimes 
form the pi. of a word which has not the fem. 5 
with 1 and O, as in the instance of OLp/^ ; (S ;) 
and Oy^j^f [which is more common,] (AZ, AHn, 
S, Mgh, Msb, ?;,) with fet-h to the j, (AZ, AHn, 
Mgh, Msb,) and with ^ and ^j, though a fem. 
has not its pi. formed [regularly] with 3 and ^j 
unless it is of the defective kind, like ii and Sl^L, 
but they have made the ^ and ^ [in this instance] 
a substitute for the \ and O which they have 
elided [from Oltfjt], and have lefl the fet-hah of 

^ 1 9$ 

the J as it was ; (S ;) but they also said 0>^J^ 
(AZ, AHn,S,) sometimes, making the j quiescent; 

(S ;) and u^^j^ (-^^ AJBEn, Msb, K) is sometimes 

used as a pi., as in the saying ^^ \j^X^ jJot U 
^^ {Sow many are tlie lands of the sons of 
such a one!]; (TA;) and another [and very 
common] pi. is [\jo\j\, with the article written] 
j-^lj*^!, contr. to rule, (S, Msb, Igl,) as though 
they had formed a pi. from yjoj\; (S;) thus 
written in all the copies of the S ; [accord, to SM ; 

but in one copy of the S, I find wljtt l^tp^ >9v^^ \ 
and in another, Usjt ;] and in one copy [is added], 
" thus it is found in his [ J's] handwriting ;" but 

IB says that correctly he should have said L<^ji, 

like ici^jt ; for as to yjoji, its regular pi. would 

be yjo^f^\ ; and [SM says] I have found it 
observed in a marginal note to the S that the pi. 
of yjo\\ would be yjo\\\, like as «^l£»t is pi. of 
^,jL^t ; and wherefore did he not say that i<^|;*^t 
is a pi. of an unused sing., like Jt^ and JUt, so 
that it is as though it were pi. of Slojt, like as 
jy is pi. of 5^ ? yet if any one should propose 
the plea that it may be formed by transposition 
from i^jtt, he would not say what is improbable ; 

its measure being in this case UUUt ; the word 

I 't 
being ^V^l;^ and the i» being changed into ^ : 

(TA:) accord, to Abu-1-Khattdb, (S,) ^\^\ is 

%9t • "^ 

also a pi. of c/crjt, (S, E^,) like as JUt is a pi. of 
• it 
Jn*) ; (S ;) but IB says that, in the opinion of 

the critics, the truth with respect to what is 

related on the authority of Abu-1-Khattdb is, that 

%9t 9 »t *t ^t 

from uojt and JiAt are formed ^\j\ and JUt, as 

• f»t ^ * ^ ot * 

though they were pis. of Swjt and S^t ; like as 

they said SXgi and Jl^), as though this were pi. of 
• x'#^ 4 ^ ^ J ^ 9 1 

c!%}* (TA.) It is said m proverbs, ^>« %^t^\ 

[Book T, 

plants: (M in art. jmi^ :) and the places which are 
concealed from the pastor, (S in that art.) Also 
The pool that is left by a torrent : (T in art jJ^ :) 

and \^/^\ Otv pools in which are remains of 
water : (lA^r in: TA art jm./ :) and rivulets, (T 


in art. ^^,) .*-. u^j\ is also used to signify f A 

carpet ; or anything that is spread : and in this 

sense, in poetry, it is sometimes made masc 

(Msb.) .. And f Anything that is low, (S, ^.) 

And I The lower, or lowest, part of the legs of a 

horse or the like : (S,]^ :) or the legs of a camel 

or of a horse or the like : and the part that is 

next to the ground thereof, (TA.) You say 

§t J ^ 9 ^ 
\joj^\ j^jJS* j^i^ t ^ camel strong in the legs, 

(TA.) And di\^^ d^j\ y^ttf t» J4«crt)i XA 

horse that is large and tall, (A, TA.) «. Also, 

of a man, X The knees and what is beneath, or 

below, (lit after,) them, (TA.)«^And of a 

sandal, f [The lower surface of the sole;] the 

part that touches the ground, (TA.) hi Afehrils 

shivering; a tremor: (S,K:) or vertigo: or it 

signifies also vertigo arising from a relaxed state, 

and occasioning a defluacionfrom the nose and eyes, 

(TA.) I 'Ab is related to have said, on the occar 
^ . - ••t •t j^t ^ §it 

sion of an earthquake, ,^jl ^ >l u^j^\ cJ>ljt) 

(S,) i. e. [Math the earth been made to quake, or 

is there in me] a tremor ? or a vertigo ? (TA.) 

»t j§t , 
[u^j^^ Ja' signifies A certain class of the Jinn, 

or genii; by whom human beings are believed to 
be possessed, and afiected by an involuntary tre- 
mor; whence it seems that this appellation may 

9 9m 

perhaps be from j^jl as signifying " a tremor." 

• J 


• -^ " 


fof^S [More comprehensive than the earth] : 

" 9t " J "X* 

(TA:) and j^i'^t ^>« ^j^\ [More trustworthy 
than the earth, in which treasures are securely 

buried] : and ^fj^ ^>o jl>\ [Harder than the 

Ot " i^t 

earth, or ground] : (A, TA :) and u^\^\ yj^ J3t 

[More vile, or more submissive, than the earth, or 

ground], (TA.) And you say, ouis 15^^^ 0-* 

fit J- " 

Itfjt ^ t [ Whoso obeyeth me, I will be to him as 

ground whereon one treads] ; denoting submissive- 
ness. (A, TA.) And «>jti vj-^ O' O"^ t [Such 
one, if he be beaten, is like ground] ; i. e. he cares 

^9t 4r 

not for beating. (A, TA.) One says also, yjo\\ ^ 
^ [Mayest thou have no land, or country ! or 
thou hast no land, or country] ; like as one says, 

iijjif^'. (S,K:.)_[And hence,] uh' O^'^ 3^ 
He is a stranger, (A, ^, TA,) of whom neither 
father nor mother is known, (TA.) _j^j'^t ^t 
[with the art Jt prefixed to the latter word] is A 
certain plant, (AHn, K,) which comes forth upon 

the summits of the [hiUs called] >l£>t, having a 

» t 
stem (J-^t), but not growing tall, (AHn,) which 

resembles hair, and is eaten, (AHn, 5,) and 
quickly dries up; (AHn;) a species ofjXi, as 
also i^j'^t c^ : (§ in art ^ :) and ,>jf^l iuj 

See (^3jU : and see y)<^, as explained in the S.] 
—.Abo Rheum; syn. >V£3»j: (S, 1^:) in this 
sense masc. ; or, accord, to Kr, fem., on the 
authority of Ibn-Ahmar. (TA.) bbb See also 


9^ 9 ^^t 

^j\ : see ^i^jt. 

^Loj\ : see what next follows. 

^Loj\ of herbage, Wliat suffices the camels, or 

other pasturing animals, for a year: (lA^, 
AHn, M:) or abundant herbage or pasture; as 

also t ii>Jt and t iijt. (^.) 

iU^jt [The woodfretter ;] a certain insect that 
eats wood, (S, A, Msb, K,) well known ; (A, ]§1 ;) 
it is a white worm, resembling the ant, appearing 
in the days of the [season called] %^j : (TA :) 
there are two kinds : one hind is stmlU, like the 

large of the j> [or grubs of ants] ; and this is the 
bane of wood in particular : (AHn, TA :) or this 
kind is the bane of wood and of other things, and 
is a white worm with a black head, not having 
wings, and it penetrates into the earth, and huslds 
for itself a habitation of clay, or soU; and this 
is said to be that which ate the staff of Solomon 
[as is related in the Kur xxxiv. 13, where it is 

called u^/^\ ^t>, as is said in the A] : (TA :) the 

other kind [is the termite, or white ant; termes 
fatale of Linn. ; called by ForsMl (in his Descr. 
Animalium &c., p. 96,) termes arda, destructor ; 
and this] is like a large common ant, having wings; 
it is the bane of everything that is of wood, and 
of plants ; except that it does not attack what is 
moist, or succulent; and it has legs: (AHn, TA:) 

Book I.] 

the pi. is t ^jt (A^o, Msb, TA) and olijt ; 

(Mf b ;) or, as some [more properly] say, yjb^ is 
a quasi-pl. [or coll. gen.] n. (AHn, TA.) It 

18 said in a proY., 2^*>)t ^^ J^^t {More conr 

suming than the woodrfretter^ or the termite], 

(TA.) And in another, 3iifj*^\ ^j^ ju«il {More 

marring^ or injuring^ or destructive^ than the 
fMod-fretter, or the termite,] (A, TA.) 

• ' f 9 

2uej\ : see «>uj1. 

• ^» 

ojl : see 2^jt. 
uo^\ : see ,^jl. 


• ^ 


u^^ P&rt n. of i^j). ...You say 3uajj\ ,^jt 
(8, A, 5) and t ii^f (TA) iianc? ^Aa^ m thriving, 
or procUictive; (S,A,^;) pleasing to the eye; 
(AA, S, A, El \) and disposed hy nature to yield 
good produce : (A, 5> TA :) or fruitful ; inr 
creasing in plants or herbage : (I A^ :) or level, 
or soft: (ISh:) or that collects moisture, and 
becomes luxuriant with herbage; that is soft to 
tread upon, pleasant to sit upon, proditctive, and 
good in its herbage or vegetation: (AHn:) it 
also signifies a wide land; syn. SL^uji : (TA :) 
and u^\jI [as pi. of cA^t] is syn. with u^U^ 
and cLp^ ; (AA, ]^, TA ;) as though the » were 
a substitute for the c. (TA.)...|^jt is also 
an imitative sequent to u^ijj^; (S,EL;) as in 

the phrase u^^ \JHi^ *L5^ [-^ ^^Ty ^^'^^ ^Atn^] : 
($:) or it signifies /a^, as an epithet: (1^:) some 
use it in this sense without cKU|^, applied to a kid. 

(1^.) And you say, Uu;t 2Uu^ St^t \A very wide, 

** ^ ^ 

(^ wide and fat, woman ; or, as seems to be indi- 
cated in the TA in art u^js^, prolific and perfect] ; 
and in like manner, t i^jj^. (TA.) You say 
al«o ^jl JiLj, (8,) and pjj t ^^y , (A,) 

A man lowly, or submissive; (§;) nafi«ra% 
disposed to good, or ^o (io ^ooc?. (8, A.) And 

,>j»^1 ^13 ,^;J^ : see J»^|;. 

^j J ^^ *» 

^ j9y^^ 3* Se is the most adapted, meet, 
suited, fitted, or ft, of them, for it ; or m4)st 
worthy of them of it. (K.) And ^\ j^^ ^i 

^. I 

^ ^ d<' 

"^3 J^ ^<^ i^ the most adapted, &c., or most 
worthy , of them to do that, (As, §.) 

^A^' seet>u;t. 

sjt^^y^ Wood ea^^n ^ the 2^j1 [or n700£^ 
^^firetter, or termite, but generally meaning the 

imner] ; (8, A, Msb, ]g: ;) as also t ^jt. (TA.) 
•■■A person affected with Jyji. [q. v.] from the 
^tmi, OT genii, and {what are called] u^y:)\ JaI, 
^9, 5,) i. e. (so accord, to the 8 and TA,^ but 
in the 1^ ^^and") he who moves about his head 
omd body involuntarily, (8, ]^.) ... A person 

affected with j^^} [or rheum] : (8, ]gL :) accord. 

to ^gh) [who seems, like J, not to have known 

u*jl,] from iijf; (Sgh, TA ;) whereas by rule, 
Uiffr(mi4ijt,] it should be ,>^. (TA.) 

sjk^Sm^ J«^9 wid 2^jC:««« 2^^^, A young 

pikm4ree, and a small young palm-tree, having a 

9dot in ike ground: such as grows forth fit>m 

fa tnmk of the mother-tree is called 



(S, ]^.) ... |^jU««« also signifies Heavy, slow, or 

sluggish, inclining, or propending, to the ground, 

1. [The unaugmented verb from this root seems 
to be unknown, if it were ever in use, for it is 

not mentioned, though the pass, part n., I»3jU, 
is mentioned as having three significations, which 
see below.] 

2: see 4. 


* x^ 

4. i^j^t C-ipjt, (AHeyth, ]§:,) of the measure 
wJUit, [originally] with two ali&, (TA,) [aor. 
^Aij infn. ^tj^t,] The land produced the hind of 

trees called iJoj\ [or •Jb'jI] ; (AHeyth, ]^ ;) as 

also wJpjt, inf. n. {Usjt ; or this is a corruption, 

attributable to J : so says the author of the K, 
following AHeyth: but it is no corruption, for 
it is mentioned by the authors on verbs and by 
I8d and others ; (MF, TA ;) for instance, by 
AHn, in his book on plants, and by IF, in 
the Mj : (TA :) [and J mentions it in its proper 
place, in art ^J^u as well as in the present art :] 

t wJpjt, with the J musheddedeh, has also been 
found in the handwriting of certain of the men 
of letters; but this is a corruption. (K.) 

>j\ A colour like that of the ^^j\ [or tJ^jt]- 



f 0' 

j-Ljl, (Mbr, 8, ]gl,) of the measure ^Jljii, 

because you say «3jU j^^S, [explained below,] 

(Mbr, 8,) the alif (Mbr, 8,']?:) ending it (Mbr) 
[written ^] being a letter of quasi-coordination, 
(S,B1,) not to denote the fem. gender, (Mbr, 8,) 

its n. un. being SUs^jt, (Mbr, 8,^,) wherefore 
it is with tenween when indeterminate, but not 
when determinate : (8, K :) or it is of the 

measure Jj»3l, (Mbr,*S,) the last letter being 

fl 9^9 t 
radical, (Mbr,) because you say t^ie^o j^i^^j 

(Mbr, 8,) and in this case it should be mentioned 
among words with an infirm letter [for the last 
radical], and is with tenween both when determi- 
nate and when indeterminate ; (8 ;) [but this 
is a mistake, for when it is determinate, it can 
be with tenween only if used as a proper name ; 
therefore,] IB observes, that if you make its 

last letter radical, its measure is Ja^I, and a word 
of this measure, if a subst., is imperfectly decl. 
when determinate, but perfectly decl. when in- 
determinate : (TA :) [the author of the 5 copies 
the error of the 8, saying, " or its alif is radi(»l," 
(meaning its last letter,) '^ and in this case it is 
always with tenween ;" and he adds, " or," (for 
which he should have said ^' and,") its measure 

is i^^ji^l: to all which it is necessary to add, 

that some of the grammarians hold it to be also 

^ <* 

of the measure ^^^Jljii, ending with a fem. alif, 
and therefore assign to it no n. un. :] A hind of 
tree, (8, 50 of those growing in sands, (8, TA,) 

resembling the kind called dl^, growing as a 

^ * ^ ^ ^ A J 

branch [in the TA 1^«a^, for which I read m^,] 

from a single stem, to the height of the stature 
of a man, the leaves whereof are what are termed 
[q. v., and are included among those termed 


^], (A^n, TA,) and its flower is like that 
of the yj*^ [or salix (sgyptia], (A9n,]g[,) save 
in being smaller, the colour being one; and the 
odour thereof is pleasant : it grows in sands, and 
therefore the poets m/ike frequent mention of the 
wild bulls* and cows* taking refuge among this 
and other trees of the sands, burrowing at their 
roots to hide themselves there, and to protect 
themselves from the heat and cold and rain, but 
not amxyng the trees in hard ground, for burrowing 
in the sand is easy : (A^Q; TA :) its fruit is 


like the ^U^ [or jujube], bitter, and is eaten by 
camels in its fresh moist state, and its roots are 
red, (AHn, ]BL,) intensely red:- (ABto, TA:) 
AHn adds, a man of the Benoo-Asad informed 

me, that the leaves (v«^) of the ^^j^ are red 
like the red pomegranate : its fruit also is red : 
(TA :) the dual is J^j^ ' (AHn, TA :) and the 
pi. Ol^jl and ^\j\ and Jjljl, (AHn, ]?:,) in 
the accus. case /^\j\» (^A.) 

see what next follows. 

Im^U a hide tanned with ^^j^ ; (8, K ;) i. e. 
with the leaves thereof; (^ in art ^^j ;) as also 

^L5^ji>5 (TA;) and so Jc!^. (?.) — A 
camel having a complaint from eating ^Joj\: 

* 9l 

(L,5 :♦) and a camel tliat eats ^jS, (AZ, 8, K,) 
and keeps to it', (1^;) asalsot/Vf^i^jt (AZ, 8,]^) 
and t ^jU»j1. (Ibn-'Abbdd, Sgh, L, ^) 


see what next precedes. 

2. VJI, (T, M,Mgh,) namely jtjJI, and u^/j\, 

9 i" 
(T, M,) inf. n. Ut^j^, (T,) Me set, or put, limits, 

or boundaries, [iJ^jt,] to it; (M, Mgh;) and 
marked it out: (Mgh:) or he divided it; and 
set, or put, limits, or boundaries, to it: (T:) 
namely the house, and the land, (T, M.) And 

JU31 J^ Sj\, (8, Mgh, Msb,) or ^j^l ^, 

inf. n. as above, (]§[,) T%e property, (8, Mgh, 

Msb,) or the land, (K,) had limits, or boundaries, 

set, or put, to it, (8, Mf b, ]gL,) or around it ; 

(Mgh;) and was divided, (1^.) When this is 

^ 9 J 

done, it is said that there is no ^bU^ [or right of 
preemption] with respect to the property. (S, 

Mgh, Msb.)i..w«:^u also signifies The tying a 
rope, or cord, so as to form a knot or knots, (1^.) 

• ^ 

^ JS 

9 ^ 

wift ^J^i dj\ i, q, J^at^ ^}S {Verity he is 
of a glorious origin, race, or stock] : mentioned 
by Ya^^oob as an instance of a change of letters. 


2Jj\ A limit, or boundary, (Af , T, 8, M, Mgh, 
Msb,^,) making a separation (Mfb) between 
two pieces of land; (M^b,^;) a sign, or mark, 
(As, T, 8, Mgh,) of the limits, or boundaries, 
between two pieces of land : (^ :) and a separation 
between houses and estates: (M:) and a dam 
between two pieces of land sown or for sowing : 
(Th, M :) YaQi^oob asserts that its w^ is a substitute 

forthe «1> of ^t [which is, however, less com- 


mon]: (M:) tlw pL u i^jl, (T, 8, M, tec.,) 
ngnifying, accord, to LI;, like *^j\, Umilt, or 
boundarut, betmemtwo piecei of land [&c.]; (T;) 
and it h nid in a trad., that theee cut off 2»kli] 
[i. e. the ri^t of preemption] ; (T, ^, M^ ;) 
meaning, in the language of the people of El* 
^j&z, tigtu, or marki, and limits, or boundariet. 
(T.) Th relates that an Arab woman said, Jjuk. 

W**-t "i <^)' t^Jli \J^> '■ ^- ^y hutband set 
m« a »ign, or marA, [or limit,] btt/ond tokich J 
thoiUd not past. (M.) Aod ^^.l lj>j\ signifieB 
An extreme limit of a period of existence. (TA, 
from a trad.) A}ao A knot. (Sgh,:^.) 

lVjl A measurer of land, (^,* TA,) mho 
marks it mith limits, or boundaries. (TA.) 

_i}t^ ^ Se has his Hmit, or boundary, n^xt 
to mine, in droeUing, end inflace : (^:) '^ phrase 

;;;. cta.) 

1. J_^(, aor. -, inf. n. Jy, (T:,^,^,kc.,) Se 
was sleepless, or wakeful, or itnrp departed from 
Am, (JK, T,) by mght ; (T ;) i. q. jyl. (?, Mgh, 
feh,?) v)5lW; (?gh,?:i) ori.j.ijl:(9,aDd 
L and ]^ in art ,jy.< :) or tUep departed jrom him 
byreaionofamaiady, or a distracting accident or 
event : (M :) or ke mas sleepless or makejul (jf^) 
in a ease t}utt mas disliked, or evU ; j^ having a 
general gense: (M, F:) or hs shut hit eyes one 
mhile and opened them another, [being unable to 
continue sleeping,] whereaa j^ signifies he did 
not sleep at all ; (Deew&n of the Hudhalees, cited 
by Freylag in his Lex. :) or jjl signifies sleepless- 
ness, or make/illness, engendered by anxiety and 
grief: (^ar p. 162 :) and t ^7fjZi\ [with the dis- 
junctive alif written ^j^l] signifies the same as 
J/ (§,?.)— «i*^t^^l [and ^;;>)l J^l] 2V 
paltortree [and the seed'prodvce] was affected, or 
mitten, by what is termed ^^^J^. (JK.) 

2. tj^ ^j\, (JK, ?,]§;•) inf. n. J^jfe, (S, 
Mgh,) Svck a thing rendered me, or caused me to 
be, sleepless or makcjvl; (JK, §, Mgh,' ¥^ ;•) as 
"^ ♦ tr'A C?.) inf- n- Jliil- (TA.) 

4 : see 2. 

6 : see 1. 

Jjl : see O^j'- 

^jl : see what next follows. 

Jjl sunless or wakejid (S, $) by night (I^) 
Iby reason of a maladg, or a distracting accident 
or event, &c. (see 1)] ; as also * JjT (IF, 5) and 

* Jjl and '* Jj\; or the last signifies habitually 
so. (TA.) 

Jjl : see what next precedes. 

0'^j\ (JK, 8, ?) and o«jf and Jjlijl and o^ijl 
and olijl and^ ♦ JJl and * Jrjl (?:) t. q. J,0^ j 
(JK,S,^;) o'^ji being a dial. Tar. of this last; 
(§;) or the hemzeh is a substitute for the ^} 
(Lj) and ^t}^ is the word most commonly 

known ; (Tf.i) A bUght, or dtwoM, which affects, 
or jmttM, SMfi^ocAiM ; (J K, $, ^ :) and a liiMaw 
[namely jaundice'] which affects, or smites, man, 
(^, ^,) causing the person to become yeUam [or 
blaekiAl ; (TA ;) it is a disease which changes 
the colour of the person excessively to yellowness 
or blackness, by thejloming of the yeUom or black 
humour to the skin and the part next thereto, 
mithout putridity. (Ibn-Seenk [Aricenna], $.) 

Jljl : see O^j'- 

J^\ : see J^t. 

J<yU fjj Seed-produce affected, or smitten, 
nsith a blight,' or disease, ( JK, S, ^,) such as is 
termed ^'Sj\; (JK,§;) asalso Jij^e^ [from ^;JliJJ] : 
(S, ^. :) and oJjU U^ a palm-tree affected, or 
*mt«en, tkeremith. (JK, TA.) 

1- J^"^! O^jl, aor. ' and , , inf. n. Jjjl, The 
camels fed upon the kind of tree called ^Ijl : (^, 
Msb, ^ :) or remained, or continued, among trees 
of that hind, (ISk, 8, 5^,) i. e., wAat o« (ffnn«<i 
uiX, (ISk, §,) earing (Aem ; (K :) or /ownti, 
or lighted on, any trees whatever, and remained, 
or continued, among them : (T^ :) or, accord, to 
As, kept in a place (o'^)> '*''' removing there- 
from ; (ISk, § :) or remained, or confinuee^ in a 
place for the purpose of feeding upon the jJIjI : 
and hence the signification next following, wluch 
is tropicaL (Er-B&ghib.)^^)^^ ^j'> (S.Mfb, 
^,) aor. and inf. n. as above, (M^b, TA,) I Se 
(a man, S) remained, continued, or abode, in the 
place, (9, M;b,^,) not quitting it; (TA;) as 

abkj itjl, aor. ^ , (5,) infl n. jijt, (TA.) And 

^j'> (?.) inf- n- -Sjl and lljjl, (TA,) f He per- 
sisted, or persevered, syn. «J, (^,) i. e. j.«l, 

(T, K,) in an affiiir. (T, ?.) And, (5,) inf. n. 

i^jl, (TA,) t S:e held back, or drew back, 
CjdJs,) in an a&ir. (?:.) ■■ J^-jJt ijl, (5,) 
aor. ^ , (TA,) inf. n, ^jl, (Tf.,) Se'fed the cameU, 
or made tkem to feed, ujwn the kind of tree called 
j)\j\ : ormade them to remain, or continue, among 
trees of that kind : or brought tkem to any trees 
whatever, and made tkem to remain, or continue, 
among them. (?;.) — «iift ,_^^-ili)jl, (L,?,) 
inf. n. Xjjl, BO in the L, (TA,) fSe com- 
peOed him, or constrained him, to do the thing, 
or nffair; or made him to keep, or cleave, to it, 
Q.,^.)^^^\ <zJ>j\, aor.S (§,5,) inf. n. 
Iij\; (S;) and 0.£>jf, aor, ' ; and -^jl; (^;) 
TlSe camels had a complaint, or tigered pain, (8, 
?f) >/> OT in, their bellies, (§,) from eating the 
Ji\,l (§,?.) 

.. M t 1- 

2. If^jl, inf. n. <ll^^U, ^e con^MiW A«r 
(namely a woman, T A) by means of an <^l, q. v. 

6. ^jlfl [written with thedi^unctivealifiijj^l] 
It (the kind of tree called dlljl) became frm, 
strong, or compact, and big : (0, 1^ :) or ottainA^ 

[Book I. 

to maturity i (^ :) or became tangled, or luxu- 
riant, and abundant. (TA.) 

Jljl : see ■^\j\ Jjjl aJ .^..le Herbage in which 

the camels remain, or continue. (Ibu-'AbbU, !^.) 

^jl i)tjl Abundant, and tangled, or luxuriant, 
ti-eei of tke kind called j>\j\ ; (T^, TA ; [in the 
CS hj\, but said in the TA to be like oUi* ;]) 
as also f Jjpj^. (?•) ^^j' i^jl Zan<f abound- 
ing mith the kind of trees called Jljt. (1^.)^ 
aigl J^ and jjfeljl, [the latter being the pi.,] 
Camels hamng a complaint, or suffering pain, (9, 
^,) o/, or in, their bellies, (^,)from eating the 
Jljl. (8,?.) 

illjl The [AincI of trees termed] ^m--; (AJ^n, 
5i) " »J«> *-AJl= (Ibn-'Abbdd,?:) and (?) 
certain trees of the kmd termed ,,fd^^, (T, ^, 
M;b, ?,) fwil knonm, bearing what resemble 
bunckes of grapes, (T, TA,) and of which sticks 
for cleaning tke teeth are made, (AE[n, Aboo- 
Ziyid, Mjb, K,) that is, of its branekes, (A^n, 
Aboo-ZiyM, Msb,) and of its roots, which latter 
are more esteemed for this purpose : (Aboo-Ziy&d :) 
t( is the best of the trees of which the branches are 
used for this purpose, and the best of those upon 
which beasts feed mitk respect to tke odour of the 
milk [yielded by those beasts'] : (AHn :) or one of 
the large tkomy trees, upon mkick camels feed : 
tke milk of [tke camels that feed upon"] it is tke 
best of milk: and it is not allowable to prohibit 
the public from feeding their beasts upon it: 
(Mgh :) or a kind of tall, tmootk, or soft, tree, 
abounding with leaves and branches, the wood of 
which is weak, and which has a fruit in bunches, 
or racemes, called j^, one [bunch] of mhick wilt 
Jill the hand: (Mjb:) n. un. with 5 : (S, Msb :) 
pL (of the n. un., T) i>j» (T, ?) and ibiji, (IB, 
]^,) which is a form Sometimes used, and is also (I'B.)..— A piece of land (1^, 
TA) in which are trees of the kind tkiu called. 

Jbjl : see die end of the next paragraph. 

2^1 A raised couck Cjif) in a fU*-^, (?, 
and Jel in xviii. 30,) which is a tent, or pavilion, 
or chamber, (C^,) adorned with cloths and cur- 
tains, [or a kind of curtained canopy or alcove or 
the like,] for a bride; (Jel abi suprk;) a raised 
couck (jtf-') *" ^ ^ ^^1 <*'*'' having before it a 
curtain; when alone, not thus called: (TA:) or 
a bed, or thing spread upon the ground to tit or 
lie upon, in a i .\^»-: (Zj,TA:) or a raised 
couch (x^^)> absolutely, whether in a iX^». or 
not: (TA:) or [in the C^ "and"] anything 
upon which one reclines such as is termed jj*^ or 
L^ or ^(^ : (K, TA :) or [in some copies of 
the %. "and"] a raised couch {jij-') ornament- 
ally furnished and decorated, in a [tent, or pavi- 
lion, or the like, such at is termed] i.3, or in a 
chamber, or an apartment, (c^, [or by this may 
be meant here a tejtt of any kind, though I think 
that in this instance it more probably denotes an 
inner apartment, or on alcove,}) which, when 
there is not in it a jij-i, is termed iX^^ : (§, 
^h, ? :) accord, to E^R&ghib, so named becaiue 


Book I.] 

originally made of [the wood of] the JKi; or 
because it is a place of abode ; from ^JSiJ\i i)jt 
" he abode in the place P (TA :) pL ilSljl (?, 5) 
and [coll. gen. n.] t i&^jt. (]gl.) 

• J8. "t f 

• •^ ^ f 

»tjt Jv^ : see what next follows. 


>^t J>^| Camels feeding upon the kind of 
tree called ^(j\ ; (8, M^b ;) as also t a^Lf : 
(1^:) or remaining J or continuing j arnong trees 
of that kind, i. e., n?Aaf are termed ^ja^^ : or 
keeping in a place, no^ removing therefrom : (^ :) 

pi. J>ji^l (^, M$b.) Their milk is said to be 
the best of milk. (TA.) 

^ J 9 J 90^ 

^^^ >5l A people f or company of men, 
alighting and abiding by trees of the kind called 

^\j\, (J^,) feeding their camels upon those trees. 

Jp^ Jtjt : see Jjt 

L iijf, (S, 9ar p. 99,) aor. ^ , inf. n. Jjl, (S,) 

jETi^ took away, or removed, its ^^j\, or |^t: 
(]§br ubi supr^ :) [he extirpated it ; eradicated 

it:} he ate it. (§.) You say, ^^\ i^lJI cUjf, 
aor. as above, 27^ pasturing hearts consumed, 
or iiuu20 an end of, the pasturage, not leaving 

of it anything. (AJ^n, M.) And ^^ U >jt 

OUiSJt, (T,) or sisOt, (Th,M,K,) aor. as above, 

(M,) ^(9 ate 9t;Aat fvo^ on the table, (Th, T, M, 

Tf.^ not leaving anything. (1^.) And ^I^Jt^^^^jt^ 
(AHeyth, T, M, 5,) aor. ^ , (so in the T, as on 
the authority of AHeyth,) inf. n. as above, (M,) 
The year of dearth, or drought, or sterility, ex- 
tirpated them; (T;) ox devoured them; (AHeyth, 

T or cut them off. (M, ]^.) And ilfjt c^j( 

Ut^V^ The year of dearth, or drought, or sterility, 

devoured everything [of our property or cattle]. 

(§.) And 41^4^1 i^y:)\ C^jt 2^ ^artA consumed 

the dead body. (T.) m jOt J»j^ aor. ^ , The 

property, or cattle, perished, or ^a?n« to nought. 

>jl: see>j!. 

j^j\ [part n. of >j«J. You say a«jt ,^jf, mean- 
ing i^aiuJ tij)on n7AtcA ram Aa« not fallen for 
a long time : (T :) or land which does not give 
growth to anything. (TA.) [Not to be con- 
founded with Ltj\, q. v.laaeSee also what next 

j»j» (T, 9, M, ^) and t^^l, (M,]^,) like ^^, 

(5,) or ♦jkjl, («o in a copy of the M,) and ^ ^_^^\ 

and t ^jf, (M,?,) from Lh, (TA,) or t ^^i, 

from 14?, (so in a copy of the M,) and t Ja ^ 

from 14?, (TA,) and ^^^, (M,K,) from Lh, 

(TA,) and ^y\, (T, 5,) A «^», or m^irh, set 
tip to shofw th£ way; (M,]gl;) ^on«» set up as 
a mgny or mark, to show the way in the desert : 
(9:) or particularly one belonging to [the tribe 
of] ^Ad : (M, 5 :) accord, to ISh, the >jl is [a 
thing] like a man in a standing posture uvon the 

head of a hiU, whereby one is directed to the right 
way, and whereby the land is marked, composed 
of stones set one upon another, and is only the 
work of the Muslims, and such is made by people 
in the present day, upon the road : (T :) or such 
as was made by the people in the time of ignorance, 
who were accustomed, when they found a thing 
in their way and could not take it with them, 
to leave upon it some stones, whereby to know 
it, untU, when they returned, they took it : (T A :) 

the pi. [of pauc] is j»\ji and [of mult] JL^jl : 

(ISh, T, §, M, 5 OTj»^\ signifies the graves, 
or sepulchres, of [the tribe of] 'Ad. (M,5.)aBB 
[>jl in the phrase :^^\ oli Jjl (see art. jl^) 
is a proper name ; but whether of a place, or a 
tribe, or an individual, is disputed: it is com- 
monly believed to be the name of Hie terres- 
trial paradise of Shedddd the son of 'Ad: see 
Bd Ixxxix. 6.] 

pUji ^j! Land in which there is not a root, 

or stock, of a tree ; as though it were t SU^jU [or 
extirpated]: (O:) or land in which neither root 
nor branch is left; as also t li^jU (M, 5.) 

^ and ^j\ and ^j\ and ^jt : see >jj. 


a ^^ad'j -^n-nrf V4^l j^\, 1. e. O Ood, make per* 
manent, or confirm, or establish, what is between 
them, of love, or affection ; said in praying for 
a man and his wife. (M, TA.) Mol^ammad is 
also related to have said, with this intention, 

W*t^^^>n^^ meaning O Ood, render permanent, 
or confirm, the union, or concord, or love, of them 
two ; (A 'Obeyd, TA ;) or cause union to subsist, 
and render permanent, or confirm, love, or affec- 
tion, between them two : (lAth, TA :) or ^^mSi\ 
A^W Ui^ j^t3 JS9 j\, meaning O Ood, con- 
fine each of them two to the other, so that the 
heart of neither may become turned away to any 
but that other : the correct form of speech, how- 
ever, is 4L*^L0 ^J^, unless it be like 0^ %L 
for ^^jUb'cJiLiJ. flAmkTA.^ 

^ i J J »9 ^^ 

•s a 

J A^^ 

• Jt 

>^l : see what next follows. 

L^\ (T, M, 5) and L^i, (M, ?,) the htter 
of the dial of Temeem, (TA,) or this is not 
aUowable, (T,) or tj^t, (§,) or this is the pi., 
(M, ?,) [or a coll. gen. n.,] The root, or base, or 
lowest part, syn. J-il, (T, S, M, ?,) of a tree 
(T, S) of any kind ; (T ;) and of a horn : (S :) 
or, of a tree, [or plant, the root-stock, or rhizoma, 
or] the part from which branch off the ^}^ [or 
roots properly so called]. (K in art J^. [See 
an instance of its use voce a^^L ; another, voce 
^t^ ; and another, voce j>L.])«. And [hence,] 
t The origin, or stock, of a man : (TA :) t The 
origin of ^^^i*.^ [or grounds of pretension to 
respect or honour, &c.]. (ffar p. 99.) 

• ^ f f^x 

§^ " 

U^\ Z^ (S, 5, TA [in the CK:, erroneously, 
iy!]) An extirpating year of dearth or drought 
or sterility : (S :) or a year of dearth &c. cutting 
off people. (?:.) 

^j^jU ^^\ : see »Uj1, in two places. 


x^ ^0^ $St n 

-^"^ • 

1 (^j^ a^ljJI c»j\, (M,5,) and gULk. _ 

^jjlO,] inf. n. ^jj\, (M,) ITie beast kept to its 
place where it was tied, (M, 5,) and to its man- 
ger. (M.)_4wi Jj i^ljjl ojf, (?,) aor. 
as above, (§,)' and so the inf. n., (TA,) The 
beast joined itself, or became joined, to the beast, 
and kept with it to one manger. (§, 5.) 

2. ajt JA3 STjl (§, M, ?,) and ajtjjl, (M,^,) 

in£ n. LjU, (§, M, ?,) I made for the beast an 
^jjS [q. v.], (S,* M,) or an Suji. (5 : [in the 
C^ a^t ; but this and a^t are probably mistakes 
of copyists.]) _ «j^! jj'jl, inf. n. as above. He 
rendered the thing permanent, or steadfast ; con- 
firmed it; established it. (M,?.) Hence, in 

4. a^tjJt c^jt I joined the beast to another 
beast, and rnade it to keep with the other to one 
manger: (§, in the present art.; and 50 o' 

C^\j^\ wojt J joined the two beasts together, 
and made them both keep to one manger. (So 
accord, to the 1^ in art j\y) 

5> O^^W ^j^ S^ remained, stayed, or abode, 
in the place : (S, Mgh, M^b :) or he became con- 
fined, or he confined himself, therein ; (T, M, 5 
as also ^ vit/^^ [written with the disjunctive alif 

Lfi^J]- (^f ?•) — ^ Lfi3^ ^^ remained behind 
him, not going with him ; held back, or hung back, 
from him. (M, ]^.) 

8 : see 5. 
8 t 

a^jt : \ see what next follows. 

Lfi;'; (T, §, M, Mgh, Mf b, 5,) with medd and 
teshdeed, (TA,) [originally ^^jT,] of the measure 
J^Vi, (T,S,Mgh,Mfb,) from o^W l^JS as 

explained above, (Mgh,) or hence this verb, 

8 t 
(Mfb,) and ^j^jt, (M,]gl,* [but accord, to the 

latter, the second form may be either thus (as it 

is written in the M) or ^ ^, (agreeably with the 

latter of the two pis. mentioned below,) for the 

two forms are there expressed by UUbf^ l^j'^^ 

(in the CK, erroneously, O^km^i^ iSf^^y) ^^^ ^^ 
another place in the ]§1 we find it written t ;L}jt, 
or, as in the C^i ^ ^J^]) The pZaee q/" confine- 
m^n^ o/'o 6ea*^ : (ISk, T, S :) or t. q. it/^\ ; (M, 

Mgh, Msb, ]^ ;) used in this sense by the Arabs ; 
(Mgh, Mfb ;) or sometimes having this applica- 
tion ; meaning a rope to which a beast is tied in 
itspUxe of confinement ; (S;) or a loop of a rope 
to which a beast is tied in that place : (Mgh :) so 
called because it withholds beasts from escaping : 
(TA :) sometimes, (Mfb,) improperly, (ISk, T, 
S,) by the vulgar, and by the lawyers, (Mgh,) 
applied to a manger : (ISk, T, §, Mgh, Mfb :) pi. 

L&b^ (T, §7 Mgh, Mfb) and j\^\. (§.) Hence, 

^jSjji is metaphorically applied to {The places 

( jWO ^^* «^* made, in shops, for grain and 
other things : asid to X the water-tanks, or troughs, 



in a bath. (Mgh.) ^^^ El-'Ajjdj says, describing a 
[wild] bull, and his covert, 

meaning [And he frequented lodging-places] 
having a firm foundation for the quiet of the 
wild animals therein [as having been from the 
first occupied by such animals and unfrequented 

a ^ 

by men]. (S.)».i<jt is also said to signify 
Land of a hind between even and rugged, (M.) 

2^j\ : see ^j\. 


J • 


J .fOJ 

1. jjJUl Ojl, (S,K,) or io^l, (A,) aor i (S, 

K) and ^ , (?[,) inf* n. jjj] (S, A, ?) and jl and 

jljl, (KI,) The coohing-pot made a sound in boiling : 
(^, accord, to an explanation there given of the 
inf. n. ; and A :) or boiled : (S :) or boiled vehe- 

mently ; (K ;) as also ^ OjZSt [written with the 
disjunctive alif ojLl], (S, K,) inf. n. j\j:ji\i (S ;) 

and t o)U, (K,) inf. n. jjfe : (TA :) or all signify 
it boiled not vehemently, (^.) It is said in a trad., 

X \JBie used to pray^ his inside mahing a sound 
like the sound of the boiling of the cooking-pot, by 
reason of weeping] : (S, A, Mgh :) this is said of 
Mohammad : jjj\ meaning boiling, or the sound 

thereof (Mgh.)«.2jUiMJt Ojl IVie cloud made 

a sound from afar, (El.) [In this instance, the 
TA assigns only one form to the aor., namely - , 

and gives only jl and jjj\ as inf. ns.] jjj\ signifies 
The sounding of thunder ; (S, A ;*) and of a mill- 
stone. (A.) You say, j^^l }j}S jjJu [The 
sounding of the thunder terrified me] : and ^J^J^^ 
L^^tP' >fjt [The sounding of the mill-stone mxide 
my head to ache], (A, TA.) .. Also, inf. n. jjj\, 

It fUvmedy or blazed, like fire in firewood, and 

was in motion, or in a state of commotion, (AO.) 

• St fit 

saBjjJUV J^ [aor. - ,] inf. n. jl. He kindled afire, 

or made it to burn or to bum fiercely, beneath 
the cooking-pot, in order that it might boil : or 

you say, jjJUt j\, mf. n. as above, meaning he 
collected firewood beneath the cooking-pot so that 
the fire flamed, or blazed : and he made the fire 
to flame, or blaze, beneath the cooking-pot (TA.) 

And jU)l jt, (B:,) aor. '- , inf. n. jl, (TA,) Se 
kindled the fire, or made it to bum or to bum 

fiercely, 05:,TA.) — i^\ j\, (K,) aor. -' , inf. n. 

j\ and jij\, (TA,) lie put the thing into a state 
of violent motion or commotion : (ISd, ]^ :) so 
accord, to IDrd: (ISd:) but Ibddieem El-^ar- 

bee explains j\ only as signifying the act of 


moving, (TA.) — ^jl, (A,TA,) aor. ^, (TA,) 

inf. n. j\, (S, TA,) He put him in motion; dis- 
quieted him; (Aj^TA;) stirred up, roused, or 
provoked, him ; and incited, urged, or instigated, 
him ; (S,» A/ TA j) lii> ^ to do such a thing. 
(A, TA.») It is said in the ?ur [xix. 86], 

i9«0«t fA(m no^ that we have sent the devils against 
the unbelievers inciting them strongly to acts of 


disobedience ? (S, TA.) Or jl signifies The inci- 
ting a man to do a thing by artifice, or cunning, 
And gentleness, (El-^arbee.) 

J » 


5. jjJUt OjU : see L 

^'* ^- - xx© alxXx xj 

8. jji)t OjiSt : see 1 tj^ o^ j3b ^ He 

becomes angry,- and distressed, a^d disquieted or 

disturbed, by reason of such a thing, (A, TA.) 


Sj\ A sound, or noise, (TA.) 

• t 9 S 

jjj\ in(,n,o(l.,^^ Sharpness ; Bjn, iji^, (TA.) 



• »f 

L vj«, aor. ^- , (A, ?,) inf>ii. ^jS (T?,) J^ 

XXX ^^ 

(water),/Zowec{ or ran; (A,]^;) like ^j. (TA.) 
4»!ii., (S,A,Mgh,M8b,?:,) and v!ie«, (?, 

X X 

Msb,) J. water-spout ; a pipe, or channel, that 
8])outs forth water : (Mgh, TA :) or that by 
which water pours down from a high place: 
(Towshee^i :) or a water-spout of wood, or tlie 
like, to convey away the water from the roof of 
a lumse : (MF in art ^^j :) the former is from 
the verb above mentioned : (A, K :) or it is 
arabicized, (A, Mgh,K,) from the Persian, (Mgh, 
50 signifying ^^make water:" (¥0 its pi. is 
4^jU : (ISk, S, Mgh, Msb :) and the pi. of 


^]}t<^ is ^^^j^t^ and ^^^jSyt, from ^j^, said of 

X X 

water, meaning " it flowed," (Mgh, M^b,) accord, 
to lA^ir ; (Mgh ;) or this is arabicized } or post- 
classical : (Msb :) but ^]}t^, without », is alto- 
gether disallowed by Ya§J^oob [i. e. ISk] : 

(Mgh :) it is also called vljjl*, (T, §, Msb,) 
accord, to I A^ ; (T, Msb ;) but this is disallowed 
by ISk, Fr, and AHdt, (M^b,) and by Az 

• X • 

[the author of the T] ; (Mgh ;) and vbi^ ^^9 
accord, to lA^r and Lth and others, as is ^men- 
tioned in the T. (Msb.) 

-* • Ix _ 

2. »j1, inf. n. Ljp, (Msb, 5,) He built a 
structure of the kind called m), and made it long : 

(El :) or he built a house, or chamber, in the 
form of what is so called, (Msb.) 

•jl A certain kind of structure ; (S, 5 or 
a house, or chamber, built in a long, or an oblong, 

• x« i 

foinn; (Mgh, L, Msb;) called in Persian ^^^\, 
(Mgh, L,) and also, in the same language, jui, 

# X X ^ 

and j^Ss : (Mgh :) [i. e. an oblong, arched, or 
vaulted, structure or edifice ; (such as a bridge ; 
see ZjiaJs ;) a portico, gallery, or piazza ; accord, 
to Golius and Freytag, (BdificU genus oblongum 
etfomicatum, porticus instar ; to which Freytag 
adds, portm arcus superior :] or, accord, to some, 

• x«» 

a roof: (Msb:) pi. [of pauc] p-ljl (8, Msb,]gL) 
and Iji (S, ]g:) and [of mult.] L^jl. (5.) 

1. ijjl, aor. . , (11^,) inf. n. ^1, Q^Aift, T^,) 
It surrounded, or encompassed, it, (lAar,*^;* 
TA,) namely, a thing. (T]^.)..See also 2, in 
two places :- and see 3. 

2. djjl, inf. n. ^j^. He put on him, or clad 

[Book I. 

him with, anj\j\ ; (S ;) as also t ijjl. (TA.)«^ 
It covered it : (K,* TA :) as in the phrase, 

x»( J »s •«» 

u^y!)\ w^t jjl The hM)age covered the ground, 
or land, (TA.) «. I He repaired the lower part 
of it, (namely, a wall,) and thus made that part 

like an jljl : (Mgh, M^b :*) he cased [the loner 

part of] it, (namely, a wall,) and thus strengthened 
it, (A,),^mmXHe strengthened him, or it; (I^l, 

TA;) as also tijjl, (Fr,) inf. n. jjl. (Fr,K:.) 
[See also 3.] 

3. djjl, (Fr, 8, A, Msb,) for which the vulgar 

Jxx X ^^ 

say djjl^, (Fr,S,) the latter an extr. form, (J^,) 

inf. n. Ijjiji ; (Msb, ^ ;) and t Jjjf ; (TA ;) 
He aided, assisted, or helped, him; (Fr, 8, A, 
Msb, 5;*) and strengthened kim, (Msb.) [See 
also 2.] You say, J^ ^ ji.jj| CjjJM aided, 
assisted, or helped, and strengthened, the man 

X X«MX ^ , ^ 0^t 

against such a one, (Zj.) And i^j)^ Ij^ Ojkjt 

# X J • X X ^'^^ 

^J^ A^ I desired to do such a thing, and such 


a one aided, assisted, or helped, me to do it, 

(A,TA.)_lli; ili; ^jjJI jjT, (A,) inf. n. 

as above, (5,) | The seed-produce became tangled, 
or luxuriant, (A, 5>) one part reaching to another, 
(A,) and one part strengthening another ; (K ;) 

as also cjp\ t^jU : (TA :) or c^\ ^jj\j signifies 

the herbage became tangled, or luxuriant, and 

strong, (S.) t^l i^\ jjT, (TA,) inf. n. 

as above, (El,) 7^ thing equalled, or was equal 
to, the thing : the thing matched, or corresponded 
to, the thing, (]jL,* TA.) In some copies of the 

K, in the place of Sl^tl^JI, is found «Ct|^l : the 
former is die correct reading. (TA.) 

5 : see 8, in two places : .. and see also 3, in 
two places. 

8. jj^l, (8, Mgh, Mfb,) originally jjiSr, (Mgh, 
Msb,) and t^jU, (8,) or jlj'j^W jjiji, and y tju, 
(5,) -He put on, or wore, thej\j\ : (8, Mgh, Mfb, 

xx5 ^ * 

El :) jj3l is wrong, (Nh,) or vulgar, (Mgh,) and 
should not be said : it occurs in . certain of 
the trads., but is probably a corruption of the 

relaters : (]^ :) or it is a correct form, [like J^l 

&c., (see art. J^l,)] (Msb, MF,) accord, to El- 
Karmdnee and Sgh and others. (MF.) 


jj\ Strength, (I A^r, S, A, 5-) — -^°d (or as 
some say, TA) Weakness : thus bearing two 
contr. significations. (lA^, ]^.) 1.^ And The 

back, (lA^, S, 50 \J^^ f^ >*Xwl, in the T^m 
[xx. 32], means Strengthen Thou by him my 
back : (lA^r, S :) or confirm Thou by him my 
strength : or strengthen Tkou by kim my weak- 
ness, (lA^r,),^mm Aid, assistance, or help, (Mfb.) 

^Also, (S,) or tjji, (]^,) The place, (K,) oy 
part of [each of] the two flanks, (S,) wkere the 
j\j\ is tied in a knot, (8, ]^.) 

••I %vt 

j}\ : see jjl. 
Jjl: see jljl. 


5jjl Any particular mode, or mxmner, of put- 
ting on, or wearing, the j\j\, (8,50 You say, 

x« JxXxj5 * 

SjjNI ^>.».»J Ail [Verily he has a good manner 
of putting on, or wearing, the j\j\], (A.) And 

»^x X X t^m XXX 

Sjjl jjJJl He put on, or wore, the jljl in 

Book I.] 

a good mamur. (^.) And it is aaid in a tnd., 

Cm*'*'^' OeO '^ [7^ believer't mode ofnear- 
ing the jljl ii to have it reaching to tht mtddk 
of the thavk I and there ihail be no tin chargeable 
to him Kith respect to what is hetmeen that and 
the two ankles]. (TA.) 

jljl, masc. andtfem., and ^ijljl, and ^jji-*, 
(S, Mjb, ^,) and ♦ %j^, (H,) alid tjji, (^;) 
^ thing well knoten ; (S, M^b ;) [a toaist-ivrap- 
per;] a mrapper Jor covering, or mhich covers, 
the lower part of the body, [from the waist 
downwards, concealing t/te thighs, and generaUg 
the upper half, or more, of the shanks, (see Jjl, 
or jjl, and ijjt ,)] not sewed : or such as is beneath 
the shoulders, or on the loner half of the body .* 
die »bj ia that which covers the upp«r half of the 
hodj ; or that which is npon the shoulders and 
back ; and thia also is not sewed : each of these 
explanations is correct ; (MF :) or i. q. 2A^Ju : 
(J^O ['" ^^ present day, jljl, vulgarly pro- 
nounced jifi\, is also applied to a woman's outer 
covering, or wrapper, of white calico ; described 
in my "Modem Egyptians:" and ^jp«, to 
a pair of drawers : and app., in post-classical 
writingB, to anything resembling a waist-rvrapper, 
worn on any part of the person, and in any 
manner; sometimes as a turban:] and jjjl also 
signifies anything with which one is veiled, con- 
cealed, or covered : (Th, '^ :) its pi. is Sjjl, 
(9, Mfb, ^,) a pi. of pane., ($, M;b,) and (of 
mnlL, 8, Msb) JJl (S, Msb, ^) and j}\, (K.) 
which is of the dial, of Temeem, or, accord, to 
MF, a contraction of^l : (TA :) and the pi. of 
j>S* is jjU. (Msb.) Yon say, * ejjl* j.*yj ^ 
XHe prepared himself for the thing, affair, or 
busiTiess, (A.) And ^j>>£jl Jm t Se abstained 
from sexual intercourse : or he prepared himself 
for religious service. (TA, from a trad.) And 
^jljljJ^I X(^The place of) my j\j\ became black: 
or, rather, became of a [blackith] hue inclining 
to green : because the hair when it first grows is 
of that hue. (Q&r p. 494.) And ^^ijl ^M 
[My house is my covering] : said by Es-Sarawee 
to lA^, on the tatter's expressing bis surprise at 
the former's walling in his house naked. (TA.) 
^l Continence; chastity, (^, TA.) Yon say, 
jIjNt wi«*g 0^> ^^^ *-ii**" I ^"^^ a one is con- 
tineiit, abstaining from womicn with whom it is 
unlaniful to him to have commerce : (A 'Obeyd :) 
and in like manner, jl}NI .^.^ O"^' C^^ ii 
«rt.>^».) — I One's wife : (§, M, ^ :) or one's 
itif: (I^t, 8uh :) or one's wife and family : or 
one's family and self. (TA.) One says, ^ji 
iJlM <£U t May my mife be a ransom for thee : 
(Aboo-'Omar EI~Jarmee, S :) or myself. (IE.t, 
Snb.) And it is said in a trad, respecting the 
TOW of allegiance made at the 'A^beh, ^Litl^ 
Ujjl <U4 ftii«J W<* t We will assuredly defend thee 
from that from which we defend our wives and 
our famUiesi or ourselves, (TA.)—! J. ''»'• 

(5,TA,) [But see ljj> hi.] And jljl Jl,'! ii 
Aery by which a erne is called to be milked. {^..) 

jjT ^^ji, and ^jy, [which is the fem.,] j A 
horse, and a mare, white in the hinder part, (A. 
TA,) which is the place of the j\j\ of a man ; 
(TA;) [i. e., it corresponds to the lower part 
of the body of a man :] when the whiteness 
descends to the thighs, the epithet Jjj— « is 
employed: (A :) or tbe former signifies a horse 
white in the thigksj and having hi* fore parts 
black, or of any colour : (AO, !^ :) pL jjl. (A.) 

jji^ I see jljl, in five places. 

SjjU : see jljt. 

Sjjji Jli tX ewe, or she-goat, that is [black in 
the hinder part] as thmtgh attired with a black 
jljl. (A; [in which is added, jtjt l^) Jls^, 
which may mean, "and one says, She has an 
jljl;" or "and one calls her jtjl;" but more 
probably the former is meant thereby ;] and ^ ; 
[in which i^M, " a ewe," is put in the place of 
il.^.])— jj^ jM J Aid [made] effective and 
powerful : (Tf., TA :) occurring in a trad. (TA.) 

OljjjU for Otjjj^ : see art. jjj. 


1. wJj', aor. - , inf. n. Jjl (§, Msb, ^) and 

ijjjt, (M?b,5() -'' (departure) was, or became, 
drew, near : (8, Msb, '^ ;) and in like manner, 
a time. (TA.) Hence, in the ^ur [liii. 58], 
aij"^! cJjl 2^ resurrection draweth near. (8, 
(Mfb.) ^ZTe (a man) hastened, or was quick : 
($, ^ :) or he drew near, and hastened, or was 
quick. (A,TA.) 

4. ^^y Me (a man, TA) incited me, or urged 
me, to hasten, or be quick : (^, TA :) it is of the 
easure ,jJU(*l. (TA.) 

0. h^jO The stepping with contracted steps. 
(?^) But see JjUi^, below. (TA.) 

6. l^jU They drew near together, one to ano- 
ther. (IF,^) 

<^)\, applied to a man, Hastening, or quick : 
>, TA :) and endeavouring to hasten, or be quick. 

aij^l The resurrection : so in the ^ur liii. 56, 
(S,M;b,) and xl. 16: (Bd:) or in the latter 
place it means the near event, or case, of being on 
the brink of the fire [of HeU] : or, as some say, 
death. (Bd.) 

hi;U«, of the measure ^Ui«, applied to a man, 
(TA,) Short; (S,A,^;) as being contracted in 
make ; (A, TA ;) having kit several parts near 
together. (8,:^.) [In the C^ it is written <-}Ju, 

this sense and others, following.]^ A strati, 
or narrow, place. (O, L, ^.)^A contracted 
stepping : you say, hJjU* ^luk : so in the and 
L. (TA.) _ t A man (^h, TA) eoU in di^iosi- 

(w»; narrow-minded: (8gh, 5, TA:) weak; 
cowardly. (TA.) 

I. 1^1, aor. 7 i 0^ and J,j\, aor. - ; (IDrd, 
5 i) inf. n. (of the former, TA) Jjl, (8, 0, ?,) 
and (of the latter, TA) Jjl, (IDrd,?;,) or the 
latter is used by poetic licence for the former ; 
(Af, Sgh ;) Se, or it, (said of a man, MF, or of 
a man's bosom or mind, ^,) became strait, or 
straitened; (IDrd, §,• 0,»I^, MP;) JJl being 
thus syn. with J;! : (S, O :) or it (a man's bosom 
or mind) became straitened in war or fight ; (K ;) 
or he (a man) became straitened in his bosom or 
mind, in war or fight: (TA:) as also *ia;tp, 
with respect to both these eignificatione ; (^ ;) or 
this signifies it (a man's bosom or mind) became 
strait, or straitened; like JjU ; (Fr, S;) and 

^U signifies tbe same as ^jU. (Z, in Golins.) 
[See also lO.J^aSjl, inf. n. Jjl, He straitened 
him : the verb being trans, and intrans. (MF.) 

6 and 6 : see 1. 

10. ij"^ y^ i^3~'' 7^ place became strait 
to such a one, (I^, TA,) so that he was unable to 
go forth [into it, to war oi fight]. (TA.) 

I I, 

(3jU A place of straitnesi, or a strait place, 

(8, ?, TA,) in which people fight. (TA.) And 
hence, A place of war or fight. (8.) And 
1^1 JjU The place of straitnesi of life, or 
living. (Lfe.) PI. J|U. (TA.) 


1- Ji'. (8. ?.) ao'- ; . inf- »• Jj". (?.) Me (a 
an) became in a state of straitness, or narrow- 
ness, and suffering from dearth or drought or 
sterility. (8, S^.) [See also the pass, form of the 
verb here following; and see 5.]^B(iJjt, aor. as 
above, (K,) and bo the inf. n., (TA,) Se confined, 
■estricted, restrained, withheld, debarred, hin- 
dered, or prevented, him ; (^,* TA ;) and strait- 
enedhim; in consequence of distress, or adversity, 
And fear. (TA.)^-ffe shortened hit (a horse's) 
rope, [or tether,] and then left him to pasture at 
pleasure (Lth, ^, [in the CJ^, *^ is put for 
>,]) in the place of pasturage. (Lth.)_ 

>«il- yjt» (§.) o""-«iV'. (?.) aor- " above, 
(S,) They confined, restricted, or debarred, their 
cattle from theplace of pasturage, (9,) or did not 
take, or send, them forth thereto, (?,) m conse- 
quence of fear, (S,?!,) or d«ar(A or drought or 
sterility. (^.) ^ It is said in a trad, respecting 
Ed-Dejj&l, and his besieging the Muslims in Beyt- 
el-Makdis, [or Jerusalem,] Ij-j^ "^ Os^Ji^ 
And they will be straitened with a vehement 
straitening. (TA.) And ^U1 Jjl signifies TIte 
people suffered, or were afflicted with, drought, 
or waiU of rain. (TA.) 

4. lU— It o)j1 The year became severe, distress- 
ful, calamitous, or adverse. (TA.)ei«^l_^jl 
Ood qffiicted (A«n with drought, or want of rain. 

5. J;U It (a man's bosom or mind) became 

ttrait, or straitened; (Fr, S, ]S^ ;) as also ^U. 

Jjl Straitness; distress; difficulty; (§,*50 
and droughty or waw* o/* ram. (TA.) ... FeAe- 
mtffictf o/* mighty or q/* strengthy in nary or fight; 
of couragBy valour y or prowess : or q/* irar, or 
^A^ ; or o/* fear : or q/* j9iinuAm«n^ ; syn. 

^V ^«^* (TA.)BBlt is also used as an epithet, 
meaning iS^rai^; narrom; confined, (9amp.S39.) 

Jjt J. calamity; (^ ;) because of its distressing 
character. (TA.} ,^^ Lying y or falsehood, (Ya^ 

Jjt t. q. j»jJ [i. e. JStemttyy nnth respect to 
past timey or considered retrospectively ; existence 
from eternity; or andentness] (S^^^TA) that 
is without beginning ; (TA;) or the continuance 
of existence in decreed times interminable in 

respect of the past; like as j^t is the continuance 
of existence in decreed times interminable in 
respect of the future ; (KT ;) or that [existenccy 
or timSy"] which has no extremity in its beginning; 

like j» ji ; and j^\ is that which has no extremity 
in its latter part ; like SU^ : the former is existence 
without any beginning : (Kull p. 31 :) said to be 

from the phrase J[}j j^ [''he, or it, has not 
ceased'' to be Jcc. ; i. e. ''has ever" been &;c. 

(see ^JO] ' ^"^i accord, to some, from Jjl signi- 
fying '' narrowness ;" because the intellect is pre- 
vented by its narrowness from perceiving its 
beginning: (MF:) Jjt is a name for that of 
which the mind is prevented by its narrowness 
from determining the limit of the beginning; 

from Jjt meanmg ''narrowness;'' and j^t is a 
name for that of which the mind shrinks from, 
or shuns, the determining the limit of the end ; 

from yyi\ meaning the act of "shrinking" from a 
thing, or "shunning" it (Kull pp. 30 and 31.) 
Hence the saying, IJU tj>U Jy:)\ ^ ^\L [He 
wasy or has beeny every powerful, knowing], (A, 
TA.) The phrase Jlj^l Jjt [During the space, 
without beginning, of aU past times; or ever, in 
all past times;] is like the phrase >l^^t j^] ; said 

to be no evidence of the use of Jtjt as a pi. of Jj t 
in a general way by the Arabs of the classic^ 
ages, as it is here added merely as a corroborative. 

(MF in art. •vt.) [See also ,^jt.] 

• f 

• *» 

Jjt : see Jjt. 

jjjjt [Eternal, with respect to past time; exist- 
ing from eternity; or ancient without beginning; 
as is implied in the S and EL &c. ;] a thing, or 
being, which has not been preceded by non-exist- 
ence : it is applied to God : and to [his] know- 
ledge : that which exists must be one of three 

kmds only : ,^^1 ^^Jjt [existing from eternity, 
and consequently existing to eternity] ; and this 
is God [who is also called jjj'^t J^jii) the 
Ancient without beginning] : and iCj^t *^2 Jjl *i 
[not existing fi^om eternity nor existing to eter- 
nity] ; and such is the present world : and i*tf jJt 
^j\ jt^ [existing to eternity without existing 
from eternity] ; and such is the world to come; 

the reverse of which [last] is impossible : (TA :) 

it is a rel. n. from Jjt : or, accord, to some, it is 
not [genuine] Arabic : (TA :) or it is originally 

,jji, a rel. n. from JJJ Jj, (S, ?,) a phrase 
applied to that which is ^ ji ; and is formed by 
contraction ; (S ;) then, the ^ is changed into t, 

d ^ 

as being easier of pronunciation; as in ^j\, 
appbed to a spear, in relation to ^y^ j> ; (S, XL,* 
Sgh, TA ;) and as in ^jJ^j applied to a blade, 
(S, Sgh, TA,) in relation to v^ s (TA:) so say 
some of the learned. (S.) 

•s ^t 


iUjt The quality, or attribute, ofJ[}\ [eternity , 

with respect to past timCy &c.] : but it is a forged 
term, not of the [genuine] language of the Arabs. 
(A, TA.) 

Jjjjt Xu# A severCy distressful, calamitous, or 

adverse, year : pi. Jjt. (EL.) 

• 0* 

Jjt A man in a state of straitness, distress, 

adversity y or difficulty. (TA.)..A man in a 
state of straitness in consequence of fever: or who 
is unable to go forth in consequence of pain : or 
confined, restricted, withheld, or prevented [from 

going forth], (TA.)..^jt ^JyJ [A milch camel] 

confined, or restricted, not pasturing at pleasure, 
having her shank tied up to her arm, on account of 
her owner^sfear of a hostile incursion: occurring 

in a poem of El-A^sh^. (TA.).. Jjt Jjt, in the 

• { ' 

^, erroneously, t Jjf^ Severe, or vehement, strait- 

ness, distress, or difficulty. (]^,* TA.) 

• I. 

JjU A place of straitness, or a strait place; 

(ip,K;) like ^5i^ • (?0 ^^ ^ place of war or 

fight, when strait. (L^.) And ^.^6^^ %)j^ 
The place where the means of subsistence are 
strait, or narrow. (Lh.) 

^jy^ »tji«*. i(i^ [A severe year of dearth, or 

sterility,] affHicting with drought. (TA, from a 

JjjU A horse having his rope [or tether] short- 
ened, and then left to feed at pleasure in the place 
of pasturage. (Lth.) 



«*■'* • i» ••* t * ^ -rr 

1. j»jt, aor. - , mf. n. j»jt and >jjt. He bit with 
the whole mouth, vehemently : (1^ :) or with the 

canine teeth : or you say, dLtj\, and e^ j»jt, 
meaning he bit it, and then repeated [the action] 
upon it, not letting it go : or he seized upon it 

with his mouth : (TA :) or dL6j\ signifies [simply] 
he bit it : (S :) and d^ j»jt, aor. - , inf. n. j»jt ; 
and j»jt, aor. - , inf. n. >jt ; the same ; or he 
seized, or took holdy upon it with his teeth : (Mfb:) 
and J*^t ju cu«jt I bit the arm, or hand, of the 
man most vehemently. (TA.) l^ j»jt occurs in a 
trad, as meaning ITe bit it, (referring to a ring of 
a coat of mail,) and held it between two of his 

central teeth. (AO.) And in another trad., j»jt 
« JS! ^» meaning He bit his arm, or hand. (TA.) 

And you say, ^UjJjt ^U ^ Jijijt jijt The 
horse seized [with his teethj or champed,] upon the 

[Book I. 

i^U [q.v.] of the hit. (^.) Andjji signifies 
also The cutting with the canine tooth, and with 
a knife, (]^,) and nnth other things. (TA.)«. 

[And hence,] U^ jijt, (§, Msb,* ?,•) aon , , 

inf. n.j»jt (§) and j»3jt, (TA,) said of a time, (S, 
Mfb,) or a year, (^,) It was, or became, die^ 
tressfuly or afflictive, to us, [a* though it bit us,] 
by drought, dearth, or scarcity; (S,M8b, EL;) 

" I 

and scant in its good things ^(8;) as alsoj»jl. 

aor. - 

inf. n. j»jt. (Msb.) And ^Uw j^lot 

jtr^^, (S, ?,•) inf. n. j»jt, (S,) A year, or year 
of dearth or drought or sterility, befell them, 
which extirpated them : (S, ^ :*) or, accord, to 
Sh, the verb in this sense is only with j. (TA. 

[See art >jt.]) ... [Hence also,] a^ j^j\, (AZ, Ip, 

EL,) inf n. j^j\, (TA,) He clave to him, namely, 
his companion ; (AZ, S, EL ;) and to it, namely, 

a place* (K.) And d^ j^j\, (^,) aor. ? , inf. n. 

9»t ' " 

j»jt, (TA,) He kepty attendedy or applied himself, 
constantly, perseveringly, or assiduously, to it; 

(^ ;) he clave to it. (TA.) And Ala^ j»jt, or 
l^, (accord, to difierent copies of the ^, the 
former being the reading in the TA,) and lt«Xp, 

(TA,) inf. n. ^jjt, (AZ, TA,) He kept, attended-, 
or applied himself, constantly perseveringly, or 
assiduously, to his 3a^ [or landy &;c.]. (AZ, ^, 

TA.) —jijt, (Nh, ^,) inf. n. >jf, (Nh, TA,) also 
signifies He held his teeth together, one upon 
another: (Nh :) [and he compressed, or ptU Uh 

9 0' 

gether, his lips: (see j»jt :)] and he closed, or 
locked, a door* (^, TA.) It is said in a trad., 

j»j*^t v>«>Jt ji^ jjs> aJUjiLj Jt^t The stick 

for cleaning the teeth, thou shalt use it on the 
occasion of the mouth's becoming altered in odour 
from the holding of the teeth together. (Nh.^ 

...[And hence,] ^t, (8, Nh, Msb,) inf. n. j»jt, 
(Msb, ]§[,) He held, refrained, or abstained, (S, 

?>*) »v*r^^ O^from the thing : (S, TA :) and he 
held, refrained, or abstained, from desiring much: 
(TA :) and from food (Msb, 5*) ^^ drink ; 
(Msb ;) as also >jt, aor. - , inf. n. j»jt : (Mfb :) 

and from speeck ; (Nh, IBL ;*) like as does the 
faster from food : and hence, (Nh,) or from the 
next preceding signification, (Msb,) ?^^^ [mean- 

ing as explained in what follows] is termed j»jt : 
(Nh, Msb :) but accord, to the relation commonly 

known, of a trad, in which j^j\ is said to occur in 
the last of the senses explained above, the word is 

j»jt, with J, and with teshdeed in the case of the>. 
(Nh.) It is related in a trad., that 'Omar having 
asked El-Hdrith Ibn-Keledeh, the ^^^ of the 

Arabs, "What is the [best] remedy?"' (S,) or 
having asked him respecting [the best] medical, or 

curative, treatment, (Msb,) the latter said, j»j^t, 
meaning 2Lo^t ; (S,Msb;) both these words 
here meaning The practising abstinence ; (PS ;) 
or the abstaining, or desisting, from eating : 

(TA :) or, in this instance, (TA,) j»j^>t signifies 
the not putting in food upon food : and (some 
say, TA) the being silent : (]g^, TA :) and it 

signifies also strength. (TA.) _ i^t J>j\ The 
thing became contracted ; became drawn together, 

or compressed; as also^t, aor. * . (1^) 


3^ jMopItf, or comjiany of mm, ttayed, remained, 
or dietlt, Umg » f A«tr ofroti*. (§, TA.) 

^"t : see iijf. 

^t [port, n. of ^^1 1 fem. with I] : Ke 1^. 

3ut}\ [inf. n. of un. of 1; and hence,] A tingle 
aetof eating; (^,TA;) i. e. an eating biU tmce 
m fA« courte of the day} like a^^j [q. t.]. 
(TA.) — Also, (Fr.l^.Mfb,^,) and tLjl and 
t i^r, (Fr, ¥, [the last in the C^ like the fint,]) 
StraUn^t, hardnett, or dittreu; (S, M;b, ^}) 
(bvv^, (&arlA, or (f«rt%.- (^,M^b:) pi. (of 
die fim, TA) Ojl, C^,) [or rather this is a coll. 
gen. n.,] like as j«5 is of J^, (TA,) [but origi- 
nally an inf. n. otj^}\, q. v.,] and^'l, (5,) Uke as 
jj^ is of «jj>;. (TA.) Hence the trad.,i*;f^jJ:&l 
yj^^iiJ, meaning Become levere, year of 
drimght, or dearth, or iterility : then thou mlt 
pau anay : though it has been strangely asserted 
that A«}l is here the proper name of a woman, 
to whom, on an occasion of her being taken with 
the pains of labour, these words were said by 
the Prophet (TA.) Ton also say i^Jf iZ, and 
f jUjt, (^,) so in the copies of the ^, Aere said 
to be like i»-_^, bnt correcdy ^(Ujl, as in the 
M kc., (TA,) [or both are correct, being part, 
ns., respectively, of^i and ^1,] and tJUjjl, 
meaning A dittrett/ul, or an afflictive, year; 
(^0 a year of vehement drought or dearth 
or sterility. (TA.) And jijtjt [pi. of ♦ iiji", 
used as a subst,] signifies liiares^l, or afflic- 
tive, yeart. (TA.) t^ljl, also, (5,) or, accord. 
to Aboo-'AIee, *>yijl, (IB,) [each a proper name, 
as denoting a kind of personification,] signifieB 
Tlie year of drought or dearth or eterility, (T^.) 
And yon say, '^Ijl ^,^ cJp and *^jjt Severe 
itraitnett, or dittrett, hefeU them. ($, TA.*) 




jX^\ : see X^t, in two places. 

^\}\ : see what next follows. 

.MjfS : see ^1, in three places, ^^jjl : see 
i«j), in two places. ^ Also, the former, Cleaving 
toadiing; (I^;) andsoOljt. (i^gh,^.) 

*- M t't* 

l«Sjl : see a«;I. 

^1 act part. n. of^l } Siting with the mhole 
mouth, vehemently : [kc. :] as also f^jjl : (^ : 
[in the C^ the former is erroneously written 
^1 ;]) or the latter signifies that hat a habit of 
Hting ; or that bitet mtieh ; syn. t^ayoi- : (Jftan 
p.fia2:) pi. of die former Jjjl: (Qamp.SGO:) 
ftnd of the latter Jljl. (Ham p. 609.) [Hence,] 
♦jyjV I^ biting lion; or the lion that bitet 
fMich, or vehemently ; ,^yiu^\ ^•^\. (TA.).^ 
[Hence also,] The canine tooth ; syn. ^U ; and 
aotA«jT} and t^jjl: pi. of the first JLjl; and 
oftfaeaeoond^iyj andofthethirdjljl. (M,^.) 

«« Also Hairing hit lipt compreited, or put <o- 
getker. (AZ,?.) 

iajl: see ^1 ; i^and see also 1^1, in three 

j*jU ^ narrow, or strait, place; a place of 
narromnetl or «tratfneM ; (^, ^ ;) like ^U ; 
(9 i) of a land, and of the pudendum muliebre, 
and of life, (^,) or of the means of subnstence ; 
(L^,5;) OT of any kind: (TAs) at^ nar 
road between two mountaint : (^, M^b :) a 
narrow place in mountaint, tuch that one part 
meett another, and the place beyond widens : 

(TA:) pl.^^U. (§,5.) And hence, (Mjb,) 

A place of war or ^ht ; (S, Mf b ;) because of 
the stnutness of the state thereof, and the difficult 
of escape from it (M{b.) 

J^i,* Smitten, or afflicted, by l«jl [or tlrait- 
nest, &c.] J (^ :) or eajpresting pain or grief, 
or lamenting, or complaming, on account of the 
ttraitnett, or distrettjvhess, or <^fflictiveness, 
(i^l and ijJ^,) of time, ht fortune. (TA.) 

8. ^wA*^' \S7\ inf. n- 5^U (9, ?) and ;,[^^D, 
or l\Si]p> (accord, to different copies of the S, 
[the latter irregular,]) or both, (accord, to the 
TA,) He put, or made, an rtjl [q. v.], to the 
watering-trough or tank; (§,?;) i.e. he put 
upon its moutk a stone, or a 3Xi- [explained 
below, voce .Ij'l], or the like; (TA;) as also 
* il/i, inf. n. :1^*I i (S, TA ;) or t JtjU. (5.) 

3. '»\j\, (9, 5,) inf. n. Jljlli, (Mfb in art jj>*, 
and TA in art ^Sj^, kC; [though it would seem 
from the ^ to be »l>j1,]) He (a man, ^) toai, 
or became, over agatntt it, or opposite to it; 
he faced, or fronted, him, or U. (S,* 5,» TA 
in art ^j[9.) Accord, to the 8, one should not 
say, (Ijlj : but it is said in a trad, respecting the 
prayer of fear, jJaII l^jt^, i- e. And we faced, 
or fronted, the enemy : (TA :) and the inf. u. 
is i\j\^. (TA in art fjj}.) [Its syn. iliU. 
is more common.] ^ [Hence i\j^y* signifying 
A conformity, a mutual resemblance, or a cor- 
respondence, with regard to soujtd, of two words 
occurrtTig near together ; like «-tj:ij1 kc. : see 
art (r-jj.] na [Hence, likewise,] aljl also signifies 
He contended with him, syn. #ljV> (^>TA;) 
and apposed, or withttood, him, syn. smS. (TA.) 
Whence the saying, in a trad., iJjJUlt CjjI <^Ji) 
^' k^> i,J^ .j^r^^ [And a party contended 
with, and opposed, or withstood, the kings, and 
fought with them for the religion of Oad]. 


4. J,^i t^/ t. q. i\f\, q. V. (9,TA.)_ 
And He repaired, or put into a right or proper 
ttate, the .Ijl [q. t.] of the watering-trough or 

tank. (IA^,TA.) And He poured forth the 

water Jrom iu^j\. (TA.) And d^ [jj\ He 

poured forth upon Us >ljl. (TA.) 

6: see 8. 

a^t aiU, (accord, to some copies of the $,) 

or t a^l, (accord, to other copies of the ^,) or 
both, (lA^, TA,) each after the manner of s 
relatiTe noun, [having no Tcrb,] (TA,) A she- 
camel that drinks from the ,\j\ [q. v.] : (TA :) or 
that will not drink save from the •tjl of the trough 
or tank ; and IjSs signifies one " that will not 
drink save from the ji» [thereof] ; " (§, TA, and 
lAv in art. jifi in the TA :) or, accord, to lA^r, 
that wiU not come to the watering-trough or tank, 
to drink, until they leave it UTUiccupied far fier; 
as also jijji. (TA in the present art) 

JtJNI t. q. iTj«JI [The front, as meaning the 
part, place, or location, that it over against, 
oppotite, facing, fronting, or in Jront}. (Msb, 
end ^ kc. in art jj^.) You say, ej\j\f ^ He 
is over against, oppotite to, facing, fronting, or 
tn^onf of, him; syn. ai\SM^, ($,) or aj)C-«. 
(M^b.)^ [Hence, si\}h signifies also Corres- 
ponding to it ; as when one says,] ,j^ ^^ i,J^^I 

it a vein of the korte and the camel, corresponding 
to the J*-&l of man"]. (TA in art Ja^.) [Yon 
say also, y^^*^ •Ij'^ UU) n^y He applied a word, 
or phrase, as correspondent to an idea, or a mean- 
ing.']atm\\j\ ia also applied to a man, and to a 
woman, and to a number of persons, in senses 
here following. (TA.) You say, J^'^)l fljl ^ He 
is the manager, conductor, orderer, regulator, or 
superintendent, of the affair. (S,M$b,TA.) And 
in the same sense the word is used by ^omeyd, 
in the phrase u^U* *ljl [The manager, or orderer, 
of the means of suimttence\, applied to a woman. 
(TA.) And in an instance in which a poet likens 
the *l;l of a watering-trough or lank to the [stink- 
animal called] OVp* - (9> "^^ '^ *^ ^^^^ 
it means The mater-drawer [of the trough or 
tank]. (Af, IB, TA.) [But in relation to a 
watering- trough or tank, it generally has another 
meaning, which see below.] You say also, i^"^ 
JU Uj\ (^) [Such a one i*] a manager, tender, 
superintendent, of cattle, or camels ^c. ; (^,* 
TA;) a good pastor thereof. (TA.) And iTjl 
>^jmJ\ Tke vigorous wager, ot prosecutor, of waj: 
(5.) And J^ 'li' O"^ "S""^* a one is the fellow 
and assistant of such a one. (TA.) And^^jlji^v* 
They are their fellows, (^, TA,) mho assist 
them, and order, or set in order, their affairs : 
(TA:) or they are those who order, or get in 
order, their affairs. (Msb.) And m^ itjN<J1, 
and Jl, VerUy he it a possessor of goodness, 
and of evilness. (TA.) — Also, l\j'^\, (5,) 
or yie«)I Uj\, (T^,) The means of susten- 
ance : or what has been caused, or occasioned, 
of plentijulness and easiness, and of superabun- 
dance, of sustenance. (^.)^Alao The place 
mkere the water is poured into the watering- 
trough or tank ; (As, §, ^ ;) i. e. its fore part ; 
[the part next to the well or other source whence 
^filled;] the hinder part, where die camels 
9tand when they coma to water, being called the 
jia : (8 in art jia :) or, accord, to AZ, a mass 
of stone, and what is put for protection [of the 
brink of the trough or tank (as it is generally 
constructed of stones cemented and plastered with 


mud)] upon the place where the water is poured 
when the bucket is emptied: (S in the present 
art. :) or the whole (frti^ [said in the TA to be 
a mistake for &«»>9 but this I think extremely 

improbable,]) of what is between the watering- 
trough or tank and the cavity of the weU, 
[namely,] of the [casing of stones, or bricks, 

called] ^^: (El:) or a stone, or skin, or bL^ 
[i. e. a thing made of palm-leaves woven together, 
generally used as a receptacle for dates], put [for 
protection] upon the mouth [or part of the border 
where the water is poured in] of the watering- 

trough or tank : (^/ TA :) in the ¥i, l^J^ f^yi 

f^^J\ is erroneously put for j^ ^^ f^yi 

' ' H. (TA.) 

^J\ JUft 

[Book I. 

i^\ aSU : Bee 2^1. 

1 : see 2, in two places. 

2. LS\, (8, M, Msb,) inf. n. J^U, (S, Msb, 

K,) ITe founded it ; or made, or laid, a founda- 
tion, or basis, for it ; (S,* Msb ;) namely, a 
building, (S,) or a wall : (Msb :) he marked out 
the limits of it, (namely, of a house,) and raised 
its foundations : he built its foundation, or basis : 

(El :) he commenced it ; namely, a building ; as 
also t 4^^ aor. d^^, inf. n. ^\: (M :) he built 
it ; namely, a house ; (TA ;) as also ^ d^aS, (El.) 
You say, ^^y^^ ,^;m^\3 \jJk [This is a good found- 
ing, or foundation]. (TA.) And^j^^L; J r%^ 

dLtjA JjJi)V ^^^^ l[J^^ ^ho does not lay the 

^ ^ ^ 

foundation of his property with equity, or justice, 

destroys it]. (A, TA.)_b!j ^j-Jl: see >lj, in 
art. >j{j. 

^\ : see what next follows, in six places. 

^\ The foundation, boMs, or lowest part, (S, 
A, Mgh, Msb, K,) of a building, (S, A, 1^,) 

or of a wall ; (Mgh, Msb ;) as also t ^jA and 
t J,! (A,]|l) and t J^Cl (S, A, Mgh, Msb, ?) 
and t ^jmJ\, (S, K,) which is a contraction of 

i^lwt: (S:) or the commencement of a building: 

fi t 
and any commencement of a thing ; as also ^ ^jA 

and ^ ^\^\ and "jj-^t: (M:) and the origin, 

# f 
source, stock, or root, ( J-^t,) of a man ; as also 

t Jl,l: or of anything; (M,]B[;) as also t^f 
(M,?l) and t^f and t^^,.^|: (Ki) and the 
heart of a man ; because [the Arabs believe that] 
it is the first thing that comes into existence in 
the womb : (M, El :) pi. ^U (§, M, Mgh, Msb, 
?) and J-U (M, Mfb, 5) and JJr{ ; (M, Mgh, 
Msb, El ;) the first of which is pi. of J,l, (Mgh, 
Msb,) like as JVilf is of Jil ; (Msb ;) or of Jl^l, 
like as w»W-t is of ^4^ ; (?;) or, as some say, 
o{^j^\, [like as ^JU^l is of ^,] so that it is a 
pi. pi. ; (TA;) and the second, of ,^1, like as ^Cp 

3 J • f ' 

is of ,.^-p; (Msb;) and the third, of ^Ct, (Mgh, 

Msb,) like as JUfr is of Ju, (Msb.) You say, 
Jy^\ ta-.U yj^'^ ^ [He buiU his house 

J ^ r" 

upon its first foundation.] (A) And d^\ ^^a dsJS 
[He uprooted it from its foundation]. (A.) And 
«^JiJl d^t ▼ ^Ut ^yS X [Such a one, the foun- 
dation of his affair, or case, is falsehood]. (A, TA.) 

And JLJJI J^\ ^ iwi o^, (S, M, A, ?,) and 
t dlt\, and ♦ all , (8, M, 5,) 1 2%a^ was in old, or 
ancient, time; (8, M, ^;) at the beginning of 
time ; (S, A,* ]^ ;) and in like manner, 0%Mrt ^J^ 
jkjJ\. (A.) .. Also ^ remain, relic, trace, 
vestige, sign, mark, or track, of anything. 

(?.) You say, J«j£jl J.f 11, or Jy ijl t J,f, 

[accord, to different copies of the K, meaning, 
Take thou to the track of the way,] when one 
guides himself by any mark or track, or by 

camels' dung : but when the way is manifest, you 

a *^ , • a 3 2 

say, i^j^S Jp J^. (K.) ^^t also signifies 

The remains qf ashes (M, K) between the ^^\, 

q. V. : (M :) occurring in a verse of £n-Ndbighah 

£dh-Dhubydnee ; but accord, to most relaters of 

this verse, it is ^\. (TA.) 



see ^\, in several places. 


4- u^/^^ C-%w1 The land produced [herbage 
oh as is termed] 

O J 

• t 

• • 

I The hair of the pubes : (M, K:) or of 

the pudendum : (Th, M, EL :) or of the podex : 
(8, El :) it may be, (§,) or is said to be, (M,) 

from %,f^^^ , (S, M,) which signifies " herbage," 
or "plants," (8,) or "abundance of herbage:" 
(M :) the j being changed into », as in the case 

of %iijl and w>j^ : (8 :) pi. ^y^\, and, accord, to 
IJ,VU. (M.') 

• a 


• J 

^ * .» 

• ^1 c*-l ^ o^ J- Jlj u • 

X [He ceased not, or has not ceased, to be, since 
he was in the beginning of time, or in old time, 
i. e., from the first of his existence, a person of 
increasing foolishness, and of decreasing intellect]. 
(AZ, S.) IB says, J has erred in mentioning 
wwt in this section [of the S] ; its proper place 
being in art aw, where he has also mentioned 
it; for its hemzeh is conjunctive, by common 
consent ; and if conjunctive, it is augmentative : 
also, his saying that they have changed the [final] 

^ in ^\ into O, like as they have changed the 

[final] ^ of Jj^ into O, making this word c- 

is a mistake ; for, were it so, the hemzeh of CU«rl 
would be disjunctive [in every case ; whereas it is 
always conjunctive except after a pause, when 
it is pronounced with kesr] : moreover, he has 
attributed this assertion to AZ, who never made 
it, but only mentioned ^jJt CUmt) with jhj5\ ^\ 
because of their agreement in meaning. (TA.) 

.. [Hence also,] 2i^t wwl f Calamity, or mis- 

fortune: (K:) adversity; difficulty; distress; 
affliction : (TA :) what is hated, disliked, disap- 
proved, foul, abominable, or evil. (]^.) — And 

O^^t cJ.*) fThedesert: (^:) or the wide desert. 
(TA.) See also art. aw. 

^JLft The warp of cloth ; (]^;) as also i£j>mi\ 
and L<>}t : (TA :) but it is improperly mentioned 

in this art. ; for it is [originally ^>^t,] of the 

measure Jy^t. (J^.j 

3 # # 

^JLt\ Of, or relating to, the kZ^\. (TA in art. 


• S ^i 

yo A ram having much wool. (M, El.) 


• • 

:Uwt, signifying The podex, or the anus, (T^,) 
or signifying the former, and sometimes used as 
meaning the latter, (8 in art aw,) is with a con- 

junctive hemzeh, [written wwt, when not imme- 
diately preceded by a quiescence,] and its final 

radical letter is elided ; for the original form is aw ; 
(Msb;) and it is mentioned' in art. aw. (]^.) 
[It is of the fem. gender.] It is said in a prov., 
applied to him who fidls of attaining the object 

that he seeks, i^Ljt aiIT cALL\ [His anus 
missed the hole in the ground]. (Meyd.)... 
[Hence,] ybjJt c^t t ^^ first, or beginning, of 
time; (A ;) old, or ancient, time. (IB, A,* ?.*) 
One says, Oy^^ >bjJI CUwt ^ Jtj U t [He 

ceased not, or has not cea>sed,from the beginning 
of time, or from old time, to be insane, or mad; 
or] he always was, or always has been, known as 

being insane, or mad : like as one says, ^t ^J<^ 
ybjJI. (AZ, ip.) And Aboo-Nukheyleh says, 


• .^«l 

>lwt a foreign word, pronounced to be such 
because ^^ and > do not occur in any one Arabic 
word, (Msb,) not found in the poetry of the pagan 
times, (Ibn-Dihyeh in TA art Ju^,) nor in the 
language of those times, (Shif& el-Ghaleel, ibid.,) 

[arabicized from the Persian >U«»t,] A master: 
(MF :) a skilful man, who is held in high estima- 
tion: (Msb :) a preceptor; a tutor; a teacher: 
a craftsmaster : (Ibn-Dihyeh; and Golius on the 
authority of Meyd :) [and so in the present day ; 

as also Iwt and Uowt :] also applied by the vulgar 
to a eunuch; because he generally tutors children: 

(Shifd el-Ghaleel, and Ibn-Dihyeh :) pi. o/^\zL\ 
(Har p. 377) [and JuJUt and lJj\J\ ; and vul- 

garly, in the present day, %L)\yLt\ and Ot^isufl]. 

liJ^S : see art ij^, in which, and in art Jj^, 

it is mentioned : but this is its proper place, if it 
be an arabicized word : in the T it is mentioned 
in art 


1. Ju,1, (8, M, A, K,) aor. '- , (?,) inf. n. Jll, 
(TA,) \ He (a man, M) was, or became, Uke a 
lion, (S, M, A, 5,) in his boldness, (A,) and his 

Book I.] 

other dispositions; (S, A, TA ;) as also * o-^U.^^, 
(M,A,?:;) [and ^ jZh; (see ju»(;)] d^ to- 
wards him, or against him. (A.) You say 

«^*^t Oti «^* [-^ ^^ bearing evidence of being 
like a lion in boldness] : an eztr. phrase^ like 

\ i;;^ Sjim^ ; (T A ;) which is [said to be] the 

*» ^ ^ ^ 

only other instance of the kind. (TA in art. J»»-.) 
[Hence the saying,] j^l *.j^ \^\p j^ Ji.> !>! 
\\When he comes in, he is lihe a lynx; and when 
he goes outf he is like a lion : see j^]. (S, from 
a trad.) You say also, d^ ju»t meaning f ffe 
became emboldened against him ; (TA ;) as also 
t ju»U.i.<t. (S, Msb, ]^.) And f He was, or be- 
camCf angry with him : (M, It, ^ :*) or (so 
accord, to the M and L, but in the ^ *' and/') 
behaved in a light and hasty manner, or foolishly, 
or ignorantly, towards him, (M., L^ ^.*).. 

j^\, (8, Ky) aor. as above, (f.,) and so the inf. n., 

(TA,) also signifies i Se (a man, S) became 
stupified (S, K) by fear (§) at seeing a lion. (S, 
]K1.) Thus it has two contr. meanings. (^.)saB 

juft, aor. - , t. q. a^m.^ [t Se bit another with his 

teeth, like as does the beast of prey : or he reviled, 
vilified, or vituperated, another; charged him 
with a vice or fault or the like ; or assailed him 
with foul language, such as displeased him]. (]^.) 
•^ See also 4. 

2 : see 4. 

• a 

4, • juil, (§, M, Msb, ¥.,) or j^>^ V ^ Jwl, (A,) 
inf. n. >tl^t ; (TA ;) and djufjt, (S, ]^,) in which 
the t [i; e. the second 1^ for djurt is originally 

•jLtftt,] is changed into ^ ; (S ;) and ▼ oo-^t ; (1^;) 
I Se incited him (namely a dog) to the chase. 

(s, M, A, Msb, ?:.♦)_ v:w« o^ jJ xm 

incited the dogt to attach one another. (A.) And 
>4a' O^ -^l. (?' M, A, L, M|b,) inf. n. JUi» ; 
(Msb ;) or ▼ ju»t, aor. - ; (K ;) t S.e excited 
discord, dissension, disorder, strife, quarrelling, 
or animosity, between, or among, the people, or 
company of men. ($, M, A, L, Msb, ^.)saB 

je-«)t J^l Se journeyed with energy ; syn. o>Lrt ; 
(IJ, M ;) from which it is probably formed by 
transposition. (M.) 

6: see 1. 

10. a-#lwt Se called a lion. (M.) an See 1, 
in two places. ... t -S^i^ became accustomed, or 
hahiiuated, [to a thing, as a dog to the chase,] 

and emboldened; syn. ^^. (Mf b.) ... t /i^ (a 
plant, or herbage,) became strong, and tangled, or 
luxuriant: (S:) or became tall and large: or 
grew to its utmost height : (M :) or attained its 
full growth, and became tangled, or luxuriant, 
(M,) and strong : (TA :) or became tall, and dry 

{sjmf^ [perhaps a mistake for sju^\, as in the S 
and M,]) and large, (A, TA,) and spread every 
way : (A :) or became tall, and attained its full 

growth. (?.)-« i-*ill (B:,TA, [or jujlilj 
in the Cl^ juo^t) f Se (a man, TA) was, or 
became, excited, roused, provoked, (mA, ^, TA, 
in the Cl^ ^,) or tnct/^c^. (TA.) 

ju#i [The Son;] a certain beast of prey, (M, 

T A,) weK known : (M, A, Mfb, 5 :) IKh and 
others have mentioned more than five hundred 
names for it; and it is said to have a thousand 
names [in the Arabic language ; but these, with 
few exceptions, are epithets used as substs.] : 
(TA :) pi. [of pauc] juLf (§, 5 [in the TA 

with two hemzehs, jurtt, which is the original 
form, but deviating from the regular pronuncia- 
tion,]) and lC\ (S,M,]g:) and [of mult] l^\ 

(8,M,Mfb,5) and jIa (S) and ilt, (S,M, 
Mf b, ^,) the last two of which are contractions 

of the form next preceding them, (1^,) and ^1 ju»t 

(E:) and tlj^U, (Msb,^,) the last called by 
some a pi., but [rightly] said by others to be 
a quasi-pl. n. : (TA :) the female is called Sjurt ; 
(AZ, Ks, S, M, A, Msb, ^ ;) or ju»? is applied 
to the male and the female, and sometimes the 
female is called oju^t. (Msb.) .. Iju»t lu c^ 
is a phrase [meaning I found him to be a man 
of exceeding boldness ; being] expressive of an 

intensive degree of boldness. (Mughnee in art 

J ^ t 
^,)m^^j^*^\ iTIie constellation JjCO. (^w,&;c.) 

' J ^ ml 

[See c|;JJt.]...And fThe star Cor Leonis, or 
Regulus. (^w, &c.) [See ^Cni^^O 

juft \ [Like a lion;] bold; daring ; as also 
^ j^\ and tju»U« [and tju^U.!.^ (see 10)]. 

' ' ft C A f ' ° 

(Mfb.) You say ju»t ju»l [A bold, or fierce, 
lion], adding the latter Word to ^ve intensiveness 
of signification. (lA^, M.)...[Its fern.] oju^t 
[app. applied to a bitch] signifies f Accustomed, 
or habituated, [to the chase,] and emboldened; 
syn. L^U. (5, TA, in the CIS. aJ^U.) [See 
also 10.] 

Sjwl A [kind of enclosure for the protection 
of camels, sheep, or goats, such as is called] Sje^a^. 
(K.) [Like Sj^t^^t.] an [See also ju»t, of which 
it is the fem.] 

\^J^\, with damm, (IB, ^,) thus correctly 
written, (IB,) in the L [and S] ^^jwt, (TA,) 

9 ^ ^ 

A kind of gafinents or cloths ( v V> S, for which 
is put, in the ^, erroneously, OlJ, TA) : occur- 
ring in a poem of El-Hoteiah, (1^,) who likens 
thereto an extensive, even, waterless desert. (L.) 
IB says that he is in error who mentions it in 

the present art. : Aboo-'Alee says that ^jwt and 
^^^t are quasi-pls. of ^juf and ^JLt as signifying 

^•"••a -I ..11 9 J »l 9 J9l 

^jlm«o V!y > ^^^ originally ^^jurt and ^^^^J^t ; 

9 J »l ^ 90^ 

like as J^slaS is a quasi-pl. of Jjt«. (L.) [But see 
art. jjuf and ^juf.] 

9 $ 9 t 

J4b»»t : see ju»t. 

•^ '^ 

9. .1 

• ^ ^ 

5>U1 (S,]B:) and 5>UI (K) t. q. 5>U^ [A jtwWow, 
&c.] : (S, K :) like ^W for l\i^. (TA.) 

ft • J 

I One n'Ao trains a dog, or (/o^«, to the 
choM. (L, Msb.) 

9 ^ *%^ 

djufU ^ pUice in which are lions : (Msb, £[ :) 

9 "■ ^t^ 99$ 

or SjufU (^jt a Za7u£ having lions in it : (9, A :) 


or a land abounding with Uons : (M, R:) pi. 

J m^ 9 ^t 

jufU. (A.) ... See also ju»t. 


9 J 

9 t 

see juft. 


1. t^\, (§, M, A,) aor. - , inf. n. ^l (8, M, 1^) 

and jCt, (M, TA,) Se bound, braced, or tied, 
him, [namely, his captive,] or it, (S, M, A, ]^,) 

namely, his ,^^ [or camel's saddle], (S, A,) or 

his horse's saddle, (A,) with an jUt , i. e. a thong 
of untanned hide, (^, A,) by tying the two ex- 

tremities of the O^^j^ 9f l^ cameVs saddle, or 
of the curved pieces of wood of the horse^s saddle, 
(A.) .. Also, aor. as above, and so the inf. n., 

i. e. ^1 (S, Mfb) and JU, (Lth^S,) Se made 
him a captive; captived him; or took him a 

prisoner; whether he bound him with an jLrt 

or did not ; (S ;) as also ▼ oj«»t, of the same form 

as j^jsa^S ; (Msb ;) and ▼ d;«»Uwt, accord, to a 
trad., in which it occurs thus used, transitively : 
(Mgh :) and he imprisoned him. (TA, from a 

trad.) ... Also, (S, Msb,) inf. n. j^\, (Msb,) 
t Se (God) created him, or formed him, (§, 
Msb,) in a goodly manner. (Msb.) You say, 

j^*jS O-Mi^t 4lD) Ood created him, or formed 
him, in the best manner, (Fr, TA.) ... wt, (§, 
A,) aor, jLji ; (S ;) or j^l, aor. 'jL\i ; (Ug^Jt ;) or 

4)3^ j^\ ; (M ;) inf. n. j^\, (M, and so in a 

copy of the S,) or the latter is a simple subst ; 
(M, I^tt ;) Se (a man, S, A) suffered suppres- 

ft •! 

sion of his urine. (S, M, Il^tt, A.) [See j-il, 

[2. j^\ Se bound, or tied, tight, fast, or 
firmly. (So accord, to Golius; but for this he 
names no authority.)] 

4 : see 1. 
ft >• i 9^^ 


6. ^J*jJ dJ^ j^\3 t Such a one excused himself 
to him, and was slow, or tardy : (AZ, T, K :*) 
thus as related by Ibn-Hdnee from AZ : as 
A'Obeyd relates it from him, ,>-»U ; but this is a 
mistake : it is correctly with j. (T.) 

8. >*«i^y inf. n, jlliSl [written with the dis- 
junctive alif jUwl] ; for ^, inf. n. jUJ! : see 
art. j-^. 

10. ^jjil) jM.iU.ft Se submitted himself as a 

captive to the enemy. (Mgh.) You say, ^\X^\, 
meaning Be thou a captive to me. (S.) an See 
also 1. • 

)1\ i. q. jO, q. V. (S.) Hence the saying, 
cjltlf jH iJJ^\ t JA This thing is for thee, or is 
thine, [lit.] with its thong of untanned hide 
[wherewith it is bound]; meaning, altogether; 

like as one says, ^jf' (?•) -^"^ 5^^ ••^^ 

Take thou it all, or altogether. (Msb.) And 

IawV J»5^^ ^ 1^^ people came altogether. 

(Abo<>-Bekr,) Strength of make, or form. (M, 

K.) [Accord, to the copies of the K in my 
hands, it also signifies Strength of natural dis- 
position ; but instead of ji^^^f ^^ ^^^ copies, 


we should read jJUJt^y agreeably with other 
lexicons, as is implied in the TA : see 1.] You 

say, JJUJt j^\ jL»jc^ o^ iSuch a one is of 
^ «» ^ 

strong f firm, or compact, make, or form. (TA.) 

^^j^jL\ U>ji», in the 5^ [Ixxvi. 28], means 
t We have strengthened their mahe, or form : 
(§, A, Msb :) or, their joints : or, their two 
sphincters which serve as repressers of the urine 

and feces (JaSUltj J^\ y^j^)j which contract 
when the excrement has passed forth; or the 
meaning is, that these two things do not become 
relaxed before one desires. (lA^, ^.) 

^t, (8, M, I?tt, A,) a subst, (M, IBItt,) as 

also ^ j^\, (M, Lb,) meaning Suppression of the 
urine : (S, M, &;c. :) suppression of the feces 
is termed j.^1*- : (S :) or a dribbling of the urine, 
with a cutting pain in the bladder, and pangs 
lihe those of a female in the time of parturition. 

JO i J ^ ^ $ 

(lA^.) You say, ^^J! oj^t [Suppression of 
urine, &c., took him, or affected him]. (A.) And 

\j^\ aD) di\j\ {May Ood give him a suppression 
of urine, &c.] : a form of imprecation. (A.)—. 

Hence, (M,) JLs i^e (TA?ir, S, M, A, ?:) and 

jm»\ >5» and jJ*^\ ^^ (Expositions of the Fs) 
and jm>^ >5», (I A^, EL,) or this is a corruption, 
(1^,) or a vulgar mistake, (A,) and should not 
be said, (Fr,S, A,) unless meant to be used as 
ominous of good, (A,) A stich, or piece of wood, 
which is put upon the belly of a man affected by 
a suppression of his urine, (S, A, ^, &c.,) and 
which cures him. (A.) 

jm»\ : see ^t. 

S^t t A man's kinsmen that are more, or most, 
nearly related to him ; his near kinsmen : (S,* 
M, A,* M f b,* K :) or a man's nearer, or nearest, 
relations on his father* s side : (Aboo-Ja^ar En- 
Nahhds:) so called because he is strengthened 
by them. (S, A.) 

j\lf\ A thing with which one binds; (M,^;) 

a thong of untanned hide, (S, A, Msb,) with 
which one binds a cameVs saddle, (As, S,) [as 

also jl«t ,] and a captive ; and so j^\, q. v. : 

(ip :) and a rope, or cord, with which a captive 
is bound : and a pair of shackles : (TA :) pi. 

%\. (M, B:.) [See also 1.] You say, JjU Ji 

AilLU J3[e untied his thong of untanned hide 
wlierewith he was bound, and released him. (A.) 

msi See also >wt. 

^tJ\ i. q. ^ j^U ; (§, TA ;) Bound with an 

jCt : (M, TA :) shackled : (5 imprisoned : 
(Mujdhid, M, ]^ :) captived, or a captive ; (S, 
M, XL ;) absolutely, (TA,) although not bound 

with an jUt : (S :) and ▼ jLrt is sometimes used 

in the same sense. (Mfb.) jf^\ is also applied as 
an epithet to a woman, (Mgh, Msb,) when the 

woman b mentioned ; but otherwise S^jwt is used 
as the fem. : you say, S^jw*^l cJUJ [/ slew the 
female captive], like as you say, ^^\ C^\j. 
(Msb.) The pi. is ^\ (S, M, Msb, K) and 
rlj^t (M, ]^) and (accord, to Beveral authors, pla. 
of J^\, TA) y^C\ (§, M, Mfb, ?) and J^C\ : 

(M, ]^:) the first of these forms of pi. is proper 
to epithets applied to those who are hurt or 
afflicted in their bodies or their intellects : (Aboo- 
Is-^^:) it is used in this instance because a 
captive is like one wounded or stung. (Th, M.) 

pj^\ j6^\^ [in the CEl, erroneously, jt^^] 

The thongs of the horse* s saddle, whereby it is 
bound : (K. :) accord, to the more correct opinion, 
a pi. without a sing. (MF.) 

j^U : see j(^\. A camel's saddle bound with 

• y^ <• 

>' 1^^ 

an jlwt : pi. ^t^U. (TA.) .. f A man, and a 
beast, having strongly-knit joints. (M.)...A 
man suffering suppression of his urine. (S.) 

• ^»j 0I 

V*^>A^t OT^*Jljh^\, [accord, to different copies 
of the ]^,] and with ^^^^ in the place of ^, 
[from the Greek a<rrpo\al36v, An astrolabe : a 
word of which F gives the following fanciful 
derivation:] ^^ was a man who traced some 
lines, and founded upon them calculations; whence 

V*!9 j^^ [the lines of Ldb], from which was 
formed the compound word ^*^jJa0»f\, and 
^^jJbL^\, the ^ being changed into ^.j^ because 
of the J9 following. (K in art. v^'O ^^ ^^ either 
an arabicized or a post-classical word : accord, to 
the Nihdyet el-Adab, the names of all the instru- 
ments by which iime is known, whether by means 
of calculation or water or sand, are foreign to the 
Arabic language. (MF.) 

1. JL(, aor. ^ , inf. n. JJ\, (M, Msb, ISi,) He 

grieved, lamented, or regretted : and he was angry : 
(Msb:) or he grieved exceedingly: and he was 
exceedingly angry : (M :) or he grieved most 

intensely : (^ :) some say that Uut\ signifies the 
grieving for a thing that has escaped ; not in an 
absolute sense : (MF :) or it properly signifies 
the rising, or swelling, or mantling, of the blood 
of the heart, from desire of vengeance; and when 
this is against an inferior, it is anger; but when 
against a superior, it is grief. (Er-Rdghib.) Mo- 
hammad, being asked respecting sudden death, 

answered, saying, ji\SM <Ju/t 5 J^t^ V>fW^ ^^b' 
or accord, to one recital, ^ UUt, i. e. [Rest, or 
ease, to the believer, and an act of punishment] of 
anger [to the unbeliever], or of one who is angry. 
(]^.) You say, dj\^ U ^^^ uuit, inf. n. as above; 

(S ;) and t jCu ; (S, M,» ?';♦) He grieved, or 
lamented, for, or at, or regretted, most intensely, 
what had escaped him : (S, M,*X[ :) and d^ ijLt, 
(S, ]B[,) inf. n.^ as above, (8,) he was angry with 
him, or at it : (S, K. :) or tii> ,Jii J^ JLf 

tj^j, and ▼ uuiU, signify, accord, to some, such 
a one grieved, or lamented, for, or at, such and 
such things which had escaped him : or, accord, 
to others, grieved, or lamented, mast intensely. 

(lAmb.) Uuft in the ^ur xviii. 5 means, accord, 
to Ed-Dahh&k, Uj*. [i. e. In grief, or in most 

[Book I. 

]^ur [xii. 84], means ^[ijt^ ^ [O my grief for 
Joseph : or O my most violent grief]. (TA.) 

4. Aiut\ (in [some of] the copies of the T^, 

erroneously, Aiui\, TA) He angered him; made 
him angry : (8, M,* O, L, Msb, BL :) and he 
grieved him ; made him to grieve, or lament. (M,* 


, jj-»»-» fit* 

5 : see 1, m two places. ... d«^ wJu»U XL q. 

'*%tnM3 [app. meaning His hand became bruised, 

violent grief, &c.]: or, accord, to ^at&deh, in 

* i i «»^ ^ ^ % * 

anger. (TA.) And ULf^ ^^ ULiI b, in the 

or mangled; or became cracked, or chapped]. 
(M, TA.) 

• ^t 

it inf. n. of 1, which see throughout. [Used 
as a subst., t. q. ^Lrt.] 

• t 

• ^' 


I (M, Mgh, Msb) and t ,^T and t J,uLt 
and t ^j^\ (M, TA) and t Jj^i (M) Angry : 
(Mgh, Msb, TA :) or exceedingly angry. (M.) 
For an ex. of the first, see 1. See also Ut^\, in 
two places. 

^yJu^\ : see uuit : and u^^ft. 

• ^ 

sJLi\ (S, M, Sgh, &c.) and oUI (IAth,B:) A 
certain idol, (S, M, 1^,) belonging to Kureysh, (8, 
M,) as was also iX5U ; (8 ;) the former of which 
was placed, by *Amr Ibn-Lohei, up6n Es-Safd, 
and the latter upon EUMarweh ; and he used to 
sacrifice to them, in front of the Kaqbeh : (8, K:) 
or, (S, M, K,) as some assert, (8,) these two were 
two persons of Jurhum, (8, 1^,) a man and a 
woman, (M,) olwt the son of *Amr, and SJS\j 
the daughter of Sahl, (8,]^,) who committed 
fornication in the Kaabeh, and were therefore 
changed into two stones, (8, M,^,) which Kureysh 
afterwards worshipped. (8, K.) [Other accounts 
of them are also given, slightly differing from the 
latter above.] 

: jt 

9 t 

\^yA : see U^, in two places : and see uLt. 

\J^\ Orieving, lamenting, or regretting, (5,* 
TA,) 9710^ intensely, on account of a thing that 
has escaped : (M, TA :) and quickly affected with 
grief, (8, Mgh, IJL,) and tender-hearted; as also 
t sJymtS : (8, K :) or, as also t 01^) (M) and 
t ^jUll and t JLT (M, TA) and t JJ\^ (M,) 

grieving exceedingly: (M:) or grieved: (TA:) 
and sometimes the first signifies angry, and at the 

same time grieving, or lamenting : (§ :) pL ^vL^t. 

(M.) See also sSJ. A slave : (ISk, 8, M, BL:) 

and a hired man : (ISk, M, ^ :) because of their 
state of abasement and subjection : fem. with S : 
(M:) and pi. as above. (Ip, M.)...^ captive. 
(TA.) ... A very old man : (BI :) pi. as above : 
so in a trad., in which the slaying of such b for- 
bidden. (TA.)...One who scarcely, or never, 
becomes fat. (^.).^^fA region, or country, 
that does not give growth to anything, or produce 

any vegetation; as also 2i^t and ▼ibUI and 
t liC\ : (M :) and t aiCi dso signifies f thin, 
or shdUow, earth : (AHn, M :) and ^U^^\ ^/c^t, 
t thin, or shallow, earth, which scarcely, or never^ 
gives growth to anything, or produces any vegeta- 
tion : (§ :) or which is not commended for its 

vegetation: (A, TA:) or, as also t ^iCl and 
▼ jl^Ut, t thin, or shallow, earth : or such as does 

Book I.] 

1 * •' f ••* 

not produce vegetation : and ▼ iUUt i^%\ f mi^mi 


which scarcelt/, or never, produces vegetation. (^.) 

UUt— ^t 



^Iw t [ Chief f lamentation, or r^i^ef : and an^er : 
(see 1 :) or] excessive grief: and excessive anger : 
(M :) or most intense grief: (^ :) a subsL from 

uLt. (M, ^.) — The state, or condition, of a 

slave : (M, ^ :) and, o/* a hired man. (^0 — 
t The state, or condition, of land which scarcely, 
or n^er, produces vegetation. (1^, TA.) an See 

\, in three places. 
iliCt : see u^i> in two places. 
\ : see \J^ : and UUt. 

• -^ # 

;^tjk(JLft [C%ru«&; or white lead;] iuhes of lead 

(«Sb*^U |^;0U>pi >Ujy ]^, which last word is as 
though it were added to explain that immediately 
preceding, TA) : when subjected to a fierce heat, 

it becomes what is termed 9Jj^\ : [so in the Clf. : 
more probably w>«»t :] it has clearing and miti- 
gating properties, (^,) and other useful qualities : 
(TA:) an arabicized word [from the Persian 
^tj^jA-! isfSddj]. (?:.) 

1. \SLt\, aor. ?, inf. n. «2)U»t, Jie AtY, At<r^, or 
wounded, her (a woman's) ^Uwt. (TA.) And 

/SA« (a woman) n^o^ hurt, or wounded, in a 

place not that of circumcision, [i. e., in her 
^Uilft ,] Inf the circumcising woman's missing the 
proper place. (Mfb.) [See^pa^.] 

^ <• 

illt : see o\lSL^\. 

• • 

^ <.# 

^: see ^UX^Nt._Also The side of the 
%Z^\ [i* e., of the podex, or of the anti«]. (Sh, 
TA.) [Hence,] one says of a man, l^\ «2)U»t yb U>t, 
meaning J^is w ^u^ a stinking fellow. (TA.) 

' <.• 

OVi^'^l (T, 9, M, Mgh, §gh, Mfb, ?) and 
4;iU^*^t, (M,^,) The two sides [or /o&ia majora] 
of the vulva, or external portion of the female 

organs of generation, (T, §, Mgh, Msb,) i. e., of 

^ J 
a woman, above [or rather within] the 0\j^9 

(Mgh ; the ijt^ being the two borders thereof; 
T, Mfb :) i. e. the o^^ thereof; (S and M and 
L in art. JJ ;) the two sides, on the right and left, 
of the vulva, or external portion of the organs of 
generation, of a woman, between which is the 

Ji^: (Zjm his'' Khali: el-Ins&m":) or [accord. to 

^ A > 

some, but incorrectly,] the ijt^ [in the C]^ the 
jiit] of ike j^^ [here meaning, as in many other 
instances, the wiva, i. e. ^^], (M, !^,) or of the 

0^ [which also means the yulva, but seldom that 
of a woman] : (£1-Khdrzenjee :) or [agreeably 
with general usage, and with the explanations 
given before this last,] its two sides, next to its 
C)\jkJ^ : (M, ^ :) or, [what is the same,] its 
^j^ : (Tf. :) pL iLj (El-Khdrzenjee, ?) and 
[qnasi-pL ns.] ^ il^l and t jUf. (M,^.) 

i£9yaU A woman hit, hurt, or wounded, in 
her Ji^^: (TA :) a woman (Mfb) hurt, or 
wounded, in a place not that of circumcision, by 
the circumcising woman's missing the proper 
place; (S, Mfb,^;) [i.e.,] hurt, or wounded. 

*' ' • 

by that cause, in lier ^Vii^J.- (T, TA.) 

jl\, aor. ^ , (8, M, 5,) inf. n. UCf, (S, M, 
lAth,) It was smooth and even : (M :) it (any- 
thing) was lank : (§ :) it (a cheek, M, I Ath, 5) 
n?c» smooth and long : (M :) or long, or oblong, 
and not high in its ball : (I Ath :) or long, (T^, 
TA,) soft in make, (TA,) and lank. (5, TA.) 

^Lfl in the cheek of a horse is approved, and is 
an indication of generous quality : you say, ^^ 
dj^ a)l^t Ap dj^ ajCt [Hie smoothness and 
longness, &c., o/* Ait cAeeA ^^^ o/* the generous 
origin of his ancestor]. (AO, Z.)bb See also S. 

2. AJUt JTis ?7uu20 tV (an iron thing) thin. (TA.) 
[He made it (anything) sharp, or pointed. (See 
the pass. part, n., below.)] ..jJaJI J^t> inf. n. 

Jt«iU, TAa ram moistened to the measure of the 

aJLl [or thin part] of the arm. (50 When it 
has moistened to the measure of the ^\^^ [or 
thick part] of the arm, you say of it^^£^, inf. n. 
^M^ : one says, j»l cJUt^CJji^^ c^l£» iJe£> 

c/trk^ [How was your rain ? Did it moisten to 
tlie measure of the thin part of the arm, or did it 
moisten to the measure of the thick part thereof?], 

(TA.) And J^\ jZ\, (TA,) or t jll, (M, [so 
in a copy of that work, but probably a mbtran- 
scription,]) The moisture reached to the measure 

ofthe3xf\. (M,TA.) 

6. ilj( jlu, (M, ¥.,) as also Llh, (M, TA,) 
Se resembled his father, (M, 5, TA,) and as- 

sumed his natural dispositions; and so aX^Ju. 
(TA.) [See JU, below.] 

• ^t 

Jb«f i [Mush, or rushes : so called in the present 
day :] a kind of trees : (§ :) or [rather] a kind 
of plant, (M, Mgh, TA,) having shoots (M, Mgh) 
which are slender, (Mgh,) without leaves; (M, 
Mgh ;) or of which the shoot is slender, and of 
which sieves are made ; as is said in the A ; and 
Sgh adds, [growing] in EU'Irdk ; (TA :) AHn 
says, (TA,) accord, to Aboo-Ziydd, it is of the 

kind called w^^l, and comes forth in slender 

shoots, not having branches growing out from 

them, nor wood, (M, TA,) and sometimes men 

beat them, and make of them weU^ropes and 

other cords, (TA,) and it seldom or never grows 

but in a place wherein is water, or near to water : 

(M, TA :) AHn says [also], it signifies shoots, 

or twigs, growing (M, K) long and slender and 

straight, (M,) without leaves; of which mats are 

« ' ^ f 
made : (M, ^ :) or ^UUI, (K,) which is the n. un. 

of ^\ applied to the plant mentioned above, 
(M,K,) signifies any shoot, or twig, in which 
is no crookedness. (K.) — Hence, (M,) X Spears ; 
(S, M, ?: ;) as being likened to the plant men- 
tioned above, in respect of its evenness and length 
and straightness and the slendemess of its ex- 
tremities : n. un. as above : (M :) and f arrows, 

• •^ 

or Arabian arrows; Bjn. J^ ; (M, 5 applied 
to both of these in a trad, of 'Omar, which refutes 
an assertion that it is peculiarly applied to spears, 
or long spears, and not to ^ : (A 'Obeyd, TA :) 
Sh says that it is applied to spears because of the 
points of the heads fixed upon them. (TA.) .. 
t Any thin thing of iron, such as a spear^head, and 
a sword, and a knife. (TA.) .» I The prickles of 
palm»trees : (M, ]^ :)• n. un. as above : (M :) 
by way of comparison [to the plant mentioned 
above] : (TA :) or any long thorns, or prickles, 
of a tree. (S.).» [See also what next follows.] 

aJUt n. un. of J^}, q. v. (M, ]^.) .. Hence, 
by way of comparison, the significations here 
following from the 5. (TA.),^^ I Anything in 
which is no crookedness. (M.) ... I The thin 
part of a blade of iron, such as that of an arrow 
&c. : (M, K :) and of the fore arm ; (S, M, ^ ;) 
i. e. the half thereof next the hand; the half 

next the elbow being called the <iohp. (]^ in 
art ^^9^.) — t The thin part, (S,) or extremity, 
or tip, (M, 5,) of the tongue ; (ip, M, ^ ;) the 

thick part thereof being called the ^^. (? in 
Brt.Ji^.) One says, o^ l^^^j^t^^ C^'j^X 
j9^\ ^iJmA \ [The tips of their tongues are sharper 
than the heads of their spears]. (A, TA.).. 
I The nervus, (5j) or the extremity thereof, (M,) 
of a camel. (M, 5.) .. I The head, [or what we 
term the toe, or foremost extremity, also called 

Ju!\ and ii\ii,] of a sandal ; (M, ^ ;) which is 
tapering. (M.) 


3i^\ an epithet applied to the letters J and ^ 

and ^^ because Pronounced with the tip of the 
tongue. (TA.) 

A^\ Smooth and even : (M, ^ :) anything 
lank ; (1^, A ;) syn. Jk^, (A,) [i. e.] ^jZm^ : 
(S, A :) applied to a cheek, (AZ, 5, TA,) [smooth 
and long : or long, or oblong, and not high in 
its ball : (see 1 :) or] soft, tender, thin, and even : 
(AZ :) or long, (T^, TA,) soft in make, (TA,) 

and lank. (?, TA.) You say ILJI Jt:^ jLj 
A man having the cheek soft and long : (S :) and 

in like manner, ^jJ^ a horie. (TA.) And w» 
«^l^*^t 2Xe^\ A hand small and slender, and 
lank, or long, in tke fingers. (TA.) 

jCT a pi. having no sing. : (K :) mentioned 
by ISk as a word of which he had not heard any 

sing. (S.) You say, d^\ ^j^ jCl yj^ yL [in 
the C^, erroneously, JW,] He is of a semblance 
and of characteristics and natural dispositions 
which are those of his father ; (8, ^ ;) like 

ou. (S.) 

J^y^ Anything sharpened, or pointed. (M, 

K.) You say 2iX^y^ ij^l An ear [of a horse 
or the like] slender, pointed, and erect. (M.) 


J ^^$ 

J ^ *• ^ 

1. 'd^\ a dial. var. of Ao-^^^y q- ▼• (TA.) 
^o^ft : see art ^^mt. 

iU\Ji, determinate, (§, M, 1^,) and imperfectly 
decl., (M, Mfb,) as a proper name, (Msb, i^,) 



» * .^ 

ThB lion; (S, M, Mf b, ]^ ;) as also a^lw^^t. 


1. 0^1, aor. ^ (S, M, Mgh, Mfb, ¥i) and ^ , 
(§, M, 5,) inf. n. o>^1 (S, M, Msb) and o^\ ; 
(M ;) and ,>-»l, aor. - , (§, M, &c.,) inf. n. ^^\ ; 
(ip, My Mfb ;) said of water, t. q. ^>i^l anJ y>^t ; 

(S, 5 [i« ®0 ^^ became altered for the worse 
(M, Mgh, Msb) in odour ^ (^>) [9^ *^ ^^^ ^^ 
colour^ from some such cause as long standing^ 

(see O^^)] ^^ wcudrinhahle; (M;) or «o a« no^ 

^ ^ f 
to be drunhf (Mfb, TA,) thus differing from ^>i^t 

andj^i^l. (TA.) [See also J-©f.] 

t\ : see what follows. 

• «• 

• f 

>-l (§, Mgh, Msb, 5) and t^^|, (8, Mgh, 
Msb,) applied to water, (S, Mgh, &c.,) t. q. ^ja^S 
[and |>fc.t] ; (S, IBL ;) [i. e.] Altered for the worse 
(Mgh, Msb) in odour j (Mgh,) [or in taste and 
colour y from some such cause as long standing, 
but drinhabl^; (see above, and see O^;)] or 
so as not to be drunk, (Msb, TA,) thus differing 
from ^y^^ and ^j^\ : (TA:) pi. [of the former] 
ijLt\ [likeasjt^t is pi. of^U», or perhaps it 
may have for its sing. ^>«»l, like O^^]' (^> TA.) 
r^\ j^ $U |>o, in the j^ur [xlvii. 16], is ex- 
plained by Fr as meaning Of water not altered 
for the worse ; not v>^t* (TA.) 

1. p;%J' ^^ (aor. y»f\^, S,) inf. n. y^\ and 

Iwt, [but in the S, the latter seems to be men- 
tioned as a simple subst.,] He dressed the wound; 
treated it curativefy, or turgicaUy. (S, M, K.) 

_ [Hence,] aJ[£> ,^j^ -^ ^« fjjk f [This U 
an affair of which the evil (lit. the wound) will 
not be remedied]. (S.).. [Hence also,]^^^ Ct, 
(first pers. O^t, S, Mfb, inf.n. ^\, S, M,) J He 
made peace, effected a reconciliation, or adjusted 
a difference, between them ; (S, M, Msb, 5 ;) 

as also^^^ ^JLl (El-Muarrij, TA.)a«^f 
aor. j^V^, mf. n. L»! or ^^t, JTe grieved, or 
mourned, (S,M,Mfb,^,) a^ [/or him, or it], 
(M* ?0 and ai^«^ ^ [for an affliction], and 
^•iW [/or «I!cA a one]. (§,) [This belongs to 
me present art and to art. ^^1 ; but is distin- 
guished in the M and ^ by being mentioned only 
in the latter art ; though the inf. n. is mentioned 
in the ]^ in both arts.] Hence the saying, iC*^! 

^•^' ^J^ [Medicine dispels grief, or mourning], 

2- JiXf J^^' see 1. OB IC\, (S, M, K,) inf. n. 

^^f (?> ^d *• ^- •li^ [-H« exhorted him, or en- 
joined him, to be patient; to take patience ; or to 
take example by, or console himself by tlie example 
of, him who had suffered tlie like affliction] ; (S, 
M, ¥, TA ;) saying to him, Wherefore dost thou 
grieve, or mourn, when such a one is thine example 
<^>-l) ? »• 6- ^^t has befallen thee befeU him, 

and he was patient ; therefore take thou example 
by him and so be consoled (a^ ^r*^)* (^^0 ^^^ 
say, 3.ft^^^ oLrt i. e. oUp [Me exhorted him, or 

enjoined him, to be patient, &c., by mentioning 
an affliction that had befallen another; unless 

<i.« e^^^ be a mistranscription for Hn .^in^l on 

account of an affliction] ; as also * oUt, with 
medd. (TA.) 

8. ^W i^l (S, Mgh,) inf. n. SUIji, (S, 
M, ^,) I made him my object of imitation 
(^J^t), [meaning / mod^ nt^^//* /tA^ him,] in 

respect of my property : (S :) or I made him an 
object of imitation [with, or in respect of, my 
property], I imitating his example, and he imi- 

tating my example : (Mgh :) and a!^!^ is a dial, 
var., but of weak authority : (S, Mgh :) and 

^Iwt [alone] he made me an object of imitation 

to him by giving me of his property [and thus 
reducing himself to my condition in some degree 
while in the same degree raising m£ to his] ; (Ham 

p. 606 ;) and d^\^\ [thus without a second »] I 

make him the object of my own imitation and so 
share with him my property : (Id p. 198 :) or 

a31^ olwt signifies he gave him of his property, 

^^ ^ 

and mxide him an object of imitation in respect of 
it : or only, of food sufficient for his want ; not 
of what is superabundant: (M,!^:) whence the 

saying, ^ ^^^ ^^ ^ ^^\ 'jL^j aDI j^j 

oU£» [May Ood have mercy on a man who has 

given of superabundance, and imparted of food 
only sufficient for his want so as to make himself 
equal with him to whom he imparts of such food] : 

(TA:) [and dLrt signifies he shared with him: 
and he was, or became, equal with him: for] 

oLr|yJt occurs often in trads., signif3ring the 

sharing with another, or making another to share 

with one, in the means of subsistence [^c] ; and 

J ^ ^ J 
is originally [SUt^t,] with » : also, the being, or 

becoming, equal with another : (TA :) and you 

0^ J it^f 

say, |c«J^ A^^t, meaning 1 m^ide him equal with 
myself; in the dial, of El- Yemen eS^\y (Mfb.) 

****^J LS* kr»^^ Oti ^^9 in a letter of Omar, 
means Make thou the people to share [alike], one 
with another, in thy consideration and regard : 
or, as some say, make thou them equal [in respect 

thereof]. (Mgh.) The saying U^ jil ^\^ U 

is explained in three different ways : accord, to 
El-Mu^dal Ibn-Mohammad, it means Such a 
one does not muke such a one to share with him : 
accord, to El-Muarraj, does not good to such a 

one ; from the saying of the Arabs, j^^ U^ ^t 

Do thou good to such a one : or, as some say, 
does not give such a one any compensation for his 

love, or affection, nor for his relationship ; from 

* •$ •»•" .. ••11''''''' 

^y^^, meanmg u^ytlt ; bemg originally d^^\^, 

jj ^j *» " 

then ^y^\iif and then Ae«i|L» : or it may be from 

^^\ 0>l>t. (IDrd, TA.) [See also an ex. voce 
4. oLrt : see 2. 

[Book I. 

^'HiP^^^ and had been patient]. (S, M, 50 You 

^y, d^ i^ifU, i. e. A^ lSj^ [^^ ^^^^ patience, or 
constrained himself to be patient, by reflecting 
upon him, or it ; or he took example by him, or 
became consoled by his example, meaning the 
example of a person who had suffered in like 
manner and had been patient]. (S.) [See S.] 


* ^0 •* 9 •^ 

6. \ymi\3 signifies lijLf^^^^Juif ^t [They tmi- 
tated one another with tkeir property, one giving 
of his property to another, so that they thus 
equalised themselves; they imitated one another 
and so shared together tkeir property ; tkey 
shared, one with anotker, in the means of subsist' 
ence, S^c. ; they were, or became, equal, one with 
anotker : see 3]. (8, IBL.) A poet says, 

p ^"^ 9 

^ St A i § ^0 

J 0j 

(^,) in which t^U is from oUt^t; not from 
^^Ut, as it is stated to be by Mbr, who says 

that \yJj means t^t^ and \^jjd. (IB,TA.) 

[This verse is cited and translated in art. ^Jt, voce 

0I ^ 

^\, q. v.] 

8. A^ ic-^t [written with the disjunctive alif 

^c^JLit] He imitated him; followed his example; 

did as he did, following kis example, or taking 
kim as an example, an exemplar, a pattern, or 
an object of imitation ; ke took example by kim; 

(8, Mgh, Mfb, TA ;) as also a^ t ^h : (Mfb, 

* * 00 ^^ • 

TA :) ke made kim an object of imitation (S^-ot) 

• 0t0 
[to kimself]. (M,K.) One says, ^j^ ^\j ^) 

^ 00 

lymt^i «2U ^jm^ Do not thou imitate him who u not 
for thee a [Jit] object of imitation. (8, M.*) 

Q. Q. 1. A^ d^yJi [I made him to imitate him, 

to follow his example, or to take example by kim;] 
I made him an example, an exemplar, a pattern, 
or an object of imitation, to him : (M, 1^ :) from 

I Aar : and if from ^M^^^f as he asserts it be, the 
• "^ f J 00 00 ^ J 000 

measure of this verb is w^^Xji^, like wh^j> and 

J 000 

Wt or 

jw! Curative, or surgical, treatment. 
(8.) [See the verb L»l.] bb Qrief, or mourning. 
(8, 5.) [See the verb ^\.] 

t J 0t 

^\ : see ^\ymf\. 


^^\ Patience, (S.)«bA1so pi. of S^-^!, like 
as ^1 is pi. of l^ll. (?,• ?,♦ TA.) 

•0 »t \ 

S^t: / 

•00I i 

S^ : ) 

see what next follows. 

• "Of 


tf » 

6. ,^13 : see 8. _ I. q. viJ>«3 [He took pa- 
tience; or constrained himself to be patient; or 
he took example by, or became consoled by the 
example of, another who had suffered in likel 

(S, M, Mgh, Mf b, ?:) and 

t iyJi, mentioned by Er-Rdghib in one of his 
works, (MF,) An example; an exemplar; a 
pattern ; an object of imitation ; a person by 
whom one takes example ; syn. Sj ji or SjjJ ; (8, 
M, Mfb, 5 ;) each a subst from a^ ^^^\j (Mgh ;) 
i. e. A^ ^^i^ ^ ' (TA :) explained by Er-Rdghib 
as meaning the condition in wkick is a man in 
respect of another's imitating [him], whether 
good or bad, pleasing or hurtful: (TA :) also 
a thing [or person] by which one who is 

Book I.] 

Jn $n^, or moummff, tahea example, (^, ^,) 
for tk* being contoUd (,jU«iU) ther^; (§:) 
pi. u-l and ^j-1 ; (§, ^ ;) the former of the 
first sing., and the latter of the second. (TA.) 
The fint of these meaningB is intended in the 
saying, J^J ^yii jj* (j^ and i^t [/ have in 
tuck a one an exampk, kc.]. (§.) The saying, 
^1^1 i^\ i^y^ (>« v!/^' iSy^ ^ '^ tropical, 
meaning ] TTiere is nothing but the diat of the 
earth, or ground, that foUotBS the dutt. (Mgh.) 
^ Also an inf. □., [or rather a quasi-inf. n.,] syn. 
with lU^I [inf. n. of 8]. (TA.) 

i^ljxl Cfrieving, mourning, or torronsfid; (M, 
:^ ;) as also JtC' and ^ ^, (M in art ^_^l,) or 
*w*'i (5 in art- (^'i [to which alone the first 
of these three belongs, hut the second and third 
may be regarded as belonging either to that art. 
or to the present,]) or *^j->t. (H;b.) [See art 
^^1.] It is [sometimes] followed by ijtyi [as 
an imitatiye sequent corroborating its meaning]. 

lUI and t^^l A medicine, or remedy; (S, M, 
%. ;) the latter, (8,) or each, (TA,) particularly 
a miinerary : (S, TA :) pi. [of each, as is indicated 

in the TA,] 1^1. (M,$.) The former Is also 

«pt.of^T. (?,M,5.) 

^1 : see what next precedes. 

^i t. q. tj^U ; (9, M, 5 ;) i. e., Dreeted; 
or treated curatively, or turgicaSy; applied to a 
wound. (6, M.')nhi See also ^1^1. 

IjCl Medical, curative, therapeutical, [or tur- 
fficat,] treatment. (lbn-£l-Kelbee,^gh,:^.) By 
rule it should be [!jCl,] with kesr. (8gh,TA.) 

^1 A phyrician; one thilUd in medical, euro- 
ftM, therapeutical, [or nrgical,"] treatment [par- 
ticutarly of woundi} : pi. ICl and lUI ; (§, M, 
^ ;) said by IJ to be the only instance of iioA 
and JUI interchangeable except iUj and tlsi pis. 
of clj : (M :) and ij^\ occurs [as its pi.] in a 

verse of ^oteiah. (9,TA.) With the people 

of the desert, ($,) [its fern.] 2^1 signifies J A 
f emote circumciier [of girW]. ($,^: [mentioned 

Id the latter in art])^8ee also o^w'- 
lA, 3 « 

^'U : see iwt. 



. ^^1, aor. fjJiii, inf. n. ,^1 or Cl, He 
grieved, or mourned, (S, M, M?b, 50 "iU [Jor 
kirn or it]. (M, 5.) See art. >-I. 

^_,iil, [agreeably with analogy, as part. n. of 
^1,] (M,) or t^r, (?,) or » ^\, (Mfb,) and 

* oC*'. (M, ?,) a dial. yar. of jjl^t, (TA, [see 
art ><«l,]) Grieoing, mourning, or torrOTofitl : 
(H, Hfb, ]^:) fem. [of the first, or second,] 
)t-*, (M,) or a^-T, (5,) and [of oWO i^Cl 
(M, ?) and 1^1 : (TA :) pi. [of oV-'l 6^ C* 
(M, ]^) and Oj^Ct [which is extr. and somewhat 
doabtfal] (5) and [of iil^l] iiUt^l and [of 

,j^l or of K"}] Wl^l (M, ?:) and [of ,^^11 

^^1 : ) see above. 


2^1, mentioned in this art. in the ^ : see ^\ 
in art. 3^1. 

1. i;il, aor. , , (M, ?,) inf. n. 4^1, (M, TA,) 
He mixed it. (M,?:.) And^^lc4^1; (8;) 
or f'^cyl^l, inf. n. ^ ^U ; (TA ;) I mixed the 
peogle together. (^,TA.) ^ Also, aor. as above, 
(?, 5,) and i , (?:,) inf. n. as above, (S,) t He 
charged him mith a vice, fault, or the like; 
blamed, centured, or reprehended, him : (8, 1^ :) 
or he aiperted, reviled, or reproached, him, and 
miaxd up falsehood in hit a^iernott of him. (TA.) 
Yon say also, jl4 a^&I [i. e. >!/ or >!/] f He 
cait upon him a stigma, or mark of dishonour, bg 
which he became knonm : (Lfy, TA :) or he cast 
a censure, or reproach, upon him, and involved 
him in it. (TA.) mm^e^\ ^t, aor. ^, (A,!^,) 
inf.n.4-i1; (TA;) andt^'u; (I^}) or C^i' 
l^t ; (Si) The collection of trees, or the thicket, 
rvas, or became, dense, tangled, confused, inter- 
twined, or complicated : (8, K^:) m very dense, OT 
much tangled or confused, so as to be impassable. 
(AHn,A.) [Hence,] ,I^^^l^ltn«r 

speech, oHe mith another, became confused, or 

a is - ( 
intricate. (TA.)_AndV^ ^t «i-^l -^vi' 
c2aiw to the ignoble. (A.) 

, -. • f- * 

8. *^\, inf. n. .y^JjQ, ^« rendered it (a 

collection of trees) lieRM, tangled, confused, inter- 
ttvined, or complicated. (]^.) ^>^l slU^t : 
see 1. ^.,«v^ .^i^lXJI k^l t ZTe mode MetV 
speech, one with another, confused, or tntrtcnf^. 
(TA.)...^^^ ^1 «^l t-Bic occasioned con- 
Jveion, discord, or mischief, between them. (Lth.) 
And bence, (TA,) <,-«mU signifies also The ex- 
citing discord, dissension, disorder, strife, quar- 
relling, or animosity, (^,'^,TA,)^}^ i^^between, 
or among, a people. (S, TA.) 

6. ,^U : see 1. ^ l^^^ t Z^ xere, or 
became, mixed, or confounded together; as also 
t Ij^JLJl [written with the disjunctive alifljfJL^I]. 
(S, 5.) ^t T^ey assembled, or Cfmgregated, them- 
selves (A, ^) ,/r(wn different parts; (TA;) as 
also t lj«:.i:i. (:^.) And A^\ \y^M t ^^Vy t^'wt' 
themselves together to him, (K, TA,) and crowded 
densely upon him ; or collected themselves together 
to him, and surrounded him. (TA.) 

8 : see 5, in two places. 

^1 inf. n. of ^t. (TA.)_ [Hence,] Coit- 
fusedness; dubiousness: SO in the sajdng, C-^^-o 
«^fl^> ^ ^^ t^S i-e. ^<^'^y. (8.) 
See art. v.^-^^'^o -<ln abundance of trees. 
(TA.) In a trad, of Ibn-Umm-Mektoom, ^1 
•U«Jl ^^ ^J Jol.^ ^1 ji^j ^ j<^ j4i 
j^iJUtj means Veriljf I am a blind man, [and] 


between me and thee are palm-trees cortfiisedly 
disposed; therefore grant thou me indulgence 
with respect to [coming to thee to perform the 
prayera of] the nightfall and the daybreak. (^,* 
MF, TA.) 

^.w! Dense, tangled, confused, intertwined, 
or complicated ; applied to a collection of trees : 
(^, TA :) or so dense, or so much tangled or con- 
fused, as to be impassable ; applied to a thicket : 
(A :) and a place abounding with trees: (TA:) 
applied also to t a collection of clouds, meaning 
commingled : (A :) and to t a number, meaning 
intricate, or confused. (8, TA.) It is said Id a 
proT., Lil ^\ht ijjj SLm M>«ft, (A,) meaning 
I [Thy stock is an appertenance of thine] although 
it be thorny and intricate or co^fitsed. (TA. 
[See art. ,j»^.]) 

i/Si I A medley, or mixed or promiscuous 
multitude or assemblage, of men, or people ; (^, 
A,L,5;) congregated from every quarter : (L'.) 
pi. 4-3^-1. (§, ?■•) You say, ijlil .S> I These 
are a collection [of people] from different places. 
(TA.)_-AlsD I Mixtures of unlawjvl and lan> 
Jul binds of property : (A :) or what is mixed 
with that which has been unlawfully acquired; 
(5,TA;) that in which u no good; (TA;) of 
gains : pi. as above. (5, TA.} 

^ r " ^r^^^ ^N^ot pure in his grounds qf 
pretention to respect. (ISd, TA.) [See also what 

„fmi^\fa >r^ and yfHy* \ [A mixed collection 

of people]. (A.)_C-i4i iL***, (?,?,•) with 
fe^^ [to the tA], C5,) in one copy of the Jf, 
i^iwjft, (TA,) t Such a one is of mixed, not of 
pure, race, or lineage. (^, 5.) 

1. jit, (S, Mab, 5,) aor. -, , (I8k, M§,) or i , 
(Msb,) inf.n. ^(, (Mfb,) He divided [or sawed] 
a. piece of wood (ISk, M^b, 5) with the j\L^ ; 
(8, Msb, ¥. ;) as also jij and^j. (Msb, TA.) 
^l^U_t Cfjii\, aor. ; , [or, accord, to the M^b, 
it seems to be ^ ,] inf. n. ^1 ; (^ ;) and f l^^l, 
(?.,) inf. n. ^U ; (8 ;) She (a woman, TA) 
made her teeth serrated, (§, 5,) and sharpened 
their extremities, (8,) to render them like those 
of a young person : but a curse is denounced in a 
trad, against her who does this. (TA.) [See also 
art _Pj.] HBi^l »<"■• - 1 (S, Mfb, K,) inf. n. jil, 
(8, A, Mjb,) He exulted, or exulted greatly, or 
excessively; and behaved insolently and wUhank- 
fuUy, or ungratefuUy : (8,* A,* Mib, ?;,• TA :) 
or he exulted by reason of n>ealth, and behaved 
with pride, and self-conceitedness, and boastful- 
ness, and want of thankfulness : or he behaved 
with the utmost exultation, kc. : or he rejoiced, 
and rested his mind wpon things agreeable with 
natural desire. (TA.) [See ^.] 

i: see 1. 

[8. OuST, written with the disjunctive alif 
O^iijl, 8he inwted onotW to make her teeth 


serrated and to sharpen their extremities ; as also 
t CfjJUKL^S. See the act. part. ns. below : and see 
also op^Lit.] 

10 : see 8. 

J^t— Jbot 


ti>iy or S^Uy as in di£ferent Lexicons, (TA,) 

• t 

^1 . ) see j-J#l. 


!*,( (S,A,Msb,?:) and t^t and t^| and 

t^l Q^) and t J,|pi (§, ^) Exulting, or exw/^ 
t^ greatly, or excessively ; and behaving insolently 
and unthankfuUy, or ungratefully: (S,* A,* Mfb, 
]5L,*TA:) or exulting by reason of wealth, and 
behaving with pride, and self-conceitedness, and 
boastfulness, and want of thanhfulness : or 
behaving with the utmost eocultation, &c. : or 
rejoicing, and resting the mind upon things agree- 
able with natural desire : (TA :) pi. [of the first] 

03j^^ and [of the second] 03J^^ (J^9^) ^^^ i^^ 

the first four] jA! (^ [accord, to the TA, but not 
in the copies of the ^ in my hands,]) and (of 

Oljirt, TA) ^\ (?) and ^jlif (§, If.) and 
jtfilil. (K.) One says, Jl *A, and t jCjfiA 
^1^?, using the latter word in each instance as 
an imitative sequent. (TA.) —.j^t ^ t Light- 

ning flashing repeatedly to and fro. (A.) .. 

• » • «" 

J#t w%J t J. plant, or herbage, extending beyond 

its proper bounds. (A.) 
jiA : see what next follows. 

J£« AiUlt^ and t j!£| and ^ j>il, (S, ?,) which 
last is a pL, (K,) In his teeth is a serration, (S, 
5>) flw^i a sharpness of the extremities [such 
as is seen in the teeth of young persons] ; (S ;) 
which is sometimes natural and sometimes arti- 
ficial ; (K ;) and [naturally] only in the teeth of 

young persons. (TA.) Hence the pro v., 


J^^/ (S.) [See art. jy] 

It t Hie teeth of the reaping-hooh, or sichle. 

Ij^S, and its dual : see jit\. 

^t^l 2L^I A very eamlting wish : occurring in 

the Mo'alia^ of El-i^drith Ibn-HiUizeh. (EM 
p. 272.) 

Q\jif\ : see jJ^\, m two places. 

j^t: secj^t. 

• ^' 

jJ^\ Dividing [or sawing], or one who divides 
[or saws], wood, with the jUlIa. (Msb.) ... 
[Hence,] The prickles [or serrated parts] of the 
shanks of the locust ; (^;) bs also * jt^\3, (TA.) 

_ Also, and t spi and t JuL, A joint (I ji^) 
a^ ^A^ extremity of the tail of the locust, like two 
claws; (?;) which two things are also called 

t O^P< and t ^fjliL. (TA.) jJitrT A woman 

who sharpens the extremities of her teeth [a/nd 
makes them serrated : see 1]. (Msb.)BB S^t jJ 

uin arm, or a Aan^, <an^ off; t. 9. t S|y£u : 
(ISk, S, Msb, ? :♦) like B^U li^ in the sense 
ofie^^. (S.) 

[the former in the If,,] The thing with which the 
locust bites : pi. ^^. (1^.) ... See also the pi. 
voce ^l. 

* » 

Anything (TA) mo^ ^Ain [and serrated]. 

(?.) [Hence,] ^yo jii A front tooth serrated 
and sharpened at the extremity. (TA.) And 

hence, (TA,) ijj^xiutJI j£^ is applied to the 
beetle [as meaning Having the fore shanks formed 
thin, and serrated]. (S, TA.) 

(S, Msb, EL, &c.) [-4. saw;] an instru- 
ment with which wood is divided; (Mfb,]^ ;) as 
also j\^, fit)m j^^ ; (Mfb, TA ;) and jUJi* : 
(TA :) pi. IaU. (ISk, Mfb, TA.) _ See also 
this word and its dual voce j^t. 



j^U Wood divided [or ^an^n] with the jUi 

(Msb.) See also j^\. ... Sj^^^^U A woman who 
has the extremities of her teeth sharpened [and 
serrated artificially : see 1]. (Mfb.) 

^ytJU, applied alike to the male and the female, 

(S,) to a she-camel and a courser, (S, TSi,) and a 
man and a woman, (TA,) Brisk; lively; sprightly. 

and ^ Zj^\Zmi^ A woman n?Ao tnmtes 

[another] to muke her teeth serrated [and to 
sharpen their extremities : see 1]« (El.) 

•. t 


lji»\:LmM I see what next precedes. 


^yUtrt, of the measure ^^Xii3, [and therefore 

fem., and imperfectl^r decl.,] (S, Mfb,) accord, to 

some ; but accord, to others, of the measure Jjiit , 

like 9^i0o\ , as Kb is related to have said, (Mfb,) 

which latter is said by IB to be the correct mea- 
sure, the [incipient] t being augmentative, and 

the word [masc.,] with tenween, [i. e. iJJ^\,] 

perfectly decl. : (TA :) The instrument belonging 

to the oULft [or sewer of skins, or leather] ; (§,♦ 

Mfb, TA;) i. e., with which he sens; and the 
instrument with which he bores, or perforates: 
(TA :) the instrument for boring, or perforating, 

(El in art 1^^,) belonging to the iU£>Ct ; said 
by ISk to be that which is used for water-skins, 
or milk-skins, and leather water-bags, and the 
like ; that used for sandals, or shoes, being called 

JuaL^: (S and TA in art ^^^ :) and the 
[instrument called] >!w with which skin, or 
leather, is sewed: (IgL in art ^yLl^ :) t. q. Jjd^: 

(Mgh in art ^ :) pi. sJ\i\. (S, Mgh, Mfb, 

^ : [in the C?, erroneously, ^5*1^!.]) In the El, 
in the present art, ^\SLt^\ is put, by a mistake 
of the copyists, for olcl'J|J. (TA.) See also art 


1. Vjji lS J)l\ i. q. ilij, q. V. (TA.) 




6. ^JJ^\3 He washed his hands with ^U^t [q. v. 
infi^]. (Mfb,]g:.) 

[Book I. 


lit\ [applied in the present day to Moss : and 

particularly, tree-moss: in Persian ^Liii\: but] 
Lth says, (TA,) it is a thing that winds itself 

upon the trees called J95JL/ and j^y^ [oak and 
pine] as though it were pared off from a root 

\CJ^ i>* jt>"*^* 4^e) ; and it is sweet in odour, 
and white : (]^, TA :) Az says, I do not think it 
to be [genuine] Arabic. (TA.) 

OU£l and 10»\, (Mfb, ?,) but the former is 

of higher authority than the latter, (TA,) ». a. 

\joj^ [Kali, or glasswort] : (Mfb in the present 
art. ; and S, A, Mgh, Mfb, 1^, in art u^jm^ :) 
[and also potash, which is thence prepared;] a 
thing, or substance, weU known, (]^, TA,) with 
which clothes and the liands are washed; (TA ; 

[see ^^il ;]) good, or profitable, [as a remedy] for 

the mange, or scab, and the itch ; clearing to the 
complexion, cleansing, emmenagogue, and abortive. 

aiull A vessel for ^^ [or for ^^^ as 

• --^ # 
meanmg potash] ; syn. X^jm*^. (A in art u^y^) 

jAil\ A seUer of ^^\. (TA.) 

2. d j^t, inf. n. ju^oU, is from d juot : (S, J^ :) 
[app. meaning He made it an Sjuot : or he wore 
it as an ojuoi: and hence juo^ or 3juo^ as 

explained below : or] he clad him with an sjuot. 

4. j^t [in some copies of the ^ juot, which 

is a mistake, (see the pass. part. n. juo^, below,)] 

He closed (JU^t, 1^, A, T^, and so in the M in art 

juoj, or J^t, as in the M in the present art) a 
door, or an entrance ; as also juo^t ; (S, M, A, 
^ ;) of which it is a dial. var. (S.) And He 
covered, or covered over, a ooolung-pot (M.) 

Sju^t (S, M, T^, and Ham p. 223) and t Ij^^t 
(M, T^) and t J^^ji, (8,» M,) or t Sj^ji, (5'^) 
j1 garment of the kind called j\j^0^ worn by a 
young girl: when a girl attains to the age of 
puberty, she is clad with a cj> : (M :) or a 
small shirt for a little girl : or worn beneath the 

V^ ; (El :) or the Sjuol is a garment without 
sleeves, worn by a bride and by a little girl: 
(M :) or a small shirt or shift, worn beneath 
the ^yi ; and also worn by little girls : (8 :) or 
a garment of which the sewing is not complete : 
or i. q. Ij^ : or t. q. Sjjuo. (Ham ubi suprL) 
Kutheiyir says, 

V^ ^J«^' cr^ U3^ V!>-8-« • 

[They clad her with a c)> when she wore a jL^ji* 
mth an opening cut out at the neck and bosom, 
when her equal in age hcul not yet worn the pjy]. 
(§, M.) ^ 

j^Mot A court; or an open or a wide space 
in front of a house, or extending from its sides; 
(S, M,5;) a dial. var. of J^y, (S,) which is 
the more common form : (M :) or the extreme 

Book I.] 

and exterior pari of a hoiue : (Mir^t el-Loghah, 
and Meyd, as rendered by Golius :) or an inter- 
mediate place between the threshold or door and 
the howe; a place which laoht neither upon the 
public nor upon the interior parte, whether it be 
an area or a vestibule. (Ibn-Mafroof, as rendered 
by Golina.} 

Sjke^l: see Sj^Ua^A [kind 0/ enclosure for 
the protection of camele, eheep, or goatt, tuch as 
it eaUed] ij^ : (M, %. :) or Uhe a ije^^, ($, 
and ^am p. 223,) [^f made'l of rocht, oit great 
mattes of ttone : (^am ;) a dial. var. of ijie<<0j 
tq.v.]:(90pl-iH. (?«ii.) 

j>,«j« CSoted 1 closed over, or covered : ocenr- 
ring in tlie ^ur [xc. 20 and] civ. 6 ; (L ;) in 
which AA reads Jjuej^ [with hemz ; othets 
reading ibis word without bemz]. (S, L.) You 
■ay j-,^^ vV [A. closed door]. (A.) And 
ljb«^ jjj A covered cooking-pot. (A.) And 
aM»V* *^ >^' V^ t [7^ door of forgiveness 
it closed from him ; i. e., againtt html. (A.) 

jMi^, or IjLxt^ : see Sjk^l, in three places. 

1. tj^\, aoF. ; , inf. n. j.^1, He, or it, (a thing, 
Ks,) confined, restricted, limited, hept close, kept 
within certain bounds or limits, shut up, im- 
prisoned, held incuttodt/i detained, retained, re- 
strained, withheld, debarred, hindered, impeded, 
or prevented, him, or it : (Kb, ^, M, A,* ^ :) it 
ttraitened him. (TA.) You say, J^l C>«l 
ji»'j\ idJ^ ^ji* I cof^fined, or restricted, the man 
to that thing, or affair, (Kb.) And ,^ d3^t 
aI^I^, and «>ljl t«c, I withheld, restrained, or 
i^Aarred, him from the thing that he wanted, 
andfrom the thing tliat he desired. (lA^r.)^ 
C^l j.a\, aor. and inf. n. as above, He made, 
or put, to the tent an jUI. (]^,* T^..) ^Also, 
aor. and inf. n. as above, He broke it. (El- 
Cmawe«, $, M, ^.*) ^ He inclined, or bent, it. 

(M, ?,»TA.) It inclined him, (A?,?, 5,) 

^^ ^yi« to tuch a one. (Af, 9.) See an ex. 
Toce t^\. 

[3. »r^T, inf. n. I^lj-*, -Htf ntoi his neighbour, 
having the jWJ of hit tent by the tide of the jCal 
of the tent of the other. See the act part. n. 

[B. \^fM They were neighbours ; they dwelt, 
or abode, near together. See the act. part n. 

^1: ) 

aeej.o} ; each in three places. 

j,»] A covenant, compact, or contract ; (i^, ^ ;) 
Bsalsotj-tftandf^l: (^:) [see also j^j:] any 
bond arising from relationship, or from a covenant 
or compact or contreu:t, (Aboo-Is-lj^,) wiAfrom 
asuxUh: (ISh:) a covenant, compact, or cataract, 
Khich one does not fulfil, and for the neglecting 
and breaking of which one is punished : so in 
5ur ii. 286 : (I 'Ab :) [we also what foUowH, 
in two places :] or a hxavy, or burdensome, eove- 

J-el— j-»I 

mint, compact, or contract : bo in the ^ur iii. 
75 : (ISh, H :) so, too, in the same vii. 166 : 
(T, M :) pi. Jul, a pi. of pane : (M :) or a 
heavy, or burdensome, command; such as was 
given to the Children of Israel to slay one another: 

1 the 9.ur ii. 286, accord, to Zj. (TA.) A 

weight, or burden ; (S, M, ^ ;) as also ^ j^\ 
and tj^l: (^:) so called becaoBe it restrains 
from motion : (TA :) pi. as above. (M.)^_ 
A sin; a crime ; an offence ; (9, M, ^ ;) as 
also f^f^l and f_f.ef: (1^:) so called because of 
its weight, or burdenBomeness : (TA :) or the 
n'n of breaking a compact, or covenant : (Fr, 
Sh :) or a grievous punishment of a tin : bo 
accord, to AM in die ^ur ii. 266. (TA.) — A 
thing that inclines one to a thing. (M, T^.) 
[See also I^T. It is said in the Qam (p. 321) 
that j-«ljl is pi. of the former word : but it is 
evidendy pi. of the latter.] _. A tmearing by an 
oath which obliget one to divorce or emancipate or 
to pay a vow. (^, TA.) Soinatrad., in whichit 
IB said, ^ IjlL :ii ^1 V(i i^' ^ji JkiU. ii 
'Whoto sweareth an oath in which is an obliga- 
tion to divorce or emancipate or to pay a vow, for 
it there is no expiation] i for such is the heaviest 
of oaths, and that from which the way of escape, 
evasion, is most strait : the original meaning 
of j^t being a burden, and a binding, (TA.)m« 
The ear-hole: pi. jt^l (lAVi^) Bud Oli^'- 

jUI and ^'j^\ (S.M,:?:) and tfjUJ and tij^T 
(M, ^) A short rope, (?,) or smaU rope, (If,) by 
which the lower part of the [kind of tent coiled] 
[La. is tied, or bound, (S, i^,) to the peg : (^ :} or 
a short peg, for the [ropes caQed] t^U*1, with 
which the lower part of the [kind of tent called] 
\^ is fastened : (M ;) [or] jL^I signifies also 
the peg, (K,) or short peg, (TA,) of the [hind 
of tent-rope called] ,^^: (?.:) or a peg of the 
.'itA. : (Ibn-Es-Seed, TA :) pi. of the first ^t 
(S, M) and i^T; (M ;) and of the second^ljl. 
(§.) ISd thinks that t Olj-T is the pi. of t ifj\ 
need in the first of the Benses explained above in 
in the following verBC : 

the poet meaning [By thy life, I will not 
approach to hold loving communion, or inter- 
course, with an ignoble, or a low, female;] nor 
wiU I direct my regard to the short ropes which 
bind [to the pegs] the lower part of the tent of 
my friend, coveting his wife, and the like : or he 
may mean nor will I direct my regard to the 
female relations of my friend, such as his pater- 
nal aunt, and bis maternal aunt, and the like. 

(TA.) [See ij^T, below.] Also, the firet, ^ 

thing by which things are tied firmly, or made 
firm or fast. (TA,)^A thong ofuntanned hide 
which binds together the tjij-o^ of a cameFs 
saddle: and jL>t is a dial. var. thereof. (M.)^ 
Also, (M, 5,) md t^l, (AZ, As, ?,) A [tji 
ment of the kind called] r\l£» in whidi dry 

herbage, or fodder, is collected : (M, ^ :) or a 
A~£» filled with herbage, and tied: (AZ:) or a 
•L^ in which is dry lierbage, or fodder : othei^ 
wise it is not thus called : (A; :) pi. [of the fonner] 
j^\ and ij^t; (^;) and of the latter ^V'- 
(AZ.)^And both words, (the former accord, 
to the $ and M and ^, and the latter accord, 
to A; and the $ and M and ^,) Di-y herbage, 
or fodder: (9,^:) or dry herbage, or fodder, 
collected together ; (TA :) or dry herbage, or 
fodder, in a [garment of the hind called] A-& : 
otherwise it is not thus called : (A; :) or dry 
herbage, or fodder, contained in a ^J.L^. (M.) 
[The following saying is cited as an ex. of the 
first of these significations :] ji^^ '^ ,,^t«*« O"^ 
t »j-^\ [To such a one belongs a place, or land, 
abounding with dry herbage,] tlie dry lierbage 
whereof will not be cut; (S;) meaning, liecauee 
of its abundance. (TA.) _. Also, the former, A 
basket (J«iJ or ijtt'ji bs in different copies of the 
]^) in which goods, or commodities, (cU«,) are 
carried: so called as being likened to the thing 
I which dry herbage is put. (TA.) 

ajltf I : see jtol. 

. -I,, 

j^l "^t^ Pasturage that detains those that are 

on it [by reason of its abundance] : (M, TA :) or, 
to which one goes becaute of its abundance. (TA.) 

i;>«l, and its pi. C>l;^1: see jl^t, in three 
places; of which last word, (he first is also a pi. 
^ 7%e thing termed 2^1 and \j^ [to which a 
beast is tied]. (TA.)_^ tie of kindred, or 
relationship, (S, M, ^,) or affinity, (S,) or a 
favour, or benefit, (B, ]^,) that inclines one to a 
man; (S ;) or because it inclines one: (M:) pi. 
^tjl. (?.) One says, |>T O'U ^ *i^Jf^ ^ 
No tie qf relationship, nor any favour, or benefit, 
inclines me to such a one. (S.) And ^^ wike 
•j-fW ^^ \Sf*^ i_j^ j^i "^f I .>fi«# IHe inclined 
to me without any tie of relationship, ice., and 
examined my case without eye], (A.) [See also 

^.ajI ; Bee jtet, in three places. 

J..0U and j-^^ A place in which a person or 
thing is confined, shut up, or imprisoned: pi 
j^U; for which the vulgar say, j^lJu. (^, ^.) 
_1aIbo, the former, (M,A,) or^Uj (TA;) 
either of the measure ^}si^ from j-o^l, or of the 
measure ^U from j r »" ; A thing intervening 
between two other things and preventing the pas- 
sage from one to the other; a barrier: (A:) a 
rope across a road or river, preventing the passage 
of travellers and ships or boats, (M, L,) for the 
taking of ike tithes from them. (L.) 

j.^^y» A neighbour: (^ :) [or a close, or near, 
neighbour : as in the saying,] ^^^^l^^ K^/i- J* 
He is my neighbour, having the ^tpt of his tent 
by the nde of the jJe\^ofmy tent. (El-A^mar, §.) 

CJir^'^ 15^ -^ '"^* dreeWinj, or abiding, 
near together. (§, 5**) 


J,k*»— J«»« 

[Book I. 


•« ^ «» 

J^ia^\ A stable (K) for v'^> P« «• horses or 
inii^ef or a««e«] : (S [in some copies of which it is 
omitted] and El:) the t is radical, because an 
augmentative does not occur at the beginning of 
a word of four or five letters unless derived from 
a verb : (§ :) [probably from the barbarous Greek 
oraffKlov :] A A says that it is not of the [genuine] 
language of the Arabs: (S :) IB says that it is a 
foreign word, used by the Arabs : (TA :) accord, 
to some, (TA,) it is of the dial, of Syria : (£1, 

TA :) the pi. is ^^l«t : and the dim. ^Jfty^t. 

«^*NjPx«t or ^*^jJflU0t : see ^*jjjit^\, 

1. J-il, (5,) inf. n. aiUt ; (TA ;) or J-«l ; 
(M :) It (a thing, M) had^ or came to have, root, 

or a foundation ; (M, K ;) as also '•' J^U : (M :) 
or it was, or became, firm, or established, and 
firmly rooted or founded; as also t J^U : Q^ :) 
and [in like manner] ^ Jm^ULiI it (a thing) was, 
or became, firm in its root or foundation, and 

strong. (Msb.) You say, ljLh\ t cJL^uIl The 
free [^00 A 7'oo^ ; or] grew, and became firm in its 
root. (TA.) — [Hence,] J-it, (S, M, El,) inf. n. 
as above, (S, M,) He (a man, S,* M) was, or 
became, firm, (S, M , K,) or sound, (S,) of judg- 
ment ; (S, M, K ;) intelligent. (M : [and so, 
probably, in correct copies of the T^; but in a 
MS, copy of the T§^ and in the CIB: and TA, 
instead of JiU, the reading in the M, I find 

%ir^U.]) — -^^j (?»*^0 inf. n. as above, (S, 
TA,) It (judgment, or opinion,) was, or became, 
firm, or sound, (S,* TA,) or good. (K.) _ And, 
inf. n. as above. It (a thing) wa^, or became, 

eminent, noble, or honourable. (Msb.) sbb aJLoI, 
[aor. and inf. n. as in what follows next after this 
sentence,] He hit, or struck, its root, or founda- 
tion; that by being which it was what it was, 
or in being which it consisted; or its ultimate 
constituent. (A, TA.) _ And hence, (A, TA,) 

CJLft iUl, (A, K, TA,) aor. i, inf. n. Jif; 
(TA ;) or t iUT [with medd, (which I think to 
be a mistake, unless this be a dial, var.,) and 
without UJ^] ; (so in a copy of the M ;) f He 
knew it completely y or thoroughly, or superlatively 
well, syn. J^, (K,) [i. e.] CjIp Juui, so that he 
was acquainted with its J«dl [or root, or founda- 
tion, or its ultimate constituent, as is indicated in 
the A and TA] : (M :) or this is from Sjuf, as 
meaning "a certain very deadly serpent;" (A, 
TA ;) [whence the phrase,] _ijLi'^l iSL^!, (5,) 
inf. n. J^\, (TA,) Tlte [serpent called] aJUot 
sprang upon him (T^, TA) and slew him. (TA.) 
m^ J^\, aor. - , (M, ?,) inf. n. J^l, (M,) said 
of water, i. q. ^\ ; (M,K;) i.e. It became 

altered for the worse (M, TA) in its taste and 
odour, (TA,) from fetid black mud (K, TA) 
therein : so says Ibn-'Abbdd : (TA :) and said of 
flesh-meat, it became altered (]^, TA) in like 

^ <» ^ 

j^§^ • < i 

manner. (T A.) «-. IJl£>3 IJ^ JjUi o^ J-f< 
Such a one set about, or commenced, doing thus 
and thus, or such and such things. (TA.) 

8. AJL9I, inf. n. J«>^u, He made it to have a 
firm, or fixed, root, or foundation, whereon to 
build, (Msb, TA,) i. e., whereon another thing 
might be built. (El-Mundwee, TA.) [Hence,] 

aJU J>^\ i* q* dSi] [He made his wealth, or 
property, to have root, or a foundation ; or to 
become firm, or established, and firmly rooted or 

founded : see, below, JU J-ol, and J-d! a) JU]. 

(M and ? in art. Jit.) — J>i^t J-iil [He dis- 
posed, arranged, distributed, classified, or set in 
order, the fundamentals, fundamental articles, 
principles, elements, or rudiments, of a science, 

&c.,] is a phrase similar to v!^^*^^ V3^ ^^^ 
^^t^j. (TA.) 

4. J-df, (inf. n. JUkjI , TA,) JETe entered upon 
the time called Je-^l, q. v. (S, M, ^.) ms See 
also UJL^ aLoI. 


5. J-dU : see 1, first sentence, in two places. 

10. J-oU-l : see 1, in two places, first and 
second sentences. :=: AJL«U«»t He uprooted it; 
unrooted it ; eradicated it ; extirpated it ; pulled 
it up, or out, or off, from its root, or foundation, 
or lowest part, (S, TA,) or with its roots, or 
foundations, or lowest parts; (TA;) he cut it 
off (M, Msb) from its root, or lowest part, (M,) 
or with its roots, or lowest parts. (Msb.) You 

say, ^0^^ ^^ J^\Sm>\, a precative phrase, 
meaning May Ood [extirpate or] remove {from 
them) their li\ii ; which is an ulcer, or a purulent 
pustule, that comes forth in the foot, and is 
cauterized, and in consequence goes away : (M :) 
or^^^U J^ULft [in general usage] means he 
extirpated them, or may he extirpate them ; or 
he cut off, or may he cut off, the last remaining 
of them. (TA. [See also art. ob.]) And 
ji^l J-<>U-!, i. e. J^iif jii [He cut off the 
root, race, or stock, of the people ; i. e. he extir- 
pated them]. (M.) And jvkj! M J^h^S God 
destroyed cUtogetlier or entirely, or may God 
destroy altogether or entirely, the unbelievers. 
(Msb.) And vJ^^^ J-^U*-! He performed the 
circumcision so as to remove tJie prepuce utterly. 
(TA in art CUa^.) 

• 9t 

J«dl The loiver, or lowest, part of a thing; [i.e. 
its root, bottom, or foot;] (M, Msb, ^ ;) as also 

▼ Jyitfb : (M, K :) so of a mountain : and of a 
wall ; (TA ;) i. e. its foundation, or base : (Msb :) 
and of a tree [or plant] ; (TA ;) i. e. [its stem, 
or trunk, or stock, or] the part from which t?ie 
branches are broken off: (TA in art. j^^^ :) 
[and also its root, or foot ; for] the ^U of a tree 

is said to be the part between its J^t and the 
place where its branches shoot out : (TA in art. 
J>>^ :) [and a stump of a tree : and hence, a 

block of wood : (see exs. voce j^ :)] pi. \j^\ 
(S, M, M8b,K) and [pi. ofpauc] J-^t: (AHn, 
^ :) [ISd says that] the former is its only pi. : 
(M:) [but] the latter pi. occurs in a verse of 
Lebeed, (which see below,) as cited by A^n. 

^ * 

• t 

^ * ^ 

(TA.) Yon say, J^l ^\ ^ ,iJ& He tat 
upon, or at, the lowest part [&c.] of the mountain; 
and iiSUJt J^t ^ at the lowest part [&c.] of 
the wall. (TA.) And aJlil ^ asJS [He pulled 
it up, or out, or off, from its root, or foundation, 

or lowest part] ; and di^^lf [with its roots, or founr 
dations, or lowest parts ; both meaning, utterly, 
entirely, or altogether]. (TA in explanation of 

luL^t, q. V.) And S^^t jj>\ ^ He puUed 

up, or out, the lowest part, [or stem or stock or 
roo^ or foot or «ft<mp,] o/* ^A« ^re^. (TA.) Lebeed 
says, [of a wild cow,] 

• J.,Ji. ^» J-el wiU^ • 

[She enters into the midst of tlie stems of trees 
with high branches, apart from others, i. e. from 
other trees, in the hinder parts of sand-hills, tlte 
fine loose sand thereof inclining upon her] : (AHn, 

TA:) but as some relate it, UJ13 ^^f. (TA. 

[See EM, p. 161.]) ... A thing upon which 
another thing is built or founded [either properly 
or tropically] : (KT, Kull p. 50, TA :) the foun- 
dation, or basis, of a thing, [either properly or 
tropically,] which being imagined to be taken 
away, or abstracted, by its being taken away, or 
abstracted, the rest thereof becomes also taken 
away, or abstracted : (Er-Rdghib, TA :) that 
upon which the existence of anything rests [or 
depends] ; so the father is J^^t to the ofispring, 
and the river is J^^^t to the streamlet that 
branches off from it: (Msb:) or a thing upon 
which another thing depends as a branch; as 
the father in relation to the son : (Kull :) [i. e. 
the origin, source, beginning, or commencement, 
of a thing : the origin, original, root, race, or 

stock, from which a man springs. Hence l^J^ 

Jm^I a3 a thing having root, or a foundation ; 
and consequently, having rootedness, fixedness, im- 
mobility, stability, or permanence ; rooted, fixed, 
immoveable, stable, or permanent. Whence,] JU 
J^t a3, (Mgh voce jUp,) and J^t a3 CU/b «£ULo, 

(Msb in explanation of that word,) and j^t a) U, 
(KT in explanation of the same,) [Ite€U, or 
immoveable, property ;] property such as consists 
in a house or land yielding a revenue ; (Mgh ;) 
or such as a house and palm-trees ; (Msb ;) or 
such as land and a house. (KT.) [Hence, also, 

JU J-dl signifying A source of wealth or profit; 
a stock, find, capital, or principal. You say,] 

SjUJJJ ^ jIIU JU J^\ ,^^ 4JJ.mJi\ [I took 

it for myself as a source of wealth or profit, 
for breeding, not for traffic]. (Mgh inartyJ.) 

You say also, ducj\ J^^t cb [meaning He sold 
the fundamental property, 1. e. the property itself, 
of his land]. (S voce jX^.) [See also an ex. in 
conjugation 4 in art. ^Jl^ : and another in the 

first paragraph of art. i^r***^*] ^^^ dXcXf oj^ 
[He took it as it were with its root, or the like ; 
meaning, entirely]. (K. [See 2JLo1.]) And 
j9yi<^\ ^Ja3 [He cut off tlieir root, race, or 
stock; i. e. he extirpated them]. (M.) And 
Jj^ ^1 ^^ o^j (§ and L in art. U^,) and 

Book I.] 


§ J 

• t 

*yd J^^l ^, (L ibid.,) Such a one is of an escceU 
lent origin, or race, or stock, (8, L,) and of a had 
origin, or race, or stock ; (L ;) J-^t being here 

syn. -with ^^^ (§, L) and ojjl«. (S.) And 
jbjiu\ J-d! ^^ jj*^ DttcA a one isof[A race] 
<^ source of generosity, or nobleness ; J«d! being 
here syn. with ^^. (§ in art V.) And J«dl *^ 
Jlia^ *>||3 a) ^e Aa« no ^>.„^ [i. e. grounds of 
pretension to respect or honour; or rank, or 
nobility, or fA^ /tAt«] ; nor tongue [i. e. a2o^^nc&] : 
(Ks, S, O, Mfb :) or he has no intellect, (I A^, 
Msb, £l->Mun4wee,) nor eloquence : (El-Mundwee, 
TA :) or he has no lineage, nor tongue : (L :) or 
he has no father, nor child : (KuU p. 53 :) [or 
he Jms no known stock nor branch; for] J^ 

is the contr. of J^^t, and in relationship signifies 
a branch, (Msb in art. J^a^.) You say also, 
^Ltft aZw U, meaning I have not done it ever; 
and / ToiU not do it ever; the last word being 
in the accus. case as €ui adverbial noun ; i. e. 
I have not done it at any time ; and I will not 
do it at any time. (Msb, £1-Mundwee, TA.) _ 
[It also signifies The original, or elemental, 
matter, material, substance, or part, of a thing ; 

Bjn. with j^aJ^ ;] that from which a thing is 

taken [or made]. (KT voce v5^b.) [The 

fundamental, or essential, part of a thing. 

Hence, sing, of J>^l as signifying The funda- 
mentals, fundamental articles or dogm^is, prin- 
ciples, elements, or rudiments, of a science &c. 

Whence,] Jy^*^\ JUj (TA,) [meaning] ^ 

vlHJJt Oj^^ {The science of the fundamentals, 
fundamental articles or dogmas, or principles, 
of religion; the science of theology, or divinity ; 
according to the system of the Muslims, as dis- 
tinguished from that of the philosopliers ;] the 
science of the articles, or tenets, of belief; also 

called j^*:)\ dSii\ ; (KuU. voce dii ;) and [more 
commonly] j»^^t^^. (Hdjjee Khaleefeh.) [See 
also 2.]m^^A radical (as opposed to an augmen- 
tative) letter; as being an essential element of a 
word. (The Lexicons passim.) ... The original 
form of a word. (The same passim.) ... The 
original, or primary, signification of a word. 
(The same passim.) ... jin original copy of a 
book : and a copy of a book from which one 
quotes, or transcribes, any portion. (TA,&c., 
passim.) ... [The original, or primary, state, or 
condUion : or] the old state, or condition. (Kull 

p. 50.) You say, SjV^I^ iL<i^\ At^^S ^ J^^\ 
Hu old state, or condition, of things is that of 
being allowable, or lawful, and that of being pure, 
or clean. (Kull ubi supr^.) And l^JUot ^t sZ^ju^j 
She returned, or reverted, [to her original, or 
oU, state, or condition; or to her natural dis- 
position ;] to a natural disposition which she 
had relinquished. (S voce jl^.) .. [The utmost 
point, or degree, to which a person, or thing, 
can go, or be brought or reduced: and, app., 
the utmost that one can do. Hence the saying,] 

«SU^I L5^1 ^^^^"^ [^ w?7/ assuredly impel thee, 
or drive thee, against thy will, to the utmost 
poiiil to which thou canst go, or be brought or 
reduced: or, constrain thee to do thine utmost]. 
(lA^r in L, art •Jl [where it is given in ex- 
Bk.1. ^ 


.as f 9 1^ 

planation of the phrases i) J ^J\ iU Jaui^*9 and 
aWlfc.i ; and so in the T in art. jj in explana- 
tion of the former of these two phrases; which 
is said in the M, in art. jj, to mean / will 
assuredly make thee to Itave recourse to thine 
utmost effort, or endeavour; and in the L in 
art. ^ this is given as another explanation of 

the latter of the same two phrases. See abo the 

saying, ^j\j^ ^ ^\ ^Uta^J*^, explained voce j!^.]) 
.. [That by being which a thing is what it is, 
or tn being which it consists; or its ultimate 
constituent ; syn. 2jl^^ ; a meaning well known ; 
and indicated, in the A and TA, by the coupling 
of 2ULa». with J^tfi, evidently as an explicative 
adjunct]— . [The prime of a thing; the prinr 
cipal, purest, best, or choicest, part thereof; what 
is, or constitutes, tlie most essential part thereof; 
its very essence. Hence,] j\^ J«d! [ J%€ principal 
part of a country] ; (As, 8, Msb, IBL, voce jJU ;) 
[which is] the place where the people dwell, or 
abide. (As and S ibid. [See ji^.]) And A^t 
jp»^ [2%^ principal place of abode of a people], 
(S and ]^ voce a^iA^. [S^e this word.]) And 
AfJf Aid! |J yk J3« is of the prime, or q/* f Ac 
purest in race, tlie best, or <Ac choicest, of his 

» ^ S$ J Si J 

people; i. q, jf^\^^, and^^l^M^. (TA in art 
^^r^>tr^*) — What is mast fit, or proper : as when 
one says,^JLjOI ^jLJNI ^ J-^*^! [What is most 
fit, or proper, in man, is knowledge] ; i. e., know- 
ledge is more fit, or proper, than ignorance : and 

^ji£jl lj£jl ^ A^^t TFAa^ w [most] fit, or 
proper, in the case of the inchoative, is the putting 
[it] before [the enunciative], whenever there is no 
obstacle. (Kull p. 50.) .. What is preponderaiit 
in relation to what is preponderated : as, in lan- 
guage, the word used in its proper sense [in relation 
to that used in a tropical sense]. (Kull ibid.) _ 
What is [essential, or] requisite, or needful : as 

when one says i\Jjd\ O^^s^^ l^ J-^*^^ [What is 
essential, or requisite, or needful, in the case of 
tlie animal, is food]. (Kull ibid.)..^! [jyrimary, 
or] universal, or general, rule, or caTum. (Kull 
ibid.) ... ^n indication, an evidence, or a proof, 
in relation to that which is indicated, or evidenced, 
or proved. (Kull ibid.) 

J^dt : see its n. un., ^UL^t 

J-^t, (]B:,) or t J^l, (M,) i. q. t J^uli. 

(M, ^.) You say J«dl «i3 Eradicating, or coj- 

tirpating, evulsion : (TA :) or ▼ J«*0t ^Ja* cx^tr- 
pating excision. (M.) 

Jm^I, said by some to be a pi., and by others 

to be a dial, var., of y}t^\ : see the latter word, 

in two places. 
• ' "f •» t 

SJL^t: see 2U,%«t.BBAlso A kind of serpent, 

tlie most malignant, or noxious, of serpents : (S :) 
or a serpent, (M, K,) short, (M, [where, in the 
only copy to which I have access, I find added, 

a!u)1^, app. a mistranscription, for 2uJ\£9, like 

the fragment of a rope,]) or small, (K.,) red, but 
not intensely red, (M,) very deadly, of the most 
malignant, or noxious, kind, (TA,) having one 
leg, upon which it stands, (M, TA,) then tuims 
round, then springs, (TA,) that springs upon a 


man, and blows, killing everything upon which it 
blows: (M:) or, as some say, a great serpent, 
(M, TSi,) that kills by its blowing : (1^ :) or one of 
the very crafty kinds of serpents, short and broad, 
said to be like the shaft of an arrow, and it 
springs upon the horseman : (Msb :) pi. t J^l, 
(S, M. Msb, ]R[,) [or rather this is a coll. gen. n.,] 
and [pi. of pauc] JUot (Msb.) «- [Hence, 
app.,] t Short and broad: applied to a man cmd 
to a woman. (TA.) 

^^Ldt [Radical ; fundamental ; primitive ; 
original; underived: an epithet of extensive ap- 
plication ; and particularly applied to a letter of 
a word, as opposed to augmentative ; and to a 
signification]. (The Lexicons &c. passim.) 

4ktfL^\ [The quality denoted by the epithet ^JL^t; 
radicalness, &c. :] a term used by IJ [and others] 
in the place of J^^U : see 6. (M.) 

J^fMdt [Saving root, or a foundation; and 
consequently, having rootedness, fixedness, immo- 
bility, stability, or permanence; rooted, fixed, 
immoveable, stable, or* permanent]. You say, 

Ji^^ U©jl |J JmJ^\ 0\ Verily the palm-trees 
in our land remain permanently, not perishing. 

(A, TA.) ... A man having J-^f, (1^, TA,) i. e., 
lineage, or pedigree : (TA :) or established in his 

J«dJ : (Abu-l-Ba^^, TA :) or noble, or generous. 
(Msb.) .. A man firm of judgment, and intelli- 
gent. (M, K.* [Accord, to the copies of the latter, 

the signification is v^t^t wou ^^U : but I think 
that the right reading of the first word is J3U, as 
in the M, in which this word occupies the last 

place in the explanation.]) And ^!/3t Jts>^t A 
man firm, or sound, of judgment. (S.) And 

J*^' L^b J^dgv%ent having J«dl [i. e. firmness]. 
(M.) And y}t^\ j^^mo Olory, honour, dignity. 

or nobility, having a firm root or foundation. 
(S.) And J«*0t jit Vehement evil or mischief. 

(Ibn-'Abbdd.)aBSee also J^t, in two places. 

J t ' 
... [Hence, app.,] ,JtMd'^t Destruction : and 

death : as also, in both senses, * dXf^*^\. (^.)bb 

3 . 

[The evening ; or] t . q. jJLft ; (M, T^, Msb, TA ;) 

i. e. (Msb, TA) the time from the j-oc, (S, TA,) 
from the prayer of the j^os>, (Msb,) to sunset ; 

(S, Msb, TA ;) as also t ai^t : (R, TA :) the 

pi. is J-dl, (S, M, R, Msb, K,) or ▼ this is a sing., 
(TA,) or it may be a sing., (M,) for it is used as 

such, (M, TA,) and o'*-^^ (?> M,]g:,) and JuT, 
(S, M, Sgh, BL,) [a pi. of pauc.,] or, accord, to Ef- 

Saldh Es-Safadee, this is a pi. of J^t, the sing., 

not the pi., (TA,) or it is pi. of J^t, (Zj, M,) 

which may be a pi. or a sing., (M,) and j5Uol, (S, 

M, ?:,) as though pi. of iLo!, (S,) or it is pi. of 

this last word. (R, TA.) You say, "^S i^ 

9 J 

and '•' *^\, i. e. [/ met him in the evening,] l(Jt.ft. 
(A, TA.) From the pi. \i)%^\ is formed the dim. 

^ 0^'> (?i M> ^d ^^^ch is extr., (M, ¥,) 
because the dim. of a pi. is [regularly] formed 
only from a pi. of pauc, which Q'^oS is not ; 

, if O*^^ ^ * ™gM ^® 0^i ^^ OWj5, this 



dim. is regular : (M :) lometimeSi (^,) one 9Bjs 
also ^ J^'i (S, M, ^,) substituting J for the 
[final] o- (9>M.*) You say, t U^jl^l i4«i and 
* V%^'i meaning, as above, V^^l^ : (A, TA :) 
and L^ mentions t *>)l|^t a;^. (So in two copies 

of the 8.) 

JU^t A man's whole property: (M,]^:) or 
his palm-trees: (]^, TA: in the C^ his palm- 
tree :) thus in the dial, of £1-Hij&z. (O, TA.) 

dAtJlj ^ji*1, (S,M,]^,) and t<cUU (lA^, M, 
50 J9^« ^ooA it altogether, (S, M, 5>) [as it were] 
with its rooty (S, M,) not leaving aught of it. 

(TA.) And^^Ue-^^ tj^V 2^ cam^ altogether; 
the whole of them. (S,Z.)BBat»«9^ (>jt o*^ 
To such a one belongs land long possessed, or 
inherited from his parents, by means of which he 
has his living : a phrase of the people of £{-Tdif. 

(TA.)BBSee also J«>^t, in two places. 

^jJ^Ktf? One skilled in the science termed JJ^ 
Jy^^\ : see J-it. (TA.) 

: see J«^l, last sentence. 

^^He^^l and J^He^t : see J^^^l, m four places, 
last two sentences. 

^Ltf^ aJ^ I met him entering upon the tim£ 

called the Jtrfl (TA.) And Chs^>* O' W^« 
came entering upon the time so called, (^,) 

Jm0^ Jytfi [A root, or foundation, or <Ae /i/(«, 
fiiacfe firm, or ^a?e£^, or e<^a5Zt<A^. (^.) [See 

also Je-^l.] 

<LligU.-» 5l2» A «A66p, or <7oat, whose horn has 
been taken from its root. (TA.) 

j^xLmM : see J^dt. 

Jyitfl^ : see ^^t, first sentence. 

1. 1 1, (§, ?,) aor. , , (?,) inf. n. W (§, ?) 

and £t, (TA,) Ji^ produced, made, gave, emitted, 
or uttered, a sound, noise, voice, or cry ; (S, ^ ;) 
[and particularly, it creaked; and it moaned;] 
said of a camel's saddle, (S,* ]^, [in the C^, 

^}t^ji\ is put by mistake for JU^t,]) [and parti- 
cularly of a new camel's saddle,] and the like, 
(^,) such as a [plaited or woven girth called] 
%li, and of everything of which the sound 
resembles that of a new camel's saddle, (TA,) and 
of a palm-trunk, and of a tree of the kind called 
ji-, (S, TA,) or of the kind called ^, (TA,) 

and of a cane or reed on the occasion of its being 
straightened, [in which instance it is said to be 
tropical, but if so it is tropical in several other 
instances,] and of a bow, (TA,) and of the belly 
by reason of emptiness, (S,* TA,) and, in a trad, 
of Aboo-Dharr, J of heaven, or the sky, notwith- 
standing there being [really] no h^\ in this 
instance, for it is meant to denote [the presence 
of] multitude, and confirmation of ^e majesty of 
Gk>d. (TA.) [It is also said of other things, as 
will be shown by phrases here following, and by 

explanations of JLtfet below.] You also say, cXt | 
^^, (K:,) aor. as above, inf. n. L^\, (TA,) 

The camels moaned by reason of fatigue, or 
uttering their yearning cry to their young, (IJl, 
TA,) and sometimes by reason of fulness of their 

udders with milk. (TA.) And Jv^^l c^f U A^\^ 
I will not come to thee as long as camels utter cries 
[or moan] by reason of the heaviness of their hods. 

(ip.) And Jv*^t cXl U Sii\ Jjilt % meaning 

I wiU not do that ever. (TA.) Andfj^lj^UU 
We have not a camel that moans, or cries; mean- 
ing we have not any camel ; for the camel cannot 

but do so. (TA, from a trad.) [See also )o^\, 
below.] And ^^j^^j ^ wXt t [My feeling of 
relationship, or sympathy of blood,] became 
affected with tenderness, or compassion, and be- 
came moved, [or rather pleaded,] for him [or in 

his favour] : (1^, TA:) and hence t iJutljt [inf n. 
of the verb in the syn. phrase ^^^^^j a) %zSS>\3]. 

(Sgh, TA.) And^jjt iX^ oXi [The feeling of 
relationship, or sympathy of blood, pleaded, or 
hath pleaded, in thee;] i.e., inclined thee to 
favour. (£[am p. 765.) [See another ex. voce 


6 : see 1, near the end. 
Jyt : see h^\, below. 

U) oy^ [pL of £l, part. n. of 1,] Creaking 
[plaited, or woven, thongs]. (^.) 

J^tfet [as explained in what here follows seems 
to be properly an inf. n., though, like all inf. ns., 
it may be used as a subst. :] The sounding, or the 
like, or the sound, or the like, [and particularly 
the creaking, or creaking sound, and the moaning, 
or moaning sound,] of a camel's saddle (S, 1^, 

TA) when new ; (TA ;) and so "^ Lt, of the litters 
and saddles of camels when the riders are heavy 
thereon; and the former, also, of a door; said, in 
a trad., of the gate of paradise, by reason of its 
being crowded ; (TA ;) and of a plaited or woven 
thong when stretching ; (£z-Zejjdjee, TA ;) and 
of the back [when strained] ; (^ ;) and of the 
bowels, (TA,) and of the belly, or inside, by 
reason of hunger, (Tf,,) or by reason of vehement 
hunger ; (TA ;) and of camels, (1^, J^,) by reason 
of their burdens, (]^,) or by reason of the heavi- 
ness of their burdens ; (S ;) and the prolonging 
of the cries of camels: (TA:) but 'Alee Ibn- 
JSamzeh says that the cry of camels is termed 

fij, and that i^\ signifies the sounding, or 
sound, of their bellies, or insides, by reason of 
repletion from drinking. (IB, TA.) At^ JaI 
Jfteiftj, occurring in a trad., means -f Possessors 
of horses and of camels. (TA.) .. Also f Hun- 
ger, (^, TA,) itself, as well as the sound of the 
bowels or belly by reason thereof: from Ez- 
Zejjdjee. (TA.) 

h\L\ Sounding much ; noisy ; (T^, TA ;) having 
a sound : applied [to any of the things mentioned 

above in the explanations of Lt and L^\ ; and] 
to a hide ; and to a camel repleted with drink ; 
and to a road : fem. with } : which, applied to a 

[Book I* 

woman, signifies one whose ».ji has a sound 
^^34-lSl. (TA.) 

1. l^\, aor. J (S, Mf b, ISi) and i , (?,) inf. n. 
)t( ; (S, M?b, 5 ;) and t i^i, inf. d. ^U ; 

(1^ ;) Se bent it, or curved it ; (^, Msb, ]^, &c. ;) 
namely, a bow, (S, A,) and a twig, or the like : 
(A :) he laid hold upon one of its two extremities, 
and curved it:he bent it, or curved it ; namely, 

anything; $^^ ^^Xp upon a thing: and the 
latter verb, [or both,] he bent it into the form 
of a hoop, bringing its two extremities together. 

(TA.) It is said of Adam, ^T t l^\i ^\^ ^\a^ 

He w€u tall, and Ood bent him, and diminished 

his height. (TA.)..And one says, ^^^ J^V 
J^t ^^^ d^tj^l£)t ^jJ t [He laid hold upon 
the two hands, or arms, of the rvrongdoer, or 
prevented, restrained, or withheld, him from doing 
that which he desired,] and bent him to [con- 
formity with] what was right. (AA, from a 

trad.) And ib>l^ ^ U*>M 0>t \ [Tliou hast 

bent such a one to love thee]. (A.) .^^j^^S ^t, 
(§,BI,) aor. J and - , (J^,) inf. n. as above, (S, 1^,) 

He wound an Sji^S upon the arrow. (S, 1^.) .. 
C^\ >t, (TK,) inf. n. as above, (1^,) He 
made an jikt , which is a thing resembling a zone 
or beh, to the tent or house. (^, T]^.) 

8 : see 1, in two places, an C^t, inf. n.^^^U, 
She (a girl, lAar) remained in the house, or tent, 
of her father, some time, or long, (lA^r, JgL,) 
without marrying. (lA^.) [See also 5.] 

6. jib It (a spear) bent : (S, ISi :) it (a thing) 

became crooked, curved, or bent ; as also t^Ut : 
(K., TA :) it became bent into the form of a hoop, 
its two extremities being brought together. (TA.) 

— 0|iu She affected a bending of her person, 
body, or limbs, in her gait. (A.) ma He confined 

himself (K, TA) in a place. (TA.) oj£6 ghe 

(a woman) remained, or stayed, in her house, or 
tent; (§,?;) she kept to it. (TA.) [See also 2.] 

7: see 6. 

jJpI The place of curvature (^^;fc.;») of a bow, 
and of a cloud : (1^, TA :) an inf. n. used as 
a subst, and, being so used, admitting the dual 
form: or the bent, or curved, part of the ex- 
tremity of a bow ; to which Tarafeh likens the 
curving of the ribs of a she-camel : (TA :) and 
what resembles a curvature, seen in the clouds : an 
inf. n. in the sense of a pass, part n. (Skr, TA.) ^ 

ZjhS The sinew that is wound immediately 
above the notch of an arrow ; (S, 1^ ;) as also 

t jli»t. (^.) The edge of the glans of the 

penis ; (1^,* TA ;) as also t the latter word. (Ki, 

TA.)_The,/fe«A surrounding the nail: (^:) 

• f i • ' 

pi. jj»t and jU»t. (TA.)..ji mixture of ashes 

and blood with which a fracture in a cooking-pot 
is smeared (S, 5) ^^ repaired. (TA.) 

jW Anything that surrounds another thing: 

(§, A, Msb, ]^ :) as the hoop of a tambourine, 
(A, Mgh, TA,) and of a sieve. (§, A, Mgh, ?.) 
^m^A ring of hair surrounding the head, tk^ 

Book I.] 

Middle of it bang bald. (TA.)— -The branches 
of a vine, bent, or wreathed, so tu to form a 
covering over-head. (^.)^8ee also 1^1, in two 

places ^UJ! jltl Tlte part of the hoof of a 

horte or the Uke rthich mrroundt, or extends 

around, the j^t [q.T.]. (S.) sJjji jlS,) (S, 

%, &c.) I The part, (A,) or j!mA,' (M(b,) ttir- 
rounding the Up : (A, M^b :) or the part that 
separata between the lip and the hairt of the 
muttache: f^ :) or the edge of the upper lip, 
betmeen the lip ittelf and the part$ mhere the ha ir 
gromi : (lAth :) or the rinng edge, or ridge, 
hetneen the part where the muetache is clipped and 
the Up, intermixing vnth the mouth. (A'Obeyd.) 
The Masliin should clip hifl mastache so that this 
part shall appear. (Msb, TA.)_-0^ jl^l A 
thing resembling a tone, or belt, of a tent or house. 

(?..) j^Ull »>• Jltl \A ring, or circle, of 

men. (5.) One says, c/^ yj^ jl^' -U I Thc'J 
have alighted and taken up their abode [so thai 
they form a ring] around the sons of such a one. 
(A, Msb.) 

jefcl A sin; a crime; an offence. (5, 5.) One 
•*y*i KSji^ je^V i^J*-! -Hie punished me for the 
mm, crime, or offence, of another than myself. (S.) 

«. jt, 

Ij^U A bow. (A.) — A milhing-vessel of 

shin (UkA) for the head of which a twig is bent 
into the firm of a hoop, and put round, after 
Tvhich its lip is covered ; (E^,TA;) or, sometimes, 
the edges of the shin of the 3^ are folded upon 
the hoopformed twig, and dry upon it. (TA.) 

^1 and Jit, (S,K,) like^l and^l, (6, 
and Mgh in art j^,") A fortress : or, as eome 
■ay, any lofty building: (Mgh :) or a [buUdi/uj 
tuck as is termed] j^ [q. v.] : (lA^, ^ :) and 
any fortress built of stones : and any square, 
rw^ed, house: (j^:) pi. (of pane., TA) Jlfcr(8, 
Mgh, 5) and (of mult, TA) jL^I : C^O^U."! 
signifies fortresses of the people of El-ifedeeneh : 
and one of these is termed ^ 1*1>I : (S :) or this 
rignifies [simply] afortress; and its pi. is^l^I. 

2^\ : see above. 

lSi!> >ltt Lojiy [fortresses, kc] : (A, TA :) 
[or it may signify fortresses, &&, disposed in 
order, or grouped together; for it is said to be] a 
jrfinse like 3^ vl^> (O, TA,) or like >u4-t 
»i^. (?.) 

L S, aor. S^, (IDrd, M, Mgh, ^) and J^ , 
(IDrd, M, %.,} the latter ^recable with analogy, 
(TA,) [but the former, though irregular, is the 
saoK common,] inf. n. i^l ; (M, Mgh ;) and 
twjUI, inf. n. ^13; ($,Mgh,^;) and^oUU; 
(M,¥0 J«<aMi Jl[q.T.],(lDrd,8,M,Mgh, 
1^) bj reason of anxiety, or disquietude of mind, 
or hf teason of vexation, distress of mind, or 
: (IDrdjM,]^:) held by 8b to be of the 

>1 — Jl 
same class as ~-f^ and jSm meaning "he said 
j;fToU4^"and"he saiddirr-ll ill y." (M.) Yon 
say also, * 4jf\, and *^ t Jul, and a/ t J^, 

yj " --- 

meaning He said to Atm ol (M.) And Js^ 
UJ^ j m^ ,j^ f ^jSvi ij"^ Such a one began to 
say 1^1 bit by reason of a smell which he perceived 
(T.) And «^ t Ja\^ dJ^ Verily he U angry 
with him, or enraged against him. (TA.) 

S : see 1, in three places. 

6 : see 1, in fonr places. 

i-M and hit and t.Jl, or i^l : see i.Jt. 

\J\ and its Tars, (differing only in having the 
<_» moreot) : see the next par^raph. 

Ji «s) 

I DiH, or fUth ; as also t Ait : (8 :) you say, 

«J l»t, and ♦ aJl, Dirt, or filth, to him; in which 
the tenween is for the purpose of rendering them 
indeterminate; (S;) and ^i3j si t_»t; (T;) and 
aij^ t ail; and 1k3^ Ul; (T, ^ j) the Utter of 
which is an imitative sequent: (8 :) or i^l signi- 
fies the dirt of the ear; and iJB, the diH of the 
nails; (A?,T,M,^; bntin the last, o/'lAenat/;) 
the phrases mentioned above being used on the 
occasion of deeming a thing dirty or filthy, and 
afterwards on the occasion of experiencing annoy- 
ance or di^ust at anything; (As, T, M,'TA;) 
and ^ bJit, also, has the former of these two 
meanings : (TA :) or i..#t signifies the dirt around 
the nail; (M;) or ihc dirt of the nail; (^;) and 
hJU, the dirt in the nail : (M :) or the former, a 
paring of the nail : and a piece of sttch, or a 
reed, which one takes up from the ground : (^ :) 
in these various senses they are explained as used 
in the saying, lU^ <iJ Ut : (TA :) or the former 
signifies *(i»A.- (Zj, TA:) ot paucity; (T, M, 
^ ;) as also t ^| ; (M ;) or from t ,_aj| signi- 
fying a thing little in quantity; (T ; and the 
same meaning is assigned to this word in the E^ ;) 
and JSs is an imitative sequent, (T, M, ^,) of 
the same meaning. (M.)._hit, also, is a word 
expressiveof vexation, distress of mind, or disgust: 
(M, Mgh ;) or of dislike, displeasure, or hatred ; 
(^;) and has six forms; (T, S;) mentioned by 
Akh; (8;) or ten; (M;) or forq-; (5;) 
more; (TA;) as follow : i^t and i-ll and 0\ and 
bil and Ul and u»l (T, $, M, ^) and 0\ and Jl 
and Jl and ^1 and Ul and Jt (^) and ^t (M, 
^) and Jl and ^ ^1, pronounced with im^efa, 
(M, ^,) i. e. with pure im&leh, and f ^1 with 
intermediate im&leh, and ^ ^1 without imileh, 
the alif [written ^] in these three denoting the 
fem. gender, and t ^^\, with kesr to the ij, (5,) 
i. e., as a prefixed noun with its complement, [tfat 
latter being the pronoun of the first pers.,] (TA,) 
and f «yt, (^,) with damm to the t and uJ, 
which latter is with teshdeed, and with the j and 
« qniescent, (TA,)- and * 4il [in a copy of the M 
^ii\] andf AitBndt4Jl(:^)aAdt wil andt Jt 

and f iJl and t ^J and t ^1 and t Jl and 1 3\ 
and t Ul and f Jl and t Jl , with ^anom to the 
1^, which is with teshdeed, [in a copy of the M 
^ hit ,] and t Ul , like Ul , and ^ ^1 , pronoonced 
with imileh, and t^, with kesr, (^,) i. e., 
prefixed to the pronoun of the first person, 
(I Amb,) and ♦ .^ and * Jl (?:) and » Jl, Of 
»u»f, and tt>T, or t JT, and ♦ jf, or t JT, 
(accord, to different copies of the %,) [all these 
forms, making the number (forty) mentioned by 
the author of the ^, I have drawn from a com- 
parison of three copies of that work, and I believa 
them to be correct: some other forms are men- 
tioned by SM as perhaps indicated in the ]j[ ; bat 
I see no good reason for this : he then adds,] and 
f si\ and f *^\ and 1 4i\, the last mentioned by 
IB on the authority of I]^t^ (TA.) ijl, [with 
its variants,] in its primary sense, denotes one's 
blowing at a thing that Mis upon him, snch as 
dust or ashes ; or at the place, to remove there- 
from what is annoying ; therefore people say, at 
anything that they deem trottblesome, or di^ 
pleasing, or hateful, oJ ^31 [as though meaning 
A piff, or blast of breath, to it] : (^t, T:) or 
[rather] it is a word imitative of a soond; [like 
ugh in English, both in sound and meaning; and 
in meaning like our interjections ^A and^^iu^A;] 
(Bd on the ex. in the ^ur which will be found 
below, and TA;) denoting vexation, or distress 
of mind, or disgust ; (Bd ubi supri ;) or denoting 
contempt : (TA :) or it is a verbal noun, meaning 
/ am vexed, or distressed in mind, or disgusted 1 
(Bd ubi supr&:) or it is an imperative verbal 
noun [denoting disgust or abhorrence, like out, 
and away] : (I J, M :) or he who says M Ut uses 
it in the manner of an imprecation, like as one 

-. ..- 

^7^ O^'^ y^S > ^"d he who says ^ \j\ puts 
it in the nom. case because of the J, like as one 
says ^;,>jpUJJ Jjj ; and he who says jji Ol puts 
it in the gen. case likening it to words imitative 
of sounds. (lAmb.) It is said in the ^ur 
[xvii. 24], Jl O' Jis "ifs, (T,S,TA,) or Jl, 
(TA, [in which other readings also are men- 
tioned,]) [And say not thou to them (i. e, to thy 
father and mother) JJgh, &c.,] meaning, do not 
thou deem anything of their affurs burdensome, 
nor be contracted in bosom thereby, nor be rough, 
or harsh, or coarse, to them ; (!^t, T :) or do not 
thou say to them anything expressive of the least 
disgust, when they have become old, but take 
upon thyself their service; Jl signifying stinh. 

Jl and its vara, (differing only in having the 
1^ movent) : see i^\.wmVoT kil, see also ^Ul, 
in three places. 

ii\ : see ^\i\, in two places. 

■1*1 : see <_»t, in four places. ^ Also A dirty, 
ufilthy,mi unclean, m&n: (^:) from Ot signi- 
fying the " dirt of the nail." (TA.) _- One tn 
want; poor; possessing little : (?:) from J*t 
signifying "a thing little in quantity." (TA.)._ 

A coward: (^:) aa thongh originallr ii\ ^, 
i. e. holding back, by reaton of diagvtt, (oUl^)) 
fromjight : (TA :) or etcp«riencing twcofum or 
dUgutt, and languid or sbiggith, i« fwir : (lAgr :) 
rIso heavy, or »ltiggttk. (lAth.) 

ii\ : see o'JI, in three places. 

^1 Vexation, dittreu of mind, or ditgiut. 
(T, lAth, $.) — See also i_»t, in three places. ^ 
And eee ^\i\ , in three places. 

*.-( *st t^i t^ idi |i 

^1 and «Jt and 4i\ and Ail and iJI : see t.^1. 

iJI, pronounced in three different waTS ; imd 
J^\ : see Jl. 

lit and ^1 and ^1 : see Jt. 

«yi : see Jl. 

Ujil : see what next follows. 

i_>Ul A man who sayt i^\ much or ofien ; (M, 
TA ;) as also * uyjt, accord, to the copies of 
the O and T$ and ^ ; but in other lexicons 
^Uj^\ : in the O, one who ceatet nat to tay to 
another iithJt : in the Jm, the last of these three 
words is explained as meaning one mho ceases not 
to tay this at tome of hit affairs, (TA .) 

C>1*1 (T, S, M, ?:) and oUl (T, TS, L, ^) and 
t^I (6,M,5) and t Jit (T.L,?) and taJi 
(L, M) and t J3| (M) and t aa, (T, M, S, 
^, jcc.,) of the measure <U«U, [being originally 
2UC,] accord, to J, who appears to be right in 
saying so, (IB,) and so accord, to Aboo-'AIee, 
who states, on authority of Aboo-Bekr, that it 
is thus in some of the copies of the Book of Sb, 
(L,) though in other copies of that book said to 
beofthemeasui«aXiJ, (IB,L,) Jfinu*,- (T,S,M, 
^ ;) as in the sayings, ib> t J| ^ iu> ^\^, 
and *Jl31 (8,TA) and tWl, and tAlll, and 
t ^£S, (TA,) That mat at the time of that 
ii,iA.-;i and iUl o^l J> ^13t, (IA»r, L,) 
and ^i jl\ ^Ji, (IA^,T,M,L,) and *i(S, 
(T,L,) and » *i1, (M,L,) and t-Uit, (lA^tjT, 
L,) and t *ai , (M, L,) and ♦ aaf, (M,) and 
♦ «aiJ, (lAsr.T.S, M,L,) preceded by ^, 
(IA»r, T, §, &c.,) and by ^, (L,) He came to 
me at the time of that. (IA*r, T, &c.) 

*}i> : see tjl. 

^Tandw^andwiTand JT: seeijl. 

ajy^t : see Jlit. 

UU : see ^Ul , in three places. 

j^Uai ^ i»**ll« [app. Holding hack, by reaton 
of disguet, from fight ; as though saying Jj 
at the mention thereof; see U\}. (TA.) 

1. *iJl, (A'Obeyd.S, L, kc.,) aor. = , Inf. n. 
^l, (L,) He, [or it] ttruck him, or kit him, [or 

LJI — Jll 

hurt Am,] on tA« part of hie head caUed the 
^yQ. (A'Obeyd,S,L,Msb,^.) He who pro- 
nounces f-^\i without > says a^^. (Msb.) 

^^U A man havijig hit head broken in the 
part caUed the ^yC, (L.) 

lyi^, (Lth, Az, S, Msb, ]^,) as also L^C, 
without t, but the former is the more correct and 
the better, (Lth, Az, M|b,) and is of the measurt; 
JyoS, (Lth, Az, S, Mgb,) whereas the latter i^ 
of the measure Jj»li, (Lth, Az, M|b,) [The fo;i, 
vertex, or crown, of the head ; or the part of the 
top of the- head which it croiued by the coronal 
suture, and comprites a portion of the tagittal 
suture ;] the part where the anterior and pos- 
terior hones of the head meet; (^ ;) the plvci 
that is in a slate of commotion in the head of 
an infant; (S;) the place which, in the head 
of a child, does not cloie up until after tome 
years; or doet not become knit together in it 
several parts; and this is where the bone of th 
anterior part of the head and that of its posterity 
part meet; (Zj in his " Khal^ el-Ins&n;") the 
place that is soft, in a child's head, before the tn-o 
bones called the 3i\^ and ScUj meet, between the 
i«U [or middle of the head] and the forehead : 
(L:) or the middle of the head wlien it has 
become kard and strong ; before which it is 
thus called: (Msb:) pi. L/^; (90 bo in 
old lexicons [in general] ; but in the T and K 
i^l^ [which is pi. of ^yij without •; or, as pi. 
of ^yii, is like y^\'^ as pi. of ^U] ; and 
because of tbis form of the pi., F says that J is 
in error in mentioning the word in the present 
art. : it has been shown, however, that J is not ii 
error in this case. (TA.) ^ [Hence the saying, 
wi^t m^\ij^\ XYe are the centres and tummii- 
oftke heads of nobility. (L, from a trad.) And 
,JeUI v-yW t The main [or middle] part of the 
night. ($, ^.) [See also art. ^.] 

1. fc^l, (JK,8,?:,) oor.^, (JK,?,) inf.n. 
^1, (Tl^,) He went his own way, at random, 
or heedlessly, (aiIj ..^^j,) and went away in the 
t}'^\ [OT regions, kc, of the land]: (Lth.JK,?.;) 
or he went away in, or into, the land, or country: 
(S :) and he look his way into the ^\i\ [or regioux. 
Sec.,] of the land. (iK.) — [Hence, app.,] ^^\, 
aor. as above ; thus, says IB, accord, to Kz, 
and thus it is given on the authority of Kr ; 
(TA;) [see J*T;] or J*l, aor.-, (9,0,?,) 
inf. n. ^1 ; (§ ;) He attained the utmost degree, 
[as though he reached the ^\ (or horizon, or 
furthest point of view,)] in generosity; (§, 0, 1^ ;) 
or tn knowledge, or science; or in chasleness of 
speech, at eloquence, and in the combination of 
excellent qualities. (^.)^Also, ^1, aor. ;, 
(Kr, Ibn-'Abbdd, JK,^,) inf. n. J*t (JK.TA,) 
He overcame, or surpassed, (Kr, Ibn-'Abbfiii, 
JK, ]^.)^And, inf.n, jyt, He was goodly, 
or beautiful ; he possessed the quality of excitin;/ 
admiration and approval by hit beauty and the 

[Boob I. 

f^&Uingnets of his aspect : said of a camel, and of 

a hone. (J^.) «^ J*l (JK,TA> He (a 

man) excelled him; namely, another man : (JK:) 
or he preceded him m excellence ; or outwent Am 
therein; as also aUI, aor. ; . (TA.) [It is like 

iJU.] *(Lu*)1 ^ Ji\, aor. -, , ($, T^,) inC n. Ji\, 

(TA,) He gave to some more than to others. 
($, J^.) So in the saying of El-Afsh4, 

i^j>^ iCii" iyt Sis 

Jij^ ijkill ^^ *^ 

{Nor the King En-Noomdn, on the day that I 
met him, in his goodly, or happy, condition, 
giving gifts, or stipends, or written obligations 
conferring gifts, and giving to tome more than 
to others] : (S :) or the meaning is, writing 
[writs of] gifts, and sealing them : or, as some 
say, taking his way iuto the^\i\ [or regions, &c.,] 
oftheland. (JK.)™iiil, aor. ; , (8, Mjb, ?,) 
inf. n. Jit, (S, M;b,) He tanned it (namely a 
hide) until it became what is termed ^jait. (^, 

5. W iji^ He (a man. As, TA) came to us 
^\ ^>* [from a region, kc., of the land] : (Af, 
^ :) or came to us, and alighted at our abode 
as a guest : and in the Naw&dir el-A^b, a/ fjiQ 
is said to signify he reached Aim, or overtook 
him; as also a/ ,jii3. (TA.) 

Ml «.I 

Jil: aeeJiL 

fji) The main and middle part (o-^) of a 
road; (I^;) the /ace, or wir/fwe, thereof: (IA*r, 
?:) pi. JUT. (K..) Hence the saying, Jjrf 
Ju^kll ^1 ^_JlA ^^ [Such a one sat upon the 
main and middle part, or face, or surface, of 

the road]. (TA.) The ^flanks, or iUa: or, 

as some say, skins; or skin; as in the saying, 
ifWl o^^ ^J!^ •;^^^ I drank until IfSed my 
skin : (JK :) pi. [or rather coll. gen. n.] of 
tUil; (lA^;) which signifies the ,/ianA; (lA^r, 

?;) as does also twf. (Th,?.) Also pi., 

(^, ?,) or [rather] qnasi-pL n., (M, K,) of ^t, 

^t : see ^^t, in two pkces. 

J*t (JK, S, Mgh, Msb, ?, &c.) and 1 1^ 
(8, ?) A ode ; meaning a lateral, or an outivard 
or ad/acent, part or portion; or a part, region, 
quarter, or tract, considered with respect to its 
collocation or juxtaposition or direction, or con- 
sidered as belonging to a whole; or a remote 
side; syn. ii^li; (JK,S,Mgh, Msb,? ;) and 
a border, or an extremity; (JK;) of a land, 
or of the earth ; and of the sky, or heavens : 
(JK, Mgh, M;b :) [or the horizon, or part next 
to the horizon, of the sky and of the earth ;] or 
what appears of the sides (i^'i^J') of the celestial 
sphere, (?, TA,) and of the borders, or extremi- 
ties, of the earlk : (TA :) or the place whence 
blows Ike south wind, and the north wind, and the 
west wind, and the east mind : (?,* TA :) pi. 
JuT : (JK, 8, Mgh, M;b, ? :) and the nog. 
also is used as a pi.; like Mi, as is said in 

Book I.] 

the Nh : (MF :) thus in the yerse of £l-'Abb^, 
in praise of the Prophet : 

• Ji*^! Jjy^ o;U3 sjo ♦ 

{When thou wast bom, the earth became b7ight, 
and the tracts of the horizon, or the regions, shone 
with thy light] : or, as some say, ^}$^\ is made 

fem. by him as meaning a^UI. (TA.) The 

phrase Jli*^t w'hs^ l>^ means TFA^n the redness, 

or whiteness, in the J3t [or/iort2w»] disappears. 
(Mgh.).. Also, in like manner, The side, or 
lateral part, of a tent: (Jl^:) or the par^ between 
the [two] atUerior [pieces of wood called the] 

0!li> tn the [fore part called the] Jt^j, of a tent : 
(]^ :) and the «uie«, or lateral parts, of a tent of 
^e kind belonging to the Arabs of the desert. 

(TA.)^j3\ is also said to be a pi. of J^^t ; but 
this is disallowed by Lh. (TA.) as See also Jit. 

^\ : see Jl^i. as Also A burying of a shin, or 
Auie, tn the earth, so tliat its hair may be re- 
moved, and it mxiy become ready for tanning. 

(Lth,5,»TA.) [Seejjj.] 

jJbl, (ISk, JK, T, S, Mgh, Msb, 1^,) eontr. to 

rule, (T, Msb,) and t ^t, (As, ISk, S, Mgh, 
Msb, ]^,) agreeably with rule, (S,) being a rel. n. 

from JjI, (Msb,) and some (namely the lawyers, 
in relation to pilgrimage and the like, MF) say 

▼ ^JUI, (Mgh, MF,) which is incorrect, (Mgh, 
Mf b,) or whether it be correct, afler the manner 

of ^jl^i and the like, requires consideration, 
(MF,) an epithet applied to a man, (ISk, S, 
Mfb,) meaning One who is from the JUt [or 
lateral parts, or regions,] of the land ; (ISk,* S, 
Msb ;♦) mentioned by Aboo-Nasr : (S, referring 
to the first form of the word :) or one who goes 
about in the JUt : (JK :) or one who goes through 
the ^Ut of the land in search of sustenance : (]^,* 
TA :) as also t Jlil. (Bl, T A.) it^ ^\ or aL ^\ 

means Jle who is without the places where the 
pUgrvms coming to Mehheh enter upon the state of 

^tjll. (Mgh.) 
^yb! : see ^ylil. 

• ^ 

Je^t : see ^t. ..Applied also to a bucket 

(y>), meaning Excelling other buckets. (AA, 
|:.) OS Abo, (As, Th, JK, S, Mgh, Msb, K,) 

and * iUe^l, (]^,) or the latter is a more particular 
term than the former, like as SjJU^ is more so 
dian jS^y (^gh|) and t J^t^ (K, [but see what 
feUows,]) The shin, or hide, that is not completely 
tanned, (S, Mgh, Msb, K,) so that it is unsub- 
etantial, not firm, or strong, or tough : (Mgh :) 
irihen its tanning is complete, and it becomes red, 

it is termed ^>i : therefore J!j^t is of the measure 
J^i^ in the sense of the measure J>mo : (Msb :) 
or in the second stage of its tanning ; for in the 
fint stage it is termed 2^<U ; then, J^it ; and then, 

'jtl^\ : (TA :) or that is tanned, but before it is 
meed : (Af , S, 1^ :) or before it is cut, or slit : 
(IjL* :) or when it comes forth from the tan, its 

j;it — JtUt 

tanning being finished, (JK, TA,) its [original] 
odour being [still] in it : (TA :) or after it is 
tanned: (Msb:) or not tanned: (Th, TA :) or 

that is tanned without iij3 or t^j^ or any of the 
tans of the people of Nejd : (TA :) ISd says, I 
think that Th has mentioned t Ji\ as syn. with 

9 t 

Jle^t, and explained it as signifying the skin, or 
hide, that is not tanned; but I am not sure of it : 
(TA :) the pi. is Jit, (Lh, JK, S, Mf b, ?:,) like 
as j»^t is pL of^^^l, (S,) or this is a quasi-pl. n., 

(M, K,) and Ji\ (JK, K) is allowable, ( JK,) or, 
accord, to Lh, it is not allowable, (TA,) and [pi. 
of pauc] li3\, (As, S, K,) Hke as L^fand l&ijt 

are pis. of^^^t and U^]. (As, S.) 1 2Jk^\ gig. 
nifies also A ^Uw [or skin for water or milk &c.] 
made of a hide of the kind termed jyi. (Mgh.) 
And Jl^ J also signifies The skin of a man, and of 
any beast (TA.) 

2ig3t : see Jje^t, in two places. 

• Si I ^t 

JUI : see ^^a^I. 


9 0* 

9 ^ 

Jjil, (S, K, &c.,) of the measure J^U, (S, 5^, 

TA, [in the C^ Jit, and in like manner in a 

" ^ t 
copy of the JK,]) from Jit, (S, K,) or, as IB 

says, accord, to %j,, from Jit, aor. >, and so 
accord, to Kr, and shown to be of the measure 
J^li by several verses in which it occurs, (TA,) 

One who has attained the utmost degree in genS' 
rosity ; (S, 1^ ;) or in knowledge, or science ; or 
in cha^teness of speech, or eloquence, and in the 
combination of excellent qualities ; (K ;) as also 
t Jgif : (B: :) fem. with 5. (IF, El.) Also applied 
to a horse. Generous with respect to both parents: 
fem. with S. (S.) And applied to a camel, T%at 
excites admiration and approval by his generous- 
ness, excellence, high blood, or the like; (JK;) 

and so ^ Jit, (JK, S,Sk,) applied to a horse, (S, 
]^,) and a mare, (JK, S, EL,) and a she-camel. 

9^ 0* 9*t 

2Uit : see Jit. 
^^Ut : see ^ybt, 


1. iSt, aor. - , inf. n. ilit, (with fet-h, S, TA, 
its only form, TA, [in the Cl^ ^l,]) He changed 
his, or its, manner of being, or state; (S, BL ;) and 
he turned him, or it, (i. e., anything, Msb,) 
away, or back; (S, Msb,]^;) t^J^\ O^ [from 
the thing] ; (S ;) or a^^ ^j^ [from his, or its, 
mode, or manner, of being, &c.] : (Msb :) so in 

the ]^ur xlvi. 21, U^f ^ UjUJ \j^\ Hast 

9 ^ J9^ J ^9 J 

thou corns to us to turn us away, or back, from 
our gods? (Bd:) or he turned him away, or 
back, by lying : (TA :) or ke changed, or per- 
verted, his judgment, or opinion : (K :) or he 
deceived him, or beguiled him, and so turned him 
away, or ba4:k : and simply he deceived him, or 

beguiled him: and ^t signifies he was turned 
from his judgment^ or opinion, by deceit, or guile. 

(TA.) It is said in the l^ur [li. 0], 

«£Xit, i. e.. He will be turned away from it 
(namely, the truth,) who is turned away in the 
foreknowledge of God: (TA:) or, accord, to 

Mujdhid, ^t ^ AiS' ^^ [he will be weak in 
intellect and judgment so as to be thereby turned 
away from it who is Tveak in intellect and judg^ 

ment]. (S, TA.) You say also, ^ J^pt ^^ 
yt!^^ The man was turned away, or back, from 

good, or prosperity. (Sh.) And A£it, (K, TA,) 
inf. n. as above, (TA,) He forbade him what he 
wished, (K, TA,) and turned him away, or back, 

from it. (TA.) — iuf, aor.-; (Msb,?!;) and 

ilit, aor. - ; (lA^r, T^ ;) inf. n. JUt (Msb, T^) 

and ilil and Jut and Jyt; (K;) He lied; 
uttered a falsehood ; said what was untrue ; 
(Msb, ?: ;) as abo t ^, (]g:,) inf. n. Ji^iU : 

(TA:) because a lie is a sa3ring that is turned 
from its proper way, or mode. (B^ in xxiv. 11.) 

..J^l;)t Jlit, aor. ;, inf. n. iut, He told tke 

people what was false; «£)Ut and 4iSi\ being 

Uke JJi» and a^Jl^. (Az, TA.) M\ 

U'^i, (K,) inf. n. Jiil; (TA;) or the verb is 

• ^t^ 

«Uit ; (so in the printed edition of Bd, xlvi. 27;) 
He, or it, m>ade such a one to lie, or say what 

was untrue. (K.) -. ^t He was weak [as 
though perverted] in his intellect and judgment 

or opinion. (1^,* TA.) But ^t A£it as meaning 
Ood rendered weak his intellect is not used. (L, 
TA.)..t /f (a place) w€u not rained upon, and 
had no vegetation, or herbage. (K, TA.) 

2: see 1. 

4 : see 1. 

8. SjJLJt wJCiZSt [written with the disjunctive 
alif oiiijt]^ (S, K,) \xll, (S,) The land, or 
district, or tlic town, or the like, was, or became, 
overturned, or subverted, (S, K,) with its inhabit" 
ants : (S :) as were the towns of the people of 
Lot. (TA.)_ Hence it is said of El-Bafrah, 

yyA^ V^W ^"SjlLA jJ, meaning X It has been 
submerged with its inhabitants twice; as though 
subverted. (Sh.)_You say also, iU3 c*.0.;jt 

u^j3\ X That land has been burnt up by drought. 

«Uit [an inf. n. used as a subst. ;] A lie; a 
falsehood; (S,TA;) as also tSi^t: pi. (of the 

latter, K) ibVit (S,T^.) You say, ta^^^Jb' ij, and 

t a^i!^ C ; [and t aQ^, using the dim. form 
for the purpose of enhancement ; i. e. O the lie I 
and O the great lie !] the J with fet-h denoting 
calling to aid ; and with kesr denoting wonder, as 
though the meaning were, O man, wonder thou 
at this great lie. (TA.) 

^t [so in the TA, without any syll. signs ; 
app. either 4X3\, an mf. n. of un., or * iUCit, like 

9^ ^ * 

^t^ ;] A punishment sent by Ood, whereby tJie 

dwellings of a people are overturned : occurring 
in a trad, relating to the story of the people of 
Lot. (TA.) 

t 9. 

^t limi X ^ y^^^ of drought or sterility : (K,, 

TA:) pi. iUiy [contr. to rule, as thoogh die 
nag. were t S^T]. (Z, TA.) 

Ily I : see illM. 

jiieil One who ii iuTTud from h»judffment, or 
opinitm, 6y rfecnV, or guile ; bb also ♦ jJy U. (?..) 
^Lacking ttrengtk or jwnwr or ability, and 
having little prvdMce and artifice. (Lth, ^.)^ 
See also Jlif. 

a^l: Bee JU^, in three places.— Also A 
tevere, or dittremng, calamity. (Ibn-Abb4d.) 

a£^\ : see ill. 

Jtil A yrcai, or kabUval, liar ; (§, M^b, ?. ;) 
es ako t i)3fl, (M;b, JK:,) bjicI * A:*t : (^ :) fem. 
of the first [and last] with Si bnt the second is 
both masc. and fem, : (M$b :) the pt. of 
second is JUI with damm [i. e. silil, accord, 
the role of the ^, bat the TA seems to indicate 
that it is jUI, by likening it Ut the pi. ot jyt^]. 


a^T: see 3£i\: and see ji^t 1^. 

j)yU [Changed in hie, or its, manner of being, 
or etate : turned away, or back, from a thing : 
kc.] : see .^t. ^ Weak [at though pervertedl 
in hit inteiuit (AZ, §, §1) and judgment or 
opinion ; as also J(j*U : (AZ, S :) accord, i 
A'Obeyd, (or AA, as in one copy of the S,) a 
man mho doee net attain, or obtain, good, or proi- 
perity. (§.)_Al8o, C^,) fem. with i, (S,^,) 
I A place, (^,) or land, (c-^j'j ?> Z,) not rained 
upon, and having no vegetation, or herbage. ($, 

Ol£Upt (S, ^) and iiu^l, (TA,) both 
occurring in the ^ur, [the former in ix. 71 and 
Izix. 9, and the latter in liii. 64,] 7^e cities over- 
tkronm, or subverted, by Ood, upon the people of 
Lot. (S,^.)^The former also signifies 7^ 
Kinds that turn over [tlie surface of] the earth, 
or ground: (1^:) or the winds tkat blon from 
different quarters : it is sud (by the Arabs, §) 
that when these winds blow much, the earth (i. e. 
its seed-produce, TA) thriyes, or yields increase. 



1. J*I, (T,?,M?b,?,) said ofa thing, (Mfb,) 
or of the moon, (T,) and cJii, said of the sun, 
(T, ^, M,) and of the stars, (M,) aor. ; and ^ , 
inC n. J,*' (T, §, M, M?b, ?) and Jil, (M, 
Mfb,) Jt mas, or became, absent, or hidden, or 
concealed; (T, $,Mfb, ^;) it set; (T, 9, M, 

fcc. and BO Jil, aor. ^ . (^.) Hence, Jit 

jjQt ^ ^*:Jki £iucA a one became absent, or wenf 
amay,from the country, or fmrn. (M;b.) 

Je^l A young cameliuch as is termed ^1^^ ^1 
[i. 0. that has entered its second year] ; (A; , EI- 
F&T^bee, S, M, M«b, ^ ;) and the like; (^j) or, 
and also such at is above this [in age] ; (El- 
Fdrdbee, M, Mjb, 1^ ;) or, and also such at is 
termed ^y^ ^1 [L e. that has entered the third 

year] ; beyond which it is not so caUed : (A(, 
TA:) or that is seven months old, or eight: (Af, 
M;b:) or a youthful camel: (AZ, Mfb:) and 
also (M, ^) a young meaned camel; syn. J«^ : 
(T, M, Mjb, 5 fem. with I : (A», ^ :) pi. Jui 
(T, 1^, M, 5) and JSUI, (Sb, $, M, %,) which 
latter they liken to ^.JUi as pi. of vV^- (^0 
[In my copy of the Msb, the pi. is said to be 
2)Ut : and it is also there said, on the anthority of 
IF, that VW signifies the young ones of sheep.] 
It is said in a pror., ^^^\ O^ J^Ji\ Uj) [The 
staUion-^amel it only that which has increased in 
growth from the young one in its second year, 
ice.}; i. e. what is great has begun small. (TA.) 

i3iT part n. of 1, (T, TA,) applied to the m 
and to any star: (TA:) fem. with i: (T,TAO 
pi. O***' (?<"■ ''• "^^ [*^ rational form of the pi. 
being there used becanse it is applied to stars at 
being likened to gods]) and ^t and jyi. (TA.) 

Aft and Ail and Ait and Ail and Ail and s^\ 
and tyil : see wll. 

Ct9e^') 0^^^ oy^*^> ^"^ ^^ *" of a very eztr. 
measure ; or, as some write it, 0^'> '''^ J^^ 
Sec.;] oroie*!> [lil^e 03^Jf'] (accord, to difierent 
copies of the ^, art. ,^;) [an arabicized word, 
from the Greek mrtov, either immediately or 
through the Persian ^^^ ; meaning Opium ;] 
the milk [or juice] of the black Egyptian t^U 
[or poppy, or papaver tomniferum]; (1^;) or the 
mUk of the ^Ji\i. .'^, the best of which u 
black Egyptian; (TA ;) or the expretsed juice 
of the black Egyptian ^\i. .Ta, dried in thi 
sun: cold and dry in the fourth degree : (Ibn- 
SeenL, or Avicenna, i. 133 :) beneficial for km 
tumours, especially in the eye; torporific (to tke 
intellect, TA) : tn a small quantity, beneficial, 
and soporific: in a large quantity, a poison: 
(^ :) [the lexicogmphers regard the word ^ 
Arabic:] some, among whom is the author oi' 
the ^, hold that it belongs to art, ^>>i: others, 
that it belongs to art ^1, (TA.) 

see art j^. 

L iiJI, aor. ; , (§,?,) inf. n. tit, (8,) Se 
made it (namely food) with U\, q. v. infri. 
(S, ^.) >. Also, (aor. and inf. n. as above, TA,) 
Sefed him with u': (A'Obeyd,^:) like a^ 
from f^, and #U from ^) : Lh mentions the 
verb in this sense as used without its being madu 
tnnudve. (TA.) ^ [is3\ in the C^ is a mistake 
for UT, q. T.] 

4. iil, (L^,]^, [in the C^, incorrecdy, Ijl,]) 
of the measnre Jjtil, agreeably with a common 
rule, applying to anything, (14^, TA,) Se had 

[Boos X. 

much Ut; At* U\ breams much, or abundant. 
CLlj, ?.) 

8. JwilJI [written with the disjunctive alif m^I} 
Ue made, or prepared, )ei\ : (S :) stnngely 
omitted in the O and in the ^. (TA.) 

Li! (Fr,Az,S,M|b,]^) and lit (Fr.O,?:) 
andiit (Fr,]?) and lit, (9, 0, Msb, l^,) the 
last sometimes occnrring in poetry, and fonned 
from the first, by transferring the vowel of the ^5 
to the preceding letter, (S,) or a contraction of 
the second, accord, to a common usage of [the 
tribe of] Temeem in the cases of words of this 
measnre, (O,) and iJt (]^) and Ul, (Af , '^,) ot 
all which the first is the most chaste, and the 
last is strange, (TA,) [A preparation of dried 
atrd;] a preparation of, or thing made from, 
milk (Az, Mfb, 1^) of sheep or goats, (^,) mhich 
has been churned, and of which the butter kat 
been taken, (Az, M;b, j^,) cooked, and then left 
until it becomes concrete : (Az, Msb :) or made 
Jrom the milk of camels, in particular: (IA(r:) 
or mt7A mkich is dried, and hat become hard, 
like stone; with which one cooks; repeatedly 
mentioned in trads. : (TA :) or a thing made 
frommilk; being a hind of cheese : (^rp. 687;) 

pi.iiiJi. (50 

],^\Avialitrcful (TA.) 
l,)U Food nuxii mli Ul. (S.) 

1, J^l He trod wheat. (lA^r, 5.) 

2. j&l, inf. n. i^&fe, i. q. ifcj, C?, Msb,?,) 
of which it is a dial. Tar. ; (S ;) but it is not so 
chaste as the latter, and by some is disallowed. 

4. ^\ i. q. ji>]l. (§ in art j^j.) 
6. ^U i. q. jltjj. (9 and ]^ in art ,Ay) 
4t£>t sing, of Jjt£>t and ie&U, (1^,) both of 
which are irreg. in relation to their sing., (TA,) 
signifying (i. e. the pis.) Thongs, or straps, by 
mkich the ,^5^ it bound to the tmo side4>oardt 
of a horse's saddU. (?,.) [See also >l&^.] 

j.e£»l Firm ; (5, TA;) applied to a covenant, 
or compact (TA.) 


1. j&l, aor. ; , inf. n. ^t, Se tilled the 
ground ; ploughed it up for sowing. (M;b.) ^m 
Se dug the ground. (TA.) ^ Jle cut, or dug, 
a river, or canal, orrivnlet (M;b.)^And^^l, 
aor - , (TA,) inf. n. as above ; (^ ;) and ^j^G ; 
(^ ;) Me dug a hollow, or cavity, in tke ground, 
for water to collect therein and to be baled out 
therefrom clear : (^, TA :) or ^1 t^U signi- 
fies he dug koUowt, or cavities, in the ground. (8.) 

8. i,£.T, (T¥.) inf. D. »J£»l>«, (?, ?,) Se 
made a contract, or bargain, with him to tiB 
and som and cultivate land for a share of it* 
produce; syn. of the inf. n. if^i.^ (9)^ TA) 
The doing of this is forbidden. (TA.) 

Book I.] 
: see 1, in two places. 

1^1 A hoUom, or eaviti/, dug in the p-ound, 
(^, Mfb, ^,) t» fwkich water collects, and Jrom 
which Uii baled out cUar: (^i) pi. ^1. (S, 
Mfb.)^AIso a dial. var. of ij^, (^,) [A ball] 
with which one plat/t : (TA :) [and a sphere, or 
globe :'\ but it is of weak authority. (^.) 

Ijl^l, Bs need in practical law, Land which u 
^Hwn by it» ovmert to men who tow and cultivate 
it [app. /or a certain thare of iti produce .- see 
3]. (Mgh.) 

j&i A tiller, or cultivator, of land : (Mf b, 
^:) pi. ij^i; as though it were pi. of^&l, 
(9, Mfb, $0 like as iJA£> is pi. of^l£>. (Msb.) 

8. Jl4>-^t UL£il, inf. n. ok«^0, Se made the 
wil&l ; (^ ;) as also Mih^,' inf. n. iJe^^ i 
which latter, accord, to IF, is the original form. 

4. jC*JI a&T,(9,Mgh,Msb,:^,) inf.n. Jviii, 
(?:,) S'e bmtnd, (S, Jj:, TA,) or put, (Msb, TaJ) 
IA« iJViit vpon fAe om; (S, Mfb, i^;) as also 
t^t;*(Sgh,1^;) andl^jl; (S,Mgh,$;) 
which is of the dial, of the people of £1-Qij^ ; 
the first being of the dial, of Benoo-Temeem : 
and in like manner, ^JJi^^ the mule. (L^-) 

xM>\ (9,Mgh,M;b,^) and Jl£il, (^,) as 
abo Jl£>j (S, Mgh, Msb, ^) and Jl£>], (K 
in art. o^j,) The XcSy, [i. e. pad, or ttuffed 
taddle, generally ttuffed with straw,} (If.,) of the 
ass, (9, Mgh, Mfb, $:,) and also used for the 
mnle, and for the camel ; (TA in art wi&j ;) a 
■addle like the jLj and ,^: (TA :) and a »u2f^e 
of a hone made in the form of the au'e kJl&t, 
having at it* fore part [or pommel] a thing 
rtasmibHng a pomegranate : (Mgh :) [see also 
C^-] pl- [of pane] U&T (TA) and [of mult.] 
Ji6^. ($, Mgh, Msb, TA.) Yaflfoob asserts 
that the J in .Jl^l is a substitute for .the j in 
hil£>j. (TA.) A r&jiz says, 

meaning [Fen7y we have some lean attet] which 
eat every night the price of an t^l&t. (TA.) 

J&l The wwAer of the kind of taddle called 
Jtil. OS-) 

L aI^I, [aor. ' ,] inf. n. J4l and J^U, [He 
ate it,] (ki^d namely, food. (S.) Ei^Rum- 
m&nee says that J-^t properly signifies The 
tmaUowing food afier chewing it; so that the 
swallowing of pebbles is not properly thus termed : 
(Hfb:) or, accord, to Ibn-£1-Kem&l, the convey- 
ing, or trammittingf to the belly what may be 
diewed, whether [the thing be] chewed ornot; so 
tiiat h does sot apply to milk, nor to J^ : and 
IS to ^ »ying of the poet. 

i [Of the eaten o^what they purchase with the 
price of water, wrongfully, I do not tee any attain 
good afier their eating of what they have pur- 
chased with the price of the water,] he means 
a people who used to sell water and purchase 
with the price thereof what they would eat : 
(TA :) [for you say, 1 j^ J^l as meaning fJIe 
ate the price of each a thing : see another ex. voce 
hJl^l ; and another voce ^.O-] ^The sayine, 
the ^xa [v. 70], oJJ j>#j Jjiy ^ I^-j 
„«,X»-jl \They thould eat things above them and 
things beneath their feet] means, their means of 
subsistence should be made ample ; (Bet, TA ;) 
by the pouring of the blessings of the heaven and 
the earth upon them ; or by the abundance of the 
fruit of the trees, and the produce of the grains 
i; or by their being blessed with gardens 
of ripe frtaits, so that they should gather them 
from the upper part of each tree, and pick up 
what should have fallen upon the ground. (Bd.) 
— aX&I ^iai>\ [lit. His eating became cut off, 

• J * 
or slopped,] meana the died; [see also J^l;] 

and BO aX&I ^y^\ [lit. he completed his eatiTig]. 
(TA.)_I>^ j£>f [lit. He ate hit life,] means 
I he became extremely aged, and hit teeth fell out, 

one after another. (TA.) JjJJ\ Ji»l^ j*, 

and ^U)l>j^ ij^^ [He eats men, and eati 
the flesh of men,] means \he defames men f or 
does so in their absence : (TA :) and the action 
thus signified may be [with words, or by making 
signs] with the side of the mouth, and with the 
eye, and with the head. (TA in art j^.) It is 

said in the ^ur [xlix. 13], ^j' J,^ja 1 l,-^ J 

.., , fc 

14* Ae*-t .^ J^W [lit. Would any one of you 
like to eat the flesh of hit brother when dead ?] ; 
defamation, or defamadon of the absent, being 

meant thereby. (S,* Ibn-'Arafeh, Bd, Jel.) 

^^j ^J^ i3^' I [He ate the flesh of my jAeep, 
and drank the milk of them, means, like ,J^] 
JU, he ate, fed upon, devoured, or consuTned, 
my wealth, or property : see 8]. (TA.) __ 
>^-i»^» 'jCi\ .^i^l xThefire devoured, or con- 
sumed, the firewood. (S, Mgh.) _ «]Ubl cJi£»l 
ij\^!.»^\\ [The stones wore away his nmU], (TA.) 
_iyi V^t ^^ ^ jiyi ^[The 3 in J^, 
the ^^ has swallowed it up] ; because it is originally 
(_jjj).* : a phrase occurring in the 'Eyn. (TA.) 
^»j^ tj^i I He consumed his life. (Mgh.)^ 
It is said in s trad., (TA,) J&O 3^ oj^t 
^i^t t[-'^ have been commanded to have given 
unto me a tonm which shall devour the other 
towns] ; (^,TA ;) said to be Yethrib [afterwards 
called El-Medeeneh] ; (TAj) i. e., the people 
of which shall conquer the [other] towns and 
make spoil of their possessions : or it denotes the 
superior excellence of that town : and is like the 

-. . . L , . ., 
saying, .i^(3U.*JI J£>\i ^j— \M [This is a 

tradition which does away with, or overrules, the 
other traditions]. (Sgh .^, TA.)_j>e^l J^l 

^.^ill means 1 21ft« Ante's cu«iaffrte>!«*. (TA.) 
_ ^f^ ^^^l inf- »• *i^l ""d ^ll.l and JiM, 
I My 'head itched. (^, TA.) An Arab was 
heard to say, [as is often said in the present day,] 
^Jd^\i^J^XMy shin itches. (TA.)^JAI, 
aor. '■ , (?,) inf. n. Jfel, (TA,) J /( (a limb.'or 
member, [and a sore,] and a piece of stick, or 
wood,) became corroded or cankered, or decayed, 
by the mutual eating away of its several parts ; 
as also f ^,puJI [written with the disjunctive alif 

Ji:il],andtj*.0. (?,TA.) o^^'»=-J^', 

(S, Msb,^,) aor. and inf. n. as in the next pre- 
ceding sentence, (Mfb,) \The teeth rubbed together 
and wasted away ; by reason of age ; (S;) or fell 
out, one after another ; (Msb :) or broke in 
pieces, or became much broken .* (]^ :) and 
fwJl£»U signifies the same j (S, Mfb;) and so 
♦cJlC:iI. (§.) — iilJl -cJsJ, aor.-, inf.n. 
Jl^l, iThe she-camel experienced an itching 
and annoyance in /t«r belly, (^, O, ^,) from the 
growth of the hair, (§, 0,) or from the growth 
of the fur, i^,) of her foetus. (§,0,?:.) 

2. [aX&I, inf. n. J«£>I3, He made him to eat 
a thing.] ^ A^^ ^U J^F, (S, j^,) inf. n. as 
above, (5,) [lit He made people to eat my 
property, and made them to drink it,] means 
X he fed men, or Ike people, with my property, or 
cattle. (?,5,TA.)_4ji;j jLl^ jU Ji, 
(so in some copies of the ^ and in the TA,) or 
<.f>j\s 0^^ I (^ '" ^^ copies of the S and in 
a copy of the ^,) [of which the former is app. 
the right reading, as the lit meaning seems to be 
My cattle pasted the day made to eat and made 
to drink,] i. e., Xpasturing at they pleated. (S, 

I^,TA.) ,'^l aXI>I, inf.n. as above, xHe 

charged against him, or accused him of doing, the 
thing; as also tJcL&t, (^, TA,) inf. a. JiLl. 
(TA.) In [some of] the copies of the ^, for 
•Wjl, we here find, erroneously, t\Ai. (TA.) 
You say, J^T^ U ^y3&^ [ht Thou hast made 
me to eat what I have not eaten,] meaning Xthou 
hast charged against me, or accused me of doing, 
what I have not done ; as also t ^ji^JLfel. (^, 
TA.) So too, vj^O ^ (.j^S^I- ik ^d ^ in 
art vji-) 

8. ^f, inf. n. 3JA\^ (S, ^) and Jl4l , (]^,) 
He ate with him ; (^, %. ;) as also aX^Ij, though 
of weak authority ; (Ij^ ;) or this latter is not 
allowable. ($, Sgb.) ^^ h£a\^ which is for- 
bidden in a trad, b f A debtor's giving a thing to 
his creditor in order that he may abstain from 
taking the debt. (TA.) 

4. J^T, [inf. n. Jl^J,] said of the palm-tree, 
and of seed-produce, (S, ^,) and of anything, 
{S,) It had ripe fruit; it supplied food. (§,?!.) 

;^^l il&T, (8,5,) inf. n. as above, (§,) He 

gave him to eat the thing; he fed him with the 
thing. (S,* 5.) _ See also 2, in two places.^ 
JUII JfeT t He fed, orsupplied, the fire with fuel 

(S.) ^U1 ^ J&r, (A,K,) inf. n. as above, 

(S, O,) X ^e busied himself among the people 
with propagating calumnies ; (8, O, TA :) or he 
created, or excited, disagreement, distention, or 

72 J^t 

strife J among them; or made^ or did^ mischief [xiii. 36], Ji5t> yl^Dt [J<« fruit shall be />er- 

among them : (A, T A :) or he incited them^ one 

against another. (K.) U**/ J\^\, (S,) or 

U'Ji 0*:^ J^T, (?:, [in the ClS:, erroneously, 

a (?n«, (1^,) to have dominion, or authority , or 
power, over such a one. (S, l^,) 

a« » 

6. Jb^U : see 1, latter part, in two places : .. 
and see also 8. _ Also, said of a sword, (S, K,) 
and of silver (K, TA) molten, (TA,) and of 
lightning, and of collyrium, and of aloes, (K,) 
and of anything shiny, (T A,) I It shone, gleamed, 
or glistened, (S, K, TA,) much, or intensely; (K;) 
when said of a sword, lA/ reason of its sharpness. 
(§, TA.) 

8, JS^\ [with the disjunctive alif J^l] : see 

1, latter part, in two places, .i. JfiU JJiJj Ut 
Dost thou not, cease to eat our flesh, [i.e., to 
wound our reputations, (see 1,)] and to defame 
us? (Aboo-Nasr, TA.) But see below. ... cJLC::jt 

jUJI t Tf^ fvre flamed, or blazed, vehemently ; as 
though one part thereof devoured another, (TA.) 
_C^ JCJI, (¥,) or .^JJii\ ^, (S,) XlTe 
turned, or burned fiercely, with, or by reason of, 
anger. (S, 1^.) The phrase mentioned above, 
iJCU iLu3 Ut, is also cited as an ex. of this 
meaning. (S, TA.) You say likewise, dJu JiClSt 

J Se.was, or became, angry with him, and excited, 
or provoked, against him, (K, TA,) and vehement, 
or severe ; (TA 5) as also <lu t J^b. (5.) 

• 5 

10. pj^^iJt aJL^ULft t He asked, or begged, of 
him to assign to him the thing, or to make it be 
to him, as a means of subsistence, or a thing to be 

eaten. (K, TA.) i\Juuai\ J^ul^ I ITe takes 

(S,]^, TA') and devours (TA) the possessions of 
tlie weak ones. (S, El, TA.) 

J£^\ : see ji^l. 


J£9l inf. n. of Jibi [q. v.]. j£>« Ailwt ^ 

X In his teeth is a rubbing together and wasting 
away ; by reason of age. (S, TA.) 

J&>\ [partn. of j£>l] a£>f iJU f A she- 

camel experiencing an itching and annoyance in 
her belly, (S, 1^,) from the growth of the hair, 
(S,) or from the growth of the fur, (K,) of her 
foetus. (S, 1^.) .. [ J^^t is erroneously put, in 
the CK, for ;j£s!*^\, in a sense explained below.] 

ji>1 and t Ji>! • (§, Msb, 1^, &c. ;) the latter 
a contraction of the former ; (Msb ;) What is 

eaten ; (S, Mfb, TA ;) as also t li^t and t lii»t 
(Lh, TA) and t iJL£»U and t 1jl4u (Msb, 1^) 
and ^ J>^U ; (Lh, Msb ;) any eatable ; i. e. 
anything that is eaten ; (S ;) and t Jl^t signifies 
[the same, an eatahle, or] food. (S, TA.) You 

say of one who is dead, dJL^t sJbiLt [/& /oo£^ 
Aa< become cut off, or stopped: in the TA, iUL^t : 
see 1]. (S.) And t ^\a^\ ^3 ti J Aat?« not 
tasted food. (S, TA.) Fruit (S, K [in the 

J 9 s 

latter of which, in some copies, ji^^t is put for 
* 11, erroneously, as is said in the TA]) of palm- 

petunl] : (S, TA :) meaning that the fruits thereof 
shall be not as those of the present world, which 
come to one at one time and not at another. 
(TA.) [PI. Jl^f; occurring in the M and K in 
art. 351.] .. t Means of subsistence : (K :) worldly 
good fortune, (S,K,) and ample means of subsist- 
ence. (S.) You say, ji^l ^S ^J^ J Such a one 
is possessed of worldly good fortune, and ample 

means of subsistence : (S :) and J^^*^! j9t)^ 
\ possessed of [great"] good fortune; or of a [great 
and] good share of the means of subsistence. 
(TA.) _ I Thickness, substantialness, or closeness 
or compactness of texture, of a garment, or piece 
of cloth ; (S, K, TA ;) and strength thereof. (]gl.) 

You say J*^< ^3 ^y t ^ garment, or piece of 

J i J • X • 
cloth, having thickness, &c. : and J^t ^3 ^^j^ 

t paper having thickness, &c. (S, TA.) .— t /n- 
teUigence; judgment; (Aboo-Nasr, S, ]^ ;) firm- 
ness of intellect. (K, TA.) You say J»l ^i J^j 

X A man possessing intelligence and judgment. 
(Aboo-Nasr, S, TA.) 

» t 

\ A single act of eating /S, Mgh, Msb, K) 
until one is satisfied. (S.) Hence the saying. 

p*^ ^ ^ 

^ ^ * 

• t 

■ » J 

^UjOt^ i\jjd\ oUiL£»t ^UjOt, meaning That to 
which people are a^icustomed is two acts of eating, 
the eating of the morning-meal and that of the 

evening-m£al. (Mgh.) _ See also 2JL^t, in two 

9 J i 
places. -1^ And see J>^t, first sentence. 

2JL£»t A morsel, or smaU mouthful, of food. 
(S, Mgh, Msb, ]gL.) [For the pL, see below.] You 

say, Sjmm\^ 2JA\ wJL£»t / ate one morsel (S.) 

And SJ^\ Af^if J£>t f[IIe ate a morsel by 

^ ^ ^ 

means o/* defaming his brother] is said, in a trad., 
of a man who is on terms of brotherhood with 
another, and then goes to his enemy, and speaks 
of him in a manner not good, in order that he 
may give him a present for doing so. (TA.) 


• ^•j 

A small round cake of bread; syn, 

• J 9 ^ i 

a single ^jo^ : (Mgh :) pL J&t, as below. (TA.) 

See also ji>l Also f t. q. 1^ ; (S, \ ;) 

which is also syn. with ▼ ^UL^U ; (S, Msb, K, in 

art. j^do ;) i. e. An assigned, or appointed, means 

of subsistence ; such as a grant of a tract of land; 

and a tax, or portion of a tax or ta^es ; and tlie 

9 ^ » i 
like ; (Mgh in explanation of a^A^, and TA in 

explanation of the same and of ^U^U in art.^^a^ ;) 

and [it is also said that] t ^JL^U signifies a thing 
that is assigned, or appointed, or granted, to a 
man, so that he is not to be reckoned with, or 
called to account, for it : (TA in the present art. :) 
[thus it applies to any absolute grant, eitfier of 
land, (as an allodium, an appanage, ^r.,) or of 

revenue:] pi. J^l (1^) [and app. also Jl^l, 
which see below]. You say, JH 2d^\ i^^\ \JM 
This thing is a ^Uxb to thee, or for thee. (S.) ... 
See also I4£»f.^ Also, and t ix4t (S,Z, Sgh, 

K) and t ii4l, (Kr, 1^,) J Defamation ; or de- 
famation of the absent. (S, Z, Sgh, K.) You say. 

trees and other trees [&c.]. (S.) So in the Kur aJL^I ^Jj dj\ and t gxL\ (S, TA) and t aSA>\ 

[Book !« 

(TA) t Verily he is one who defames men; or, 
who does so in their absence. (S, TA.) 

^U^l A mode, or manner, (K,) or state, or 

condition, (S, K,) in which one eats : (S, T^ :•) like 

9 ^ p 9^0 

rt.m,li^ and 2L£»; : (S, TA :) and the posture of 

the eater, reclining or sitting. (TA.) You say, 
dX^Nt LjmmmJ dj\ [Verily he has a good mode, 

&c., of eating]. (S.)-.See also AJL£»t, last two 
sentences, .i. X The itch : or an itching : (S, 1^ :) 

as also t Jl^t, (As, S, K,) [see ,--lj ,jS£>^\, of 
which both are said to be inf. ns.,] and * aX^\ : 
(K :) so the last is written accord, to the correct 
copies of the K: accord, to £sh-Shih&b, in the 

Shifd el-Ghaleel, it would seem to be aX^I ; but 
this is at variance with the authority of the leading 

lexicologists: the same word, 2JA\, is also ex- 

plained in the K as signifying a disease in a limb, 

or member, in consequence of which one part is 

[as it were] eaten by another ; [a meaning which 

• ^ I 
I believe to be correct, (see Jl^l,) although SM 

says,] but this is identical with the itch, or an 

^9 " * t 
itching: and *^^|L^t is a vulgar term for the 

9* f 

same ; and so is ^ Ai£»t, with medd, given as 

correct by Eth-Tha'alibee, in [his book entitled] 
the Muddf and Mensoob, but disallowed by £1- 

Khaf&jee. (TA.) One says, ^^juL^ y^ !>^ ^\ 
dX^t X \y&iily I experience in my body an itch^ 

»'^-] (?•) 
9^ t «^ • 

aX£:>\ : see 20^1. 

9^ ^ i 9 J f. 

aX£:>\ : see J^\. 

9 ^ ' t 

9^ p 

O'^L^t : see aX^t. 

Jl^t : see J^^t, first and second sentences. 


Jl^t X A corrosion, or cankering, or decaying, 

of a limb, or member, [and of a sore,] from the 
mutual eating away of its several parts ; as also 

tjll^l. (K,TA.) [See also ijL^f, voce ii4l , 
where a similar meaning is assigned to the former 
of these two words ; and the same seems to be 

indicated in the Msb.] .i. See also another signifi- 

•^ » 9 * i ^ 

cation voce 2JL^t.«i. Jl^t l^, said of a she- 

camel, f She has an itching and annoyance in her 
belly, (S, K,) from the growth of the hair, (S,) 
or of tlie fur, (IJl,) of her foetus. (S, 1^.) 

Jl^l : see Jl£>1. 

J>i>l jLj and t a£>1 and t J^( all signify 

the same ; (£L ;) i. e. A man who eats much ; 
[who is a great eater; edacious; voracious;] as 

alsotjl|>1. (TA.) 

J^l One who eats with another. (S, TA.).. 

See also J^t: ...and see ^^S.^ml.q. t J^£»U 
' 9'^ t 

[as signifying Eaten]. (TA.) ..See also JJL^t. 

J t 

ii^\ A sheep, or goat, which is set apart (S, 
Msb, BL) to be eaten, (S, Mgh, IK,) [i. e.] to be 
slaughtered, (Msb,) and which is fattened, (S, 
Mgh,) and the tailing of which by the collector of 
the poor-rate is disapproved; (S;) not left to 
pasture by itself, being of the best of the beasts : 

(Mfb :) and ▼ aX^\ occurs in the same sense. 

Book I.] 

applied to a ^eep, or goat, &ttened to be eaten. 
(Mgb.) Hence the pror., 2^1 -^3 ^^ [!'*■ 
Patturage, and no <U^1] ; meaning f itwobA 
eoUet^ed together, and none esopended. (TA.)_ 
Also Barren; applied to a sheep or goat [app. 
because snch is generally eaten]. (^) 

tU^^I : see what next followa. 

ile&l and t J^t and t U^t, with two 
^ammeha, (^,) bo in the copies of the ^, but 
periutps a mistake for f U»l, (TA,) a word of a 
bad dial., (?:,* TA,) and t J^U and t J^l^, 
(^, TA, [in some copies of the former of which, 
instead of J£»l^lj J^WI) 2^^ ^> mean- 
ing, as is sud in the TA, i^^ U) /jky Sec., we 
find ^Ipli J^bl i^»' J^;,]) A #ft«p, or 
goat, whick t* Mf C^, TA) in the lurkinff'place of 
a kunter (TA)yor the purpote of catching thereby 

tkswoyand theUke. (I^.TA.) And the first 

two words, C^,) or &^ H^l, (?, Mgh, Msb,) 
A beoMt Khick hat been eaten, (^,*^,) or partly 
eaten, (Mgh, Msb,) by a beatt or bird of prey, 
0, Mgh, Mfb, ^,) attd then rescued from ii : 
(Mgfa, TA :) the # in ii^\ being added because 
&e quality of a sabst. is predominant in it. (1^.) 
,» See also £^l. 

Jl&' : see J^l. 

^:^ Bating; or an eater; as also ^ Jt^l: 
pi. ai&l. (9,5.) You say, ^^ ij^f^i [lit. 
3Vy o^ eaten o/* a A«uf| ; meaning t they are 
Jen; one head latitfying their ttomaehe. ($.)^ 
aJA\XPatturmgbeattM. (K, TA.)_,.«iJ]l ii&T 
tH^knife; (5tTA;) because it cuts the flesh : 
(TA:) andti^ ;KKM«f (t<^ or«ticA; (5>TA;) 
U being likened thereto : (TA :) and^re: (50 
and ttiAtpt ; (Sh, 5 because they bum the skin. 
(TA.),». j£>Sl, [in the C5, erronconsly, J^S*.] 
J ni« Ain^. (5, TA.) [Opposed to J^Wl, 
q. T.]_(^l j&T I[7%tf receiver of ttturyl: 
occurring in a trad., in which it is said, ^}&^ O'^ 
♦ iU&Iaj 1^1 t [The receiver of utury ie cursed, 
and'the giver thereof]. (TA.) 

al&T fern, of J&T, q. v See also 3SL\. 

^t&l [app. a pi. of pauc. of ^s^, q. v., and of 
^J^l, agreeably with analc^,] 1 The [grants 
termed] JfeU of kingsj (5;) their ,^ [pi. of 
l^, explained above, voce iii>t]. (TA.)_ 

tThe stipends of soldiers. (5-) Jl&^l jji, 

for which J has erroneously put Jl&'^l, [in the 
W (T?.50 without jji, (TA,) tTA* lords, or 
chiefs, of the tribes, mho tahe the s\^ [or fourth 
part qfthe spoil, which was the cbierg pordon in 
the time of ignoraDce] (S, TS, K, TA) ^c. (TA.) 

J^L, (B,) [in measure] like JljtL, (TA.) [an 
inf. D. of ^}£»^, q. V. ; — and also signifying] 
fioM. ($,TA.)_[Also A place, and a time, 
tf eating : pi. J&U.] 

y^3* t PoTlunate ; possessed of good fortune ; 
frosperovs. (Aboo-Sa'eed, 5,) 

ijjl) J^i* t [7Ti< ^t»w 0/ Ksmy : see JfcT, 
laet'sente'nce]. (TA.) 

al£>U and t al^U : see J&h^and for 
the former, see also JJ^I, in two places. _. 
Also, both words, i. q. ij^ [i. e. Com, or ani/ 
provision, which a man brings, or purveys, for 
himself or Ail family, or for sale], (5-) — Also 
used in the sense explained above, voce ,Jat, [as 
a Bubet.,] and likewise as an epithet, so that one 
says U&U Sl^ [as meaning A sheep, or goat, thai 
is eaten]. (^.^^Both words signify [also] A 
place mhenoe one eats. (9,0.)_[And hence] 
one says, aU>U u'-^ oi^l and ix&U t[J 
took for myself such a one tS a person from whom 
to obtain what to eat]. ($, 0.)_[The pi. is 
^)&U: of which see an ex. voce ^l^'O 

IL&U : see the paragraph next preceding, 

U£I« Anything in [i. e. out of] which one 
eaU: fLh,?:) or [b<mls of the kind called] 
^W^, (S,)ora [bowl of the hind called] 3jUo, 
(TA,) in which the tribe Jirtd it easy to cooh, 
(so in a copy of the ^ and in the TA,) or to put, 
(so in another copy of the S,)_fiesh-meat and [the 
hind of porridge called] t'j^: (§,TA:) or 
a borel not so large as a U^^, hut next to it 
in size, that satisfies the stomachs of two men, 
or three : (S voce Umms :) [or] a smaU [borvl 
of the kind caUed] 2»^, that satisfies the ttomachu 
of three : and a small [coohing^t suck as m 
called] i:ji. (5.) 

J^U : see Jf«£>l : and ^\ : — and 

iXt^\ t The ra&;«cU of a king. (Z,5,TA.) 

Hence the trad., \^X£>1 «>• j^ je*^ JjsU 
t Hie subjects of Himyer are better than their 
king, or ruler. (Z,'tA.) 

JlCiU A spoon : (5 because one eats with 
it. (TA.) 

J&1> : see ai^\ Also, [like ^ J^vul.^,] 

X One who takes and devours the possessions of 
men. (TA.) 

Jf"'^ ' : see what next precedes. 

2. ^is^U The being big in the JJJa [i. e. the 
hinder parts, or posteriors, also termed li^U]. 
(0, 5') You say, it^t C-i'^^l The woman was 
large in the Jii. (T?.)' 

10, _„^~^' -' /( (a place) became what are termed 
_^\, q. V. (5.):BtfLJL4-*^«£>U^t He (a man, 
TA)yow»rf his sitting.plaee to be plain, smooth, 
soft, or easy to sit upon. (5-) 

^,a^l : see what next follows. 
i^\ A hiU, or mound, syn. J5, (M;b,5,) 
[in an absolute sense, or] of what is termed ^Ji 
[q, v.], (5,) or, as in the M, (TA,) of a single 
collection of stones : or it is inferior to mountainx: 
or a place that is mora elevated than what is 


around it, and is rugged, not to the degree of 
being stone : (5 or an isolated mountain : 
(5 Toce J^:) or an eminence like what it 
termed 2^1,: a coUeetion of stones in one place, 
sometimet rugged and sometimet not rugged: 
(M;b :) or t. q. «ji, eaxept that the l^X it 
higher and greater ; (ISh, TA :) or what it 
higher than the %J3, con^ct and round, rising 
into the shy, abounding with stones t (TA ;) pi. 
oC^I (9, Mfb) and ^^1, [or this is rather 
a coll. gen. n. of which 1^1 is the n. on.,] ($, 
M^b,^,) andj;£»l, (5, TA,) or this is pi. of 
J^l, (9, Msb, TA,) and J4l, (5, TA,) or this 
is pi. ofjiiil, ($, Mfb.TA,) andJl^T [a pL 
of pane], g^,) or this is pi. of^l, (^rM^b, 
TA,) and ^^\ [wliich is also s pi. of pauc], 
(I J, 5,) or this is a pi. of^l : (TA ;) IHeh 
says that ^^\ is the only word like jl^ in its 
series of pis. ; for its sing, [or n. un.] is 1*^1, 
and the pi. of this [or the coll. gen. n.] isj^i, 
and the pi. of this is ^al , and the pi. of this 
is _j^^, and the pi. of this is >»t&l, and the pi. 
ofthisis^tfel[or^l,£»ljl?]. (MFinart._^.) It 
is said in a prov., used in ridiculing any one who 
has told of his committing some fault, not desiring 
to reveal it, tiSja ^ *^^1 »!;« uj*^^ ['" 
which I think the first word to be a mistranscrip- 
tion, for fJ^J^ , and the literal meaning to b«, 
Ve have come to me ; but behind the hUi is what 
it behind it] : related on the authority of Zeyd 
Ibn-Kethweh. (TA.) And one says, ^ J^ ^ 
2«^l, meaning t Publish not what it secret of 
thine affair. (TA.) 
^«^u and j^t» : see what next follows. 
l^L, (EI-F&r^bee,) or U£>U, (8,) or both, 
and tJ^L and ^^\^, (lAth, 5,) The hinder 
part, posteriors, buttocks, or rump, of a woman ; 
syn. ijt^^ : ($ <>'' ** portion of flesh on the 
head of tke 4)jj [or haunch] ; one of two such 
portions: (Zj in his " Khal^ el-Insan," and 5 
or these are two protiAerances of fiesh on the 
heads of the upper parts of the O^p [<>' 
haunches]; on the right and tefi : (TA:) or 
they are (too portions ofjlesk conjoining the Je^ 
[or buttocks] and tke O^^ t^' f^""* portions of 
flesh and sinem next the back-bone, on each 
tide]; (5iTA;) or, as in the Nh, cot^oining 
the >y.%ifc [or rump^hone] and tke 0*^— *= O' 
two portions of flesh at tke root of the L>^^ • 
(TA :) pi. ^U. (9, 5.) Lli mendons the 
s^yingj >^0' ^•Jf*' *»[ [ VerUy ke it big in 
tke kinder parts] ; as though they called every 
portion thereof^^U. (TA.) And one says in 
reviling a person, A^Ot >«*-l O^' ^> meaning 
O son of kirn mho is red in the sSju.. (TA.) 

1^3.* : see what follows. 
aU>l»^ [in the C5, erroneously, 1^1^] 
and f i^i^ She who it large in the o^^*^^ 




• < 

Jt 18 a particle of detennination : (Mnghnee 
&c. :) or, accord, to somei it is a conjanct noun, 
and this is the correct opinion ; bat some say it 
is a conjanct particle ; and some, a particle of 
determination : (I ' Alj;: p. 40 :) [it is equivalent to 

our article The;] as in J^t [The man] : (S and 
]^ in art. j^^^ and I ^A\ p. 48 :) accord, to Kh, 
[what is termed] the determinative is Jt [alto- 
gether, and therefore it is called by some ** the 
determinative alif and 1dm "] ; but accord, to Sb, 
it is the J alone ; [wherefore it is called by some, 
as in the § &c., '^ the 1dm of determination ;"] so 
that accord, to Kh, the hemzeh is a hemzeh of 
disjunction ; but accord, to Sb, it is a hemzeh of 
conjimction : (I 'A^ ubi suprii :) [J sajsj the 
J being quiescent, the conjunctive \ is prefixed to 
it in order that it may commence therewith ; but 
when it is conjoined with what precedes it, the ( is 

dropped, as in J>^^« (S in art. j»y.) Sometimes 
the Arabs suppress hemzeh after it; and sometimes 
they also suppress the t of the article itself: thus, 

for^i«*.*>)t, they say ^^«*Ji, and j,^mJ, (Zj, cited 
in TA in art. ^\.) In the dial, of some of the 
people of El-Yemen, (TA in art. j»t, q. v.,) or in 

the dial, of jlimyer, (TA in art ^^^^ j»t is 
used in the sense of Jt. (TA.)..Itis used to 
distinguish a noun as knoWn [to the hearer or 
reader in a particular and definite sense] : (Mugh- 
nee, I 'A^ ubi suprii:) first, by its being men- 
tioned [before] ; (Mughnee ;) as in [the words of 

• x* 

"• ^ •( 

the IBlur Ixxiii. 15 and 16,] ^jys^^ ^t UU 

J^yt O^J^ ^j"^^ *^>*0 [^^ ^ ^^ '^^^ ^^^0 
Pharaoh an apostle^ and Pharaoh disobeyed the 
apostle] ; (Mughnee, I 'A^ ;) in which case, the 
pronoun may supply the place which it and the 
noun that it accompanies occupies : secondly, by 
its being conceived in the mind ; as in [the ]^ur 

ix. 40,] jU)t ^^ Ca 3t [When they two were in 
the cave] : and thirdly, by its being applied to a 
thing present; and accord, to Ibn-'Osfoor, this 
does not occur except after nouns of indication, as 

in J4pt tjuL |^*V [This man Qxi. this, the 
many) came to me] ; or after ^t in calling, as in 

J^^ \d H [O m4in]\ or after t3t denoting a 
thing's happening suddenly, or unexpectedly, as 
in jk«i*>)t t3U c^ ^ [I went forth, and lo, there 
was the Hon] ; or after the noun denoting the 
present time, as ^•>)t [Now] : but this requires 
consideration ; for you say to the reviler of a man 

in your presence, J*>pt ^,«Z^ *>) [Revile not thou 
the fitan] ; and because that which is after t^t does 
not render determinate anything present at the 

time of speaking; and because that in ^*>)t is 
really redundant, being inseparable, which the 
determinative is never known to be: the good 
example in this case is the saying in the l^ur 

[▼• 6], jJ^> j^ CUJUfi>t j^^\ [This day I have 
completed for you your religion]. (Mughnee.) 
I.— It is also used to denote the species : first, to 
denote the totality of the individuals of the species; 

and this may have its place supplied by ji» used 
in its proper sense; (Mughnee, I 'A^* ubi supr^;) 

as in [the l^ur iv. 32,] U^f^ oLJNf jxi^ [For 


man was created weah] : secondly, to denote the 
totality of the properties of the individuals, or the 
combination of all those properties in one thing ; 
and this may have its place supplied by Js> used 
in a tropical sense; as in lj[^ J^t juj [Zeyd 
is the man in respect of knowledge; as though he 
combined in himself the knowledge of all the 
individuals of his species] ; i. e., he is the com- 
plete, or perfect, [or we would rather say, 
preeminent,] in knowledge; and hence, [in the 
I^UT ii. 1,] vUXJt iui [That u tlie hook, or 

scripture ; as though combining in itself the 
excellences of all other books or scriptures; or 
meaning that is preeminentiy the book, or scrip- 
ture] : and thircUy, <to denote the quiddity, or 
essence ; and this may not have its place supplied 
by J^ used either properly or tropically ; as in 
the saying, [in the Kur xxi. 31,] $t^t ^^ l;JL«fci^ 
L^ \S^ J^ [Aruf we have made of water 
(meaning, accord, to common opinion, sperma 
genitale,) everything living] ; or, accord, to some, 
it is used in this case to distinguish a thing as 
known [in a particular sense] by its being con- 
ceived in the mind. (Mughnee.) .. It is also 
used to denote predominance of application; as 
in li^^S [The city], meaning the city of the 
Apostie ; and ^^^^UiCJt [The hook], meaning the 
book of Seebaweyh : and in this case, it may not 
be suppressed, except when the noun is used 
vocatively, or when it is prefixed to another noun 
which it governs in the gen. case ; and in some 

anomalous instances, as in U)U9 ^^ t jJk [This 

is the star Capella, rising], originally J^^t. 
(I 'A^ p. 51.) [In a case of this kind, it is said 
in the Mughnee to be redundant ; but I Uiink it 
is clearly not so in any of the instances here 
mentioned, except the last; and this I would 
rather assign to a category yet to be noticed, in 
which Jt is certainly redundant, and, by nde, 
inseparable.] .i. It is also prefixed to a noun 
transferred from its original application to that of 
a proper name ; it being so prefixed to convey an 
allusion to the original signification ; and such 

noun being generally an epithet, as wjU.; but 
sometimes an inf. n., as AJsA ; and sometimes a 

• x J 

generic noun, as ^Uju ; so Uiat in any of these 
cases you may prefix Jt, saying OjUJt and 

J^AAJt and ^U«^t, with a view to the original 
signification; and you may suppress it, with a 
view to the actual state [which is that of a proper 
name] : for when you mean that a name of this 
kind is given as one ominous of good, you prefix 
the Jt in order to indicate this ; as when you say 
w>jUJt with a view to a person's being thus 
named to prognosticate that he will live and be a 
tiller, or cultivator ; but when you only consider 
it as a proper name, you do not prefix the Jt : 
thus the prefix Jt conveys a meaning not obtained 
without it ; and therefore it is not redundant, as 
some assert it to be. (I 'A^ p. 50.) [The author 
of the Mughnee is one of those who consider Jt 
redundant in Uiis case.] .i. It is in some cases 
redundant : and in some of these, it is inseparable ; 
as in [a proper name which cannot be used with a 
view to an original application from which it has 

[Book I. 

been trdnsferred to that of a proper name though 

it may have been so transferred, such as] w»>)t, 
which is the name of a certain idol that was at 
Mekkeh [so called because a man used to moisten 

i^y>» with clarified butter, for the pilgrims, at the 

place thereof] ; and, accord, to some, [as before 

mentioned,] in ^*>)t ; and in the conjunct nouns 

^JJt and its variations, accord, to those who hold 

that a noun of this kind is rendered determinate 
by its complement : in other cases, where it is 
redundant, it is separable ; and this is when it is 
prefixed to a proper name by poetic licence, as in 

^^\ OU^ for j^^\ OU^, a species of truffle ; or, 
accord, to Mbr, this is not a proper name, and 
the Jt is not redundant ; and when it is prefixed 

to a specificative, as m ^^JUt c%?Jg for t«Ju wmi^, 
accord, to the Baf rees, who hold, in opposition to 
the Koofees, that the specificative may only be 
indeterminate ; (I 'A]|p p. 49 ;) [and, in like man- 
ner, as redundant and separable,] it is irregularly 

prefixed [by poetic licence] in ^jm^^jiS [q. v.], 

when it is left in its original form with kesr. 
(T.) .1. Accord, to the Koofees, and some of the 
Baf rees, and many of the later authors, it may 
also supply the place of the affixed pronoun ; and 
such they hold to be the case in the saying in the 

]g:ur [Ixxix. 41], i^S^T/jk IujT oli [Verily 
Paradise, it shall he his place of abode] ; and in 
4i^yt ^>«»- J*^ ^J>* [^ pa^ssed^ by a man 
heautiful in his face] ; and ^jLui\^ jy^^ ^j V>^ 


[Zeyd was heaten, his back and his belly] ; when 
dMf.^\ and jyiiJt and i>kJt &re thus in the nom. 
case : but those who deny its being used in this 
manner hold that d) is to be understood in the 
verse of the Kur, and 4JU in the other examples : 
and Ibn-Mdlik restricts the licence to cases not 
including the jUL« [or complement of Jt used in 
the manner which is here next to be explained]. 
(Mughnee.) .. It is also a conjunct noun in the 

sense of ^JJt and its variations ; and as such is 
prefixed to an act. part, n., and to a pass, part n., 
and, as some say, to a simple epithet ; (Mughnee, 

and I 'Ak p. 43 ;) as y^j^S [which is equivalent 
to «r>^ L^^Hy ^^^ V^/"^^^ [which is equivalent 

to vj-^ L^JJI]* and dii-yt o-l^t : (I 'h\\) but 
this last is not to be regarded, as it cannot be 
rendered by means of a verb. (Mughnee.) As 
such, also, it is sometimes prefixed to an adverbial 
noun, (Mughnee and I 'Ak,) extraordinarily ; 
(I 'A^ ;) as in the saying. 

• ^ ^ 

" ' * 

[Whoso ceases not to he grateful, or thankful, for 
what is with him, or what he has, he is worthy of 
a state of life such as is attended with plenty.] 
(Mughnee and I *A\.) As such it is also some- 
times prefixed to a nominal proposition ; as in the 

i^ 4Si\ j^yt y^\ 

f* ^ ^ 

" J," •^*' •j^ 

a*. ^ v«J <^^ij^ 

[Of the people of wlwm is the apostle of Ood, of 
those to whom the necks of tlie sons of Ma'add 

300K I.] 

have became ahaeed], (Mughnee and I 'A^) 
And as such it is also sometimes prefixed to a 
yerbal proposition^ of which the verb is an aor. ; 
which shows that it is not [in this case] a particle 
of determination; (Mughnee;) as in the phrase, 

^J^t ^C^l O^ [The voice of the, ass that 

has his eavy or ears, cut off]. (T and Mughnee.) 
But all these three cases are peculiar to poetry ; 
contrary to the opinion of Akh, and, with respect 
to the last case, to that of Ibn-M&lik. (Mughnee.) 
[Respecting the last instance, see also art. pjm^.] 

Another instance of its usage prefixed in this sense 
to an aor. is the sa3ring, 

jj" J J 


<^ • 

[Thou art not the judge whose judgment is ap- 
proved] ; (lAmb, T, I ' A^^ ;) a saying of El- 
Farezda^ : (lAmb, T :) it is an extraordinary 
case ; (I 'AJf. ;) and is [said to be] an instance of 
a bad poetic license, the like of which in prose, 
would be an error by common consent. (Expos, 
of the Shudhoor edh-Dhahab.) In like manner, 

one says, accord, to AZ, ^X,(^Ja^\ tjjk, meaning 
This is he mho beats thee; and il^|Ji^t c^tj I 

saw him who beats thee; and jjtm.U ^^^ IJuk 

This is what is appropriated to poetry. (T : [in 
which this last ex. is perhaps intended to intimate 
that the prefixing of Jt in this manner to a verb 
is allowable only in poetry.]) .i. The Arabs also 

* J 

^ • t 

meamngj^U^i ^\ 0^jS'\^j^\ji q\ ^j^ 

[He is more strongly fortified^ or protected 
against attach, than that he will be sought, or 
desired, and he is more mighty than that he will 
be injured; i. e., too strongly fortified, or pro- 
tected against attach, to be sought, or desired, 
and too mighty to be injured: see ^>«.] (TA in 

art.j»J. [But r^irfifclt is there erroneously put 

fi>r v>e«Aa^t.])^ Among strange usages, is that 

of jU'an^ interrogative, mentioned by^lfr; as 

in cJUi J1 in the sense of cJUi Ja [Didst thou 
do? OT hast thou done?]. (Mughnee.) 

iJI Anything which has a quality requiring 
it to be regarded as sacred, or inviolable ; which 
has some right pertaining to it : and thus used 
in particular senses here following. (R, TA.) _ 
Relationship; or nearness with respect to hindred; 

(Fr, T, §, M, R, 5 ;) as also t|jl , (Fr, T, K,) of 
which the pi. is jJl. (Bl.) So in the Kur [ix. 8], 

•9jJl^ ^^ji ^ (Fr,T) They will not regard^ 
with respect to you, relationship ; (Bd, Jel ;) 
accord, to some. (Bd.) And so in a trad, of 

S J ^ A^^ <r ft ^ J J ^ 

'Alee, JNt ^-^Bju^ j^\ Oy^ l^^ ^ unfaithful 
to the covenant, and cuts the tie of relationship]. 
(TA.) 9assdn Ibn-Th&bit says. 



-» J ft ^x 

^*A t^ ft ftfi 

* ^ ^ «> X • 

iri " 

[JSy thy life, thy relationship to Kureysh is like 
the relationship of the young camel to the young 
of the ostrich]. (S.) .i*. Oood origin. (T^.) So, 
accord, to some, in a saying of Aboo-Bekr, which 

•ee below. (TA.) ... I. q. O^^f (¥0 ^^ O J^ 
[as meaning A place, or person, whence 

a thing, or person, originates, free from imper- 
fection, or from everything that would induce 
doubt or suspicion or evU opinion]. (El-Muarrij, 
TA : [in which the yerse of Hass&n cited above 
is given as an ef. of this signification.])...^ 
compact, or covenant; or one by which a person 

becomes responsible for the safety, or safs-heeping, 

ft ft ^ 
of a person or thing ; syn. j^^ : (AO, Aboo-Is- 

l^d^, T,$, M, R,]^:) a confederacy, or league; 
syn. «Ju». ; ( Aboo-Is-^d^, T, M, K ;) and so, 
accord, to some, in the ]^ur ubi supr&: (Bd:) 

a covenant between two parties by which either 

ft «'j 
is bound to protect the other; syn. j\y^ : (Aboo- 

Is-hd^, T, R:) a promise, or an assurance, of 

security or safety; or indemnity; syn. \jlU\; 
(T^ ;) a meaning which it has, accord, to some, 
in the verse of the ^ur cited above. (TA.) 

Hence, JSl ^J^ AfulfUler, performer, or heeper, 
of the compact, or covenant. (TA, from a trad.) 
^^ Lordship; syn. ^yij* (M,]^.) So in the 
l^ur ubi 8upr&, accord, to some. (Bd.) And so 
in the saying of Aboo-Bekr, above referred to, 
when he heard the rhyming prose of Museylimeh, 

J1 !>• gyii^ jj^ y^ 1 JJk [TUs is language 

which did not proceed from lordship] : so ex- 
plained by A'Obeyd : (Suh, TA :) or it has here 
another signification, mentioned before ; the mean- 
ing being, which did not come from the origin 
whence came the Kur-dn : or, accord, to some, it 
has here the signification next following. (TA.).. 

Revelation, or inspiration. {J^, TA.).. JNt also 
signifies Ood: [like the word 7M> or rather 

7Mn> as used in Hebrew:] (T, §, M,]?^:) so 
say Muj&hid and Esh-Shaabee: (T:) and so 
it is said to signify in the verse of the ]^ur 
cited above : (T, TA :) [and so it seems 
to signify in the saying of Aboo-Bekr, also 
cited above, accord, to the M :] but Aboo-Is- 
hd^ disallows this; and so does Suh, in the 
R. (TA.) Ibn-El-Kelbee says, (M,) when 

Jt ends any name, it has this meaning, and is 
the complement of a prefixed noun ; and so Jjt ; 

(M, Ij: ;) as in JSj^ [and J^^ &c.] ; and 
so say most of the learned : (TA :) but this is 

not a valid assertion ; for were it so, ^t^^ and 
the like would be perfectly decl. : (M :) some 
say that these names are constructed inversely, 
after the manner of the language of the 'Ajam ; 
Jl and J>jt meaning servant, and the first part 

of the name being a name of God. (Suh, TA.) 

ft ft ^ 
^m I. q. ^jomJ^ [used in a pi. sense]. (Mughnee 

in art. ^\. [See what is said to be an ex. of 
this meaning in a verse of Dhu-r-Rummeh cited 
in art. *^\ in the present work.]) ..[It is said 

that] J1 is also syn. withj^ [A neighbour ; &c.]. 
(1^ : [and so, accord, to the T A, in the M ; but 
I have consulted the M without finding this 
explanation, and think it to be probably a mis- 
transcription for j^y^y (see above,) as in the T 
and R.]) 


jJI yA A thing, or an affair, relating, or 

attributable, to JSt, meaning either Ood, or 
revelation or inspiration. (TA.) 






*>)1 [in its primitive acceptation, being composed 
of the interrogative hemzeh and the negative ^),] 
denotes an interrogation respecting a negativei 
as in the saying [of the poet]. 

ft ^ ^i 

• ^ ^ ."-' ftp *^ * ". ^. • *• "• 

\^t J." 


[Is there not any patience belonging to SelmA, 
or has she hardiness, when I experience what 
persons like me have experienced ?] : (MughneOi 
]^:) and when used in this manner, it is put 
before a nominal proposition only, and governs 
like the negative *>) [when used without the 
interrogative hemzeh]. (Mughnee.) ... It also 
denotes a wish ; as in the saying [of the poet], 

J J J J 9 

y ft J 

fix «r ft J ,t 

[May there not be a life which has declined 
wliereof the returning is possible, so that it may 
repair what the hand of negligences hath marred?] ; 

for which reason ^\jj is mansoob, because it is 
the complement of a wish, coupled with sJ : and 
used in this manner, also, it is put before a 
nominal proposition only, [^^ in the verse 
above being a qualificative, like an epithet,] and 
it governs like the negative ^ [without the in- 
terrogative hemzeh], and has no enunciative 
either expressed or understood. (Mughnee.)... 
It also denotes reproof, or reproach, (T, Mughnee, 
El,) and disapproval; as in the saying [of the 

jj^ ^ ft •8<' ft <* 


^x 0«« xg 

ft *^r*^ 

jxx » * • * 

[Is there no self-restraint to him whose youth 
hath declined, and announced hoariness, after 
which is to follow decrepitude ?] : (Mughnee, 
K:) and used in this manner, also, it is put 
before a nominal proposition only, and governs 
as in the cases mentioned above, (Mughnee,) or 
before a verb [also], which is always marfoo§t ; 

as in the phrases iUUi jJ^ j^jJ3 *^\ [Dost not 

thou repent of thine actions?] and ^mln3 *^\ 

«^|/«<^ v>« [Art not thou ashamed for thyself. 

or of thyself, with respect to thy neighbours?] 

and ii^j %JUJ *^\ [Dost not thou fear thy Lord ?]. 

(T.) It also denotes Ja^, (T,) or J^^t, 

and ^jot'om^), both of which signify the asking, 

or requiring, a thing ; (Mughnee, 5 >*) ^^^ ^^ 
former means the doing so with gentieness; 
(Mughnee, l^L ;) and the latter, the doing so 
with urgency: (Mughnee:) and when used in 
this manner, [also,] it is said to be composed of 
*^ with the interrogative hemzeh ; (TA ;) and 
is put before a verbal proposition only ; (Mugh- 
nee;) as in the saying [in the Slur xxiv. 22], 

#j^j|^yftxft(«'ij';( - 

^ 4b\ jk^i o' 03^ "^^ [-^^ ^^^ y^f ®^ where- 
fore do not ye, (see Ut,) like that Ood should 
forgive you ?] (Mughnee, ^,) and [in the same, 
ix. 13,] ^M \^ Uy O^yS ^\ [WiU not 
ye, or wherefore wiU not ye, fight a people who 
have broken their oaths ?] ; (Mughnee ;) or 



before a mejzoom or marfoo^ aor., both of these 
formB being mentioned on the authority of the 

Arabs, as in J^O J^ ^\ and ji>U Jp *j\ 

[Wilt not thou, or wherefore wilt not thou, alight 
and eat?]. (KsyT.)«i.It is also an inceptiye 
particle, (ip, Mughnee, 1^,) of which those who 
parse show the place but neglect the meaning, 
(Mughnee,) used to give notice of something 
about to be said, [like as Now, and why, (by 
the former of which I think it is generally best 
rendered when thus used,) are often employed 
in our language, and like as i\\a (which is 
remarkable for its near agreement with it in 
sound) is often used in Greek,] (1^, Mughnee, 1^,) 
and importing averment, because it is composed 
of the interrogative hemzeh and the negative *>), 
which, when thus coniposed, have this import, 

(Mughnee, IgL,) like J^\, and ^^1, because the 
interrogative particle resembles the particle of 
negation, and the negation of a negation is an 

affirmation, (Ham p. 589,) and like Ut before 
an oath : (Z, Mughnee :) [it may therefore be 
further rendered by our word mrely; for this 
word (as Dr. Johnson says in his Dictionary) 
^'is often used rather to intend and strengthen 
the meaning of the sentence, than with any 
distinct and explicable meaning :''] or it signifies 

U*- {verily, or truly'] : (M voce Ut :) it is put 
before both the [kinds of] propositions, [the 
nominal and the verbal;] (Mughnee;) as in 

the saying [in the Ig^ur ii. 12], i\^uS\ ^ ^\ "^S 
[meaning Now surely it is they who are the 
Ughtwitted], (Mughnee, ]^,) and [in the same, 

»• 11*] jfT^ ^^ir^ u^ >^^ -^^ "^^ [meaning 
Now surely, on the day of its coming to them, 
it shall not be averted from them], (Mughnee,) 

m which j^yt^ j^(^ appears to be the object 

■^ " ^ ^ • -» 
of government of \i^i^ta^, which is the enuncia- 

tive of ijm^ ; whence it has been argued that, 
as the object of government of the enunciative 
of ^jm^ precedes that verb, the enunciative itself 
may precede it : (I *A\ pp. 74 and 75 :) [J says,] 

you say, ^^U. t jl»j ^^^1 •>>! \Now surely Zeyd is 

going forth], like as you say, m.j\L \j^ IjS ^jUl 
{Know thou that Zeyd is going forth] : (S :) 

Ks says, *^\ is used to give notice of what is 
about to be said, and is followed by a command 

and a prohibition and an enunciation, as in ^ *^7 
[Now stand thou], andj^ ^ ^\ [Now stand 
not thou], and j^3 jS \jjj ^\ •>>! [Now surely 
Zeyd has stood, or hcis just now stood], (T.) 

When it is put before the particle [l^i] used to 
give notice of what is about to be said, it is 
merely an inceptive, as in the saying [of the 

[Now he thou free from evil, O abode of Meiyd, 
during wear and tear]. (AAF, M,) _ Lth says, 

sometimes ^\ is immediately followed by another 
^ ; and he cites the following ex. : 

[2%en he hegan to drive amay the peoph from ia, 


saying, Now is there no way to Hind?] : and 
one says to a man, ^' Did smdi and such things 

happen?" and he answers, ^ ^\ [Why no]: 
he holds *>)t to be used to give notice of what 
is about to be said, and *>) to baa negative. (T.) 

"^S and ^^\, and S\ &c. : see aii. ^\. 


• " 

*^l is a particle denoting sj^^iixm T\ ; (Mfb in 
art. sjom., Mughnee, 15^ ;) i. e., when followed by 
a future, exciting to an action, and seeking or 
desiring or demanding the performance of it ; 
and when followed by a preterite, reproof for not 

doing a thing ; (Msb ubi suprii ;) syn. with ^ ; 
(T, TA ;) and peculiar to enunciative verbal pro- 
positions, (Mughnee, 1^,) like the other particles 
used for the same purpose. (Mughnee.) You 

^ay, [1 j^ Jju5 *^t Wherefore wiU not thou do 
such a thing? and] li£> cAii •^ [Wherefore 
didst not thou such a thing?] (T, TA,) meaning, 
(TA,) or as though meaning, (T,) 1 ji» s^^^- 
(T, TA.)aBlt also means •>) ^j ; the ^ being 

incorporated into the J, which is written with 
teshdeed : (T, TA :) in which case, it is not to be 
confounded with the foregoing particle. (Mugh- 

nee.) You say, ^t3 y)*H ^^ ^j^\ [I commanded 
him that he should not do that] ; and you may 

say, J)\^ JjU^ *>) ^;^l a3j^\ : it occurs m the old 
copies of the ^ur written in the former manner 
in some places, and in the latter manner in other 
places. (T, TA.) In the saying in the l^ur 

[xxvii. 31], ^^^ tyju *^\, [which may mean That 
ye exalt not yourselves against me, or exalt ye not 
yourselves against me,] it may be a compound of 

^t governing a mansoob aor. and the negative *>), 

or of the explicative ^\ and the prohibitive •>>. 
(Mughnee.) [It often has J prefixed to it, forming 

the compound ^jSJ, which signifies That, or in 
order that, . . . not ; and may fi^quently be 
rendered by lest; as in the Skur ii. 145, O^ >^ 
3jfci^ j^i^ i^wJ That, or in order that, there 
mxiy not he, or lest there should he, to men, 
against you, any allegation.] 

y\, [regarded as a simple word,] not to be 

confounded with the compound of the conditional 
^\ and the negative *>), (Mughnee at the end of 
the article on this word,) is used in four manners. 
(The same in the beginning of the art.) First, 
(Mughnee,) it is used (as a particle, S, Msb,) to 
denote exception ; [meaning Excerpt, save, or 
saving; and sometimes hut; and sometimes hut 
not ; as will be seen below ;] (T, S, Msb, Mugh- 
nee, Sk ; [in which last it is mentioned in art. Jt, 
and again, as in the S, in the last division of 
the work ;]) and to denote exception, it is used 
in five manners ; after an affirmation, and a 
negation, and a portion of a sentence devoid of 
the mention of that from which the exception is 
made, and when the thing excepted precedes that 
ftt)m which the exception is made, and when these 
two are disunited in kind, in which last case it 

has the meaning of ^jS^ [hut when the sentence 
is negative, and hut not when the sentence is 

affirmative]. (S, TA.) You say, t^' "jl J^l jiu 
[The people, or company of men^ stoodj except 

[Book I. 

^^J]; i.e., Zeyd was not included in the pre- 
dicament o£ the people, or company of men: 
(Mfb:) and it is said in the l^ur [ii. 250], (T,) 
JJ^ %)3 ^\ aI« \^jli [And they dranh of it, 
except a few of them] : (T, Mughnee, 5 here 
yitJl5 is governed in the accus. case by ^\, (Mugh- 
nee, K,) accord, to the most correct opinion : 
(Mughnee :) accord, to Th, it is so because there 
is no negation in the beginning of the sentence. 
(T.j) And it is also said in the ^ur [iv. 69], (T,) 
j^ Aji ^\ o^JUi U [They had not done it, or 
they would not do it, except a few of them] : (T, 
Mughnee, 1^ :) here JtJU is in the nom. case as 
being a partial substitute, (Mughnee, l?^,) accord, 
to the Baf rees, (Mughnee,) i. e., as being a 
[partial] substitute for the [pronoun] ^ [in «>Xjii], 
for it may here be so without perversion of the 
meaning, whereas it cannot be so without such 
perversion when the sentence is affirmative : 

(TA :) accord, to the Koofees, •^Jl is a conjunction, 
like the conjunctive •>> : (Mughnee :) accord, to 
Th, J^ is here in the nom. case because the 
sentence commences with a negative : (T :) or in 
a sentence [like this,] which is not affirmative, in 
which the thing excepted is united in kind to that 
from which the exception is made, accord, to the 
opinion which is generally preferred and which 
commonly obtains, the noun signifying the thing 
excepted is a substitute for the noun signifying 
that from which the exception is made ; but it is 
allowable to put it in the accus. case according to 
the general rule respecting exception ; so that one 

says, juj *)\ jk».t j»U U and 1 juj ^\^ [There stood 
not any one, except Zeyd] : and the same is the 
case in a prohibitive sentence ; as in j^^t j^ ^ 
jLij *9t and t juj *^t [Let not any one stand, except 
Zeyd]; and in an interrogative sentence; as in 

jjj "^l jk^l jil3 ji and Ijuj •^l [Did any one stand, 
except Zeyd?] ; when, in such sentences, the thing 
excepted is united in kind to that from which the 
exception is made. (I 'A]|^ p. 162.) You say also, 

jjj ^\ iy»V»- U [There came not to me any, save 
Zeyd], without mentioning that from which the 
exception is made ; (TA ;) and t juj ^\ CU^ U 
[I heat not any, save Zeyd] ; and jl»>^ '>J1 ^jj^ ^ 
[I passed not by any, save hy Zeyd] ; (I 'Alf 
p. 164 ;) the case of the noun signifying the thing 

excepted being the same as if ^\ were not men- 
tioned : (I 'Aj^ ubi 6upr&, and TA :♦) but you 
may not say, affirmatively, t j^ *>)t wy>^9 or the 
like. (I 'Ak ubi supr^.) When the thing excepted 
precedes that from which the exception is made, 
if the sentence is affirmative, the noun signifying 
the former must be in the accus. case; as* in 

>yUt Ij^j '^1 >V3 [Except Zeyd, the people, or 
company of men, stood] : and so, accord, to the 
usage generally preferred, when the sentence is 

not affirmative ; as in>»yUt tjuj *^\ >l9 U [Except 
Zeyd, the people, or company of men, stood not] ; 
but recorded instances allow one's saying also, 

^yd\ JJj •^l >li U. (I 'A^ p. 163.) When the 
thing excepted is disunited in kind from that from 
which the exception is made, if tlie sentence is 
affirmative, the noun signifying the former must 

likewise bo in the accus. case ; as in *>)t j»yU1 j»U 
[Tlie people, or company of men, stood, hut 

Book I.] 

m>t an om], snd ljU» I?) >^1 Cy;.^ [I beat tht 
poopU, but not an au], kc. : (I 'A^ p. 162 :) and 
■o, ftCGOid. to the generality of the Arabs, when 
the Mntence ie negative; as in tjU*- V^ >^t >^ ^ 
[Uu people stood not, but an om] ; (I 'A^' p. 163;) 
and tjU»> "jt Jt^l *^|] ^ il taw not the people, 
but an a«] ; "^t being here ayn. with ^JSii ; as 
alio in the ^ur [xlii. 22], where it Ib eaid, 

t^W? ''>3^ "^l 'J*' 4ii^U ^ [I aek 
not of yon a recompenie for it, but affection in 
retpect ofrelationthip} ; (M(b j) and in the same 
jtx. 1 and 2, Sybjh ^J ^J^ ,^'ijai' jj^i tJjjl U 
[We have not lerU doton unto thee the Kur^n 
that thou ihouldett euffer fatigue, biU a* an 
adnonitionl; (Bd, Jel;) or it is here eyn. with 
^ [which in this case means the same as ^^£1] : 
(§:) so, too, when the sentence resembles a 
negative, beingprohibitiTe orinterrogaUTe; (I 'A^ 
p.163, explained in p. 1^0 [thus, Jijill vj^'^J 
ljl«fc "^ means Beat not thou the people, but an 
an'; and] -Jl l^WJ \^ 1^\ X^ cJl£> S>U 
\^^ji^ [in the ^ar x. 98] means And mhere- 
fore did not any inhabitants of a town believe, 
before the punishment befell them, and their 
belief profit them, but the people of Jonat? for 
these were different from the former. (T.) When 
yt IB repeated fw the purpose of corroboration, it 
has no effect upon what follows it, except that of 
corroborating the first exception ; as in djj^ U 
^c4>t "SN J^ "^ ^M'h [I patted not by any one, 
txcept Zeyd, except thy brother], in which Jil«^t 
is a substitute for j^^, for it is as though you said, 
<^^l ■I'O "31 J>*-v >^jj-* 1^ > and as ia jL^ill >li 
\j^ Vt J Ij^ *yl [7%« people ttood, except Zeyd, 
and eaxept 'Amr], originally |/««j \J4j "^t. When 
the repetition is not for that purpose, if the sen- 
tence is devoid of the mention of that from which 
the exception is made, you make the governing 
word [which is the verb] to affect one, whichever 
you please, of the nouns signifying the things 
excepted, and pat the others in the accus. case, 
so that you say, 1>^ -^Ij lj^ -^l ^j -^I^l* U 
[l^ere ttood not any, tave Zeyd, tave 'Amr, tave 
Sekr] J but if the sentence is not devoid of the 
mention of that from which the exception is made, 
different rules are observed accord, as the things 
excepted aro mentioned before that from which 
the exception is made or after it: in the former 
case, all must be put in the accus., whether the 
sentence be affirmative or not affirmative ; as in 
J^l ijii -ll tjii -jj lij S'l iU [Except Zeyd, 
except 'Amr, except Bekr, the people ttood], and 
Jain l>5 "^1 b^ 4l 'J^' •§[ >ia U [Except Zeyd, 
except 'Amr, except Behr, the people ttood not} : 
in the latter case, when the sentence ia affirmative, 
•11 must likewise be put in the accns., so that you 
■ay, !>C "§1 1>U "^t iJyj "It ^i*JI jia [The people 
ttood, except Zeyd, except 'Amr, except Bekr]; 
bat when the sentence is not affirmative, the same 
rale is observed with respect to one of them as 
iriien the exception is not repeated, accord, to the 
naage geoeially preferred, or it may be put in the 
■ecus., which is rarely done, and the rest must be 

put in the accus., so that you say, *9t .^^jii U 
ij^' 4\ \f^ "Ij J^J [There ttood not any one, 
except Zeyd, except 'Amr, except Bekr, accord, 
to the more approved usage], ji^j being a sub- 
stitute for j^l, or you may make the other 
uounB which remun to be substitutes. (I 'A^ 
pp. 164—1660 — Secondly, (Mughnee,) it is 
used as a qualificative, (S, Msb, Mughnee, ^,) 
in the manner of ^, (Mughnee, ^,) [i, e.] 
in the place of jg^, (§,) [i. e.] as tyn, with j^, 
(T, Mfb,) and ^^ ; (T ;) [both meaning the 
same, i. e. Other than; or not, as used before a 
subst. or an adjective ;] but its primary application 
is to denote exception, and its use as a qualificative 
is adventitious ; whereas the primary application 
of jgfc is as a qualificative, and its use to denote 
exception is adventitious. (S.) It [generally] 
follows an indeterminate, unrestricted pi.; (M;b;) 
or an indeterminate pi., or the like thereof, is 
qualified by it and by that which follows it; 
(Mughnee,^;) the noun which follows it being 
put in the same case as djat which precedes it 
(^.) The following is an ex. of the indeterminate 
pi. ; (Mughnee, ? :) ''" '^l **Jl W O^ $ 
^j-Jii [If there had been in tltem (namely the 
heavens and the earth) deitiet other than God, or 
not Qod, atturedly they mould have become in a 
ttate of disorder, or rain; occurring in the ^i"" 
ixi. 22] ; (Fr, T, §, M^b, Mughnee, 1^ ;) •^\ here 
meaning j^j»., (Fr,T,)or j^, (Msb,TA,) and 
M-^\ being a qualificative ofV>^- (^A.) And 
the following is an ex. of the like of an indeter- 
minate pi. : 

* ij^ ijy i^ c-«)U o^l * 

[She (the camel) wat made to lie down, and tkrete 
her breatt upon a tract of ground in which were 
few toundt other than her broken yearning cry 
for her young one] ; for the determination of 
Olji^'jl [by the article ^1] is generical : (Mugh- 
nee, ^ :) this verse is by Dhu-r-Rummeh. (B in 
art. jl/J) The following is an ex, of Uie like of a 
pi. : (Mughnee :) it is by Lebeed ; (T :) 

[If it had been other than I, (O) Saleymd, to- 
day, the befalling of mitfortunei n>ould have 
altered him; other than the sharp tteord dicertified 
with wavy markt or ttreakt or grain, or of which 
the edge it of iteel and the middle of the broad 
tide of toft iron'\. (T, Mughnee. [Bat in the 
latter, in the place of jty^\, I find jmJI, i. e. 
ever.]') What 8b says necessarily implies its not 
being a condition that the word qualified must be 
a pi. or the like thereof; for he gives as an ex., 
U^iU M} 4\ J^j li^ O^ V [If there had been 
with US a man other than Zeyd, we thould have 
been overcome']. (Mughnee.) Another ex. of the 
«me usage of "^ll is the following; '^t ^^t l^'^ 
ji^j [The people came to me, others than Zeyd, or 
not Zeyd]. (S.) [And l^ ^' "^t^i U Te 
are no other than human beings like us. (T$.nT 
xxxvi. 14.)] And the saying [in the ^ur xliv. fi6]. 

not taste therein death, other than the first d^ith] ; 
"jt here meaning i^^x : (T :) or, accord, to some> 
it here means Jj^ [after], (Jel.) And the saying 
of 'Amr Ibn-Mafdee-kerib, 

[And every brother, his brother forsakes him, or 
separates himse^ from him, by the life of thy 
father, other than the Far^addn ; which is the 
name of the two stars yS and t of Ursa Minor] ; 
as though he sud i^j3^l ji^ : (S :) but Ibn- 
£1-I^&jib regards this instance as a deviation from 
a general rule ; for he makes it a condition of the 
use of "91 as a qualificative that it must be impos- 
sible to use it for the purpose of denoting excep* 
tion : (Mughnee :) Pr says that this verse has the 
meaning of a n^ation, and therefore "^1 here 
governs the nom. case ; as though the poet said, 
There is not any one but his brother forsakes him, 
except the Far|^&n. (T.) When it is used as a 
qualificative, it differs from ^ inasmuch as diat 
the noun qualified by it may not be suppressed ; 
so that one may not say, j^j "^1 i«'*V' [meaning 
7%ere came to me not Zeyd] ; whereas one says, 
jijj j^ hj'*V '■ and, accord, to some, in this also; 
thai it may not be used as such unless it may be used 
to denote exception ; so that one may say, t^jM 
ifih ^1 Jt/^ji i^ ^^^ o dirhem, not a ddnii], 
because one may say Uub ^J [except a d4nih] ; 
but not jie^ ^1 [not a good one], because one 
may not say 1j>«^ '^\ [except a good one] ; but 
it may be said that this is at variance with what 
they assert respecting the phrase 3^\ Crd O^ V > 
and with the ex. given by Sb, and with the saying 
of Ibn-El-^&jib mentioned above. (Mughnee.) 
.Thirdly, (Mughnee,) sometimes, ($, M^b,) it 
is used as a conjunction, (Mi^nee,^,) in the 
manner of j, (8, Mughnee, ^,) consodating both 
literally and as to the meaning, as mentioned by 
Akh and Fraud AO, (Mughnee,) [i. e.] as ^n. 
with J [And]. (Mfb.) Thus in the saying, 

[7%at there may not be to men, against you, any 
allegation, and (meaning nor) to those who have 
acted wrongfully] ; (Mfb, Mughnee, 5;) occurring 
in tiie Kur [ii. 145] ; (M|b;) so accord, to Akh 
and Pr and AO ; (Mughnee ;) i. e., and those 
who have acted wrongfiilly also, to them there 
shall not be, i^^net you, any allegation : (Msb :) 
Fr expluns it as meaning that the wrongdoer has 
no allegation of which account should betalcen; 
and this is correct, and is the opinion held by Zj. 
(T.) Thus, too, in the saying [in tiie ^nr xxvil. 
10 and 11], >i o^ "^J O^J^ ^J^ ^Wi '^ 
jy.rf .uV U.* 0-xi^ [The apostles shall not fear 
in my pretence, and neither shall he who hath 
acted wrongfully, then hath done good irtttead, 
afier evil; as some explain it; but others say 
that 'j\ here denotes exception]. (Mughnee, in 
which it is explained as meaning _,JLU ,j^ "j^ ; and 
K.) And thus in the saying of the poet, [namely, 
El.Mukbabbal Es-Ssfdee, (S in art jJU.,)] 

lit t^tf yi V j^i • 

^ Jji^l ^Qi iji 

[Atwf I tee a dtoeUing formerly belonging to her, 
at the pooU of Es-Seeddn, (a hill bo c^ed,) the 
remains of which have not become effaced, and 
tuhet watted and compacted together, from which 
three black ptecet of stone whereon the coohing-jtot 
not wont to be placed turned back the winds] 
he means, \iC^ ljl> V i^j'- (S.)^Foarthly, 
(Mughaee,) it is redundant, as in the following. 
Tene, (S in art. •iii, Moghnee, 5,) of Dhn-T<- 
Rnmmeh, (S ubi Buprk, Mughnee,) accord, to As 
aadlJ: (Mughnee:) 

[She<«ainels long-bodied, or lean, (but other mean- 
ings are assigned to the word which I thus 
render,) that ceate not to be made to lie down 
in a state of hunger, or roitk which we direct 
our course to a desert region]; (§ ubi supr&j 
Mughnee ; [but in one copy of the former, in 
the place of ^^j^, I find ^jtfj ; and in my copy 
of the latter, ,j*P >]) meaning, 2^U« jUiJt U : 
(S ubi supr& :) but it is said that this is a mietalce 
of the poet : (Mughnee :) so says Aboo-'Amr 
Ibn-El-'AJb ; for, he says, -nJI is not to be intro- 
duced after dUlj and Jtp : (TA :) and some 
say that the right reading is ^t, with tenween, 
[perhaps a mistranscription, for ^t,3 meaning 
\ rri *- [in a pi. sense] : and some, that iLuJ 
is a complete [or an attributive] verb, and S^U* 
is a denotative of state ; [consequently, that ^1 
is a compound of ^Jl and '^, as in some other 
instances hereafter to be menlioned ;] the meaning 
being, that are not disengaged, or not free, from 
fatigtte [unlest when made to lie dornn], (Mugh- 
nee.) The following is also given as an ex. of 
the same kind : 

[I see fortune, or time, to be like a water-wheel, 
with its people]', but the reading which is remem- 
bered to have been heard is ^Ijjt Uj : and if 
the former be correct, it may be explained on 
the supposition that ^jl is the complement of 
an oath meant to be understood, and that *j is 
suppressed, as in [the saying in the ^ur sii. B5,] 
JL)^ ^ji UiJ <wU ; [so that the meaning ia, 
/ see not fortune, or time, to be aught save a 
water-wheel, with its people;] the form of the 
exceptive sentence which is devoid of the mention 
of that from which the exception is made indi- 
cating such an explanation. (Mughnee.) ^ 
[Fifthly,] it occurs as tyn. with [as a particle 
denoting exception, equivalent to our Sut ; 
meaning both except and (after an oath or the like) 
only, or nothing more than] ; as in the saying 
in tiie ^ur [xxxviii. 13], j^^\ vJ^ 4^ J^ O' 
{There mas not any one but such as accused the 
apostles of lying], in which 'Abd-Allah reads, 

its place, t«) ; and for J^ he reads jt^is^ > 
and as in the saying, t^y^l^\ ^t ^ iUWI [I 
ask, or beg, or beseech, thee by God but that 
thou give me; i. e., I do not ask of thee any- 
thing save thy giving me ; the preterite here, 
as in many instances in which it is preceded by 
U (q. v.), not being a preterite in meaning] ; 
for which one says also ^jJii^\ l«f. (T.)^It 
is also a particle [or rather a compound of two 
words] denoting the complement of a condition ; 
originally "j ^1, which form a compound that 
does not admit of [the pronunciation termed] 
im&leh, because ^1 and >| are particles. (T.) 
[It signifies, lit.. If not.] It is followed by a 
fitt, which it renders mejzoom; [and in this 
case it may be rendered as above, or by unleit ,-] 
as in the saying in the ^ur [viii. 74], v^LtU "^1 
^j"^! ^ ala ,jx3 [If ye do it not, or unUttye 
do it, there wUl be a weakness of faith and an 
appearing of unbelief in the earth]. (T.) [In 
like manner,] in a saying Buch as the following, [in 
tiie J^ur ix. 40,] '^OA aj^ Jii s/j^ •|t [If ye 
do not, or mill not, aid kim, certainty God aided 
him], it is only a compound of two words, the 
conditional ^1 and the negative "j, and is distinct 
from "jl of which the us^es have been mentioned 
before, though Ibn-M4Iik has included it there- 
with. (Mughnee.) [Often in post-classical works, 
and perhaps in classical also, but seldom except 
when it is preceded by a condition with its com- 
plement, the verb or verbal proposition which 
should immediately follow it is suppreseed 

like of the saying, Ojic IJ>^ cJio* o' 
^iH^ '^\y iUc If thou da such a thing, I forgive 
thee, or cancel thine offence; but if thou wilt not 
do it (i. e., AUii '^1,) I kill thee : so 
also it ends a eentence, by an aposiopesis; the 
whole of what should follow it being suppressed 
and sometimes the complement of the conditioi 
which precedes, as well as the verb or verbal 
proposition which should immediately follow it, 
is suppressed ; so that you say, IJ.^ cJ>«l ^t 
>itJ*~i "^Ij ^/ thou do such a thing, excellent 
will it be, or the like, (yk C*^, or the like, 
being uuderstood,) but if not, I kill thee. 
Hence,] it sometimes has the meaning of Ul, 
[signifying Or, denoting an alternative, cor- 
responding to a preceding Ul, which signifies 
" either,"] as in the saying, yij ^^jOXj o' ^^ 
CXjIi [Either do thou tpeak to me or elss 
(meaning ^^i^JuU "y^i or if thou wilt not speak 
to me) be silent], i. e., ,zJ^ O* '-•ji- i^-) [I^ 
is also followed by ^1, as in ^1 tll^ ^1 "^l Unlets 
Qod should please; in the S^ur vi. Ill, &c. 
And by J as a denotative of etate, as in ^^«3 '^ 
^y ^ —» j^^3 "^l Do not ye die unless ye be 
Mu^ims; in the Kur ii. 126 and id. 97. And 
sometimes it is preceded by^,^^l ; for the eftect 
of which, in this case, see art All.] 

1. ^1 , (Th, M, ^,) aor. , and ^ , inf. n. 
4^1, (M,) It (a thing, Th, M) mas, or became. 

fed; or compact; syn. ^i^l; (Th,?;) 

"^ ^. (M.) ^v" yi '^' ^« j^v* 

^vtme to him from every direction: (M,!^:) or 
jt^\ t^l [signifies the people multiplied lAnt 
selves, and hastened ; for it] denotes jU»S| 
uid ptjJl-^l : (T in art. ..^^ :) and ^\, (T, ?,) 
aor. as above, (T,} signifies he hastened, or west 

quickly. (T,]^.) Jf^\ ^^ The camels obeyei 

Ike driver, and collect^ themselves together. (H, 
^.) [See also 6.] ^ «^'l ^\ He returned ta 
kim,OTit. (5,"TA.)lJrCjl C^f, (M,?,) 
aor. - , (M,) The thy rained with long eontinuaMO. 
(M, ?.) H> ^1, (8, M;b, ?,) aor. - , inf. n. 
^*f, (M;b,) He collected (9, M|b,?) an army, 
(^,) or a people ; -(M|b ;) as also ^ .^, (H,) 
inf. n. k^y : (TA :) and camels also : (TA :) 
or ^^^-^t ^') aor. - (T,' S, M, 1^) and i , (8, M, 
?,) inf. n. ^1, (T,^,) signifies he collected tkt 
camelt, and drove them (8, TA) veheTnently i 
(TA:) or he drove them : (T,*?:) oi he drovt 
them vehemently. (M.) _ ^1, (TA,) inf. n. 
as above, (1^, TA,) also signifies He drove, 
pursued, chased, or hunted, with vehemence : Q^ 
TA ;) and he drove away a people. (Mab.) 
You say, aJJ^^ JU--)I <^ The [wild] on 
chased, or pursued, the object of his chase [i. e. 
his female, as is shown by MF,] with vehemencei 
(M,^;) asalso*i;^1. (?.). 

2 : see 1, in two places. ^«^y also signifies 
The act of exciting, instigating, or routing f«3 
ardour: (^, ?:) and the exciting of discord, »-m 
strife, or ihe mahiTig of mischief. (^.) Youeajr-j 
jty^ «^t He excited discord or strife, or nacTi^ 
mischief, between them. (M.) 

6. Ij^ They collected themselves together. (^, 
A, M;b.) [8ee also 1.] You say also, 4^ l^'E' 
TTiey leagued together, or collected themselves to- 
gether, and aided one another, against him. (T.^ 

.^'i (T, 8, M|b) and t ^1 (8, Msb) PertoM, 
OT people, collected together; (S ;) an astemMg f 
a collected body : (Mfb :) or a collection ofmanjf 
people: (T:) and *vV' •rJl " great assembly 
or congregation. (M.) .^ Also A people, or 
company of men, combining in hostility against 
a man. (TA, from a trad.) You say, 4^)* j^ 
j.»t) ^t, and ^>^t, (but the former is the 
better known, M,) They are [one body of me»\ 
assembled against him with injustice and enmitjf 
or hostility: (Ltii,T,M,5:) like j^lj 
and j»lj 1X0 and JL-lj »Li. (T, TA.) 

^t : see .^1, in two places. 

^1 a dial. var. of 4^ ; (M ;) Helmets 0/ 
camels skint : or, as some say, it signifies tfeel ' 
(T :) siJt is [its n. un., being] a dial. var. of iji^* 
(?.,*TA.) [See also 4-ii.] 

.^jtl ; see ,^1. ^ Also One who hastens, or 
is quick; (T ;) and ^^JXa likewise signifies [the 
same; or] quick, or swift : (Ibn-Buzurj, T,?:) 
or the former signifies quick in drawing forth the 
bucket : (lA^, M, 5 o' brisk, lively, sprightly, 
active, agile, or prompt, and quick; (¥^, TA}) 

Book I.] 

implied to a man. (TA.)_vj" f-i^ -^ ""^ 
nind, (M,) that rai$ea and scatters ths dust. 
(V.,^.)^^^\ iC^ A shy raining mith long 
anstinuance. (M.) 

lyJcU : eee vV'- 

t^j^ iy^ [An envtouf man,] nho excites 
discord or strife, or ntaAo mucAt^. (§,* TA.) 

1. OJI, aor. ; , inf. n. wJI, Ji (a thing) de- 
creased i diminished ; lessened ; became defective, 
deficient, incomplete, or imperfect. (Mgb.) ^a 
'J^ iiJI, (§, M, A, ?,) aor. , , (S, M, K;,) inf. n. 
CJI C§, M) and JO-lJI ; (M ;) and iai, aor. ^ ; 
(Ft;) and ^ 'esf\, (M.^,) inf. n. O"*;!; (?;) 
as alio d3*91, inf. n. 0*91 , (bo in a MS. copy of 
the 5,) or as*:)! ; (bo in the L: [agreeably with 
fnialngyj and therefore probably the correct read- 
ing: gee art, w^, to vbicli it belongs: in SM'b 
copy of the %., and in the C^, the verb is written 
i5*5l, and the inf. n. O^t : by MF, the verb is 
-written ^ aIJI, of the measure ^^U, and the inf. u. 
Ct"^!, like Jt=^:]) [and is% aor. -L^; and 
tdi) ; and aIJjI ;] Hie diminished to him hi) 
right, OF dtte; abridged kim, or defrauded him, 
qf a portion of it : (Fr, 8, M, A, 5 :) and in 
like manner, itlU «IJt, and ^ aUI, &c., Ae (jimi- 
RuAet^ to him his property/ ; or abridged him, or 
defrauded him, of a portion of it : (M, TA :) 
and •^v^t t£*)1 A< diminished the thing. (Msb.) 
[Hence,] ;^^ O^-w^i* ^^UJl U [in the 
Jf m- lii. 21 , TTe teiU not diminish to them aught of 
tfie reward of their work] : (T, A :) or, accord, to 
one reading, (that of Ibn-Ketheer, TA,)>hU^t U. 
(T,TA.) [See also art C-,).l^iiJI,(T,S,'?,) 
or s%3 O^ *^'» (TA,) aor.;; (T}) as also 
«j*9 i these being two dial. varB., one of the other, 
mentioned by Yz, on the authority of AA ; (S ;) 
[and 431^1 ; (see art. C^ ;)] Se mitkkeld him, 
or restrained him, (§,?,) and turned him, or 
averted him, (T, S, ^,)from kit course, purpose, 
atol^ect. (9,TA.) — iijt,(M,5,)orlie^i£il, 
(A;, T, S,) aor. - , inf. n. i^\, lie made him to 
swear, or take an oath : (As, T, §, ^ :) or he 
desired of him that he should swear, or give 
his testimony, for him. (M, K.) And ^>e«c^ *~"i 
inf. n. as above, He pressed him, or pressed hard 
tipon him, veith an oath. (M.) It is related 
that a man sud to 'Omar, " Fear God, O prince 
of the bithftil:" and another, hearing him, said, 
^^U^l j^\ ^jl» t^UI, meaning Dost thou 
lower the dignity of the prince of the faithful? 
or dost thou diminish to kim [the respect that 
is due to him] 7 accord, to lA^. : or rather, 
dost thou conjure the prince of the faithful? his 
■aying ."Fear God" being as though he conjured 
him by God: for the Arabs say, U JSAf JkJ\ 
I Jk& «ubii, meaning I conjure thee by Qod but 
thai thou do thus, or such a thing. (T.) 

3: seeL 

i : see 1, in two places. 

tMl Deficieney: at in the saying, _^>§tjrf ^y U 
C-JI [There is not, in their provision-bags, any 
deficiency]. (A.)^^ swearing; syn. tJU». 
(M, TA.) [Perhaps an inf. n. in this sense.] _. 
An oath ! as in the saying, when one has not 
given thee thy right, or due, CJ*3l/ tji^ [Bind 
thou him by oath}. (T.) ^ Calumny, slander, or 
false accusation. (Kr, M, ^.) [Perhaps an inf. n. 

this sense also.] 

Ul A smaU gift. (AA, T, ^.)^ J.n oath 
such as is termed ^>U, q> ▼• (-A.A, T, ^.) 

ij*^! kc. for ij'^j &c. : see art jJj. 

1. iil, (T, S, M, Msb, ?,) aor. ^ , (8, Mjb, 
5.,) inf' n. i_£j (§, M, M|b, ^) and JJl (5) and 
■.j*^! and hi'^^, which is anomalous, and oU]l, 
(M,TA,) Se kept, or ciiiw, /o t(; (A'Obeyd, 
T,M,M?b,'TA;) namely, a thing, (A'Obeyd, 
r,M,TA,) or a place; (S,Msb,TA;) as also 
iiif, aor.,; (TA;) and t iuuT, (A'Obeyd, T, 8, 
M, Msb,) aor. Jip., (§, TA,) inf. n. J':^\ ; (§, 
Mfb, TA ;) and t «A)T, aor. ijjtjj, inf. n. liul^ 
and J*5t: (S, Msb, TA:) [he' frequented it, or 
resorted to it habitually; namely, a place:] he 
became familiar with it; or accustomed, or habi-- 
tuated, to it; namely, a thing: (AZ, T :) he 
became familiar, iociable, companionable, friendly, 
amicable, with him : (AZ, T, Msb :) he loved, 
affected, him; liked, approved, or took pleasure 
in,him. (Msb.) Yaata.y,^^\ '^\ .cJi\[The 
birds kept to the sacred territory], and O^^t 
[the houses] : and J.*Jll £Jui ^,zM\The gazelles 
kept to the sands. (T.) ^There are three man- 
ners of reading the passage in the ^ur [cvi. 1 
and 2], kjC^Ij 5lH)l iiij ^^i^l yt^ t*^':jy'^ ; 
the second and third being O':^ and i_i)*:) ; the 
first and second of which have been adopted; 
(Aboo-Is-h41f;, T, TA ;) and the third also; this 
being the reading of the Prophet [himself] : (TA :) 
[accord, to all these readings, the passage may be 
rendered. For the keeping of Kureysh, for their 
keeping to the journey of the winter and of tke 
summer, or spring ; the chapter going on to say, 
for this reason " let them worship the Lord of this 
House," &c. : or] the second and third readings 
are from i_i)l, aor. i_^^ ; [and accord, to these 
readings, the passage may be rendered as above ;] 
but accord, to the first reading, the meaning is, 
for the preparing and ^fitting out [&c. ; i. e., 
pi-eparing and fitting out men and beasts in the 
journey of tke winter kc] : bo says lAmb; and 
Fr explains in the some manner the third reading 
but lA^r says that, accord, to this reading, the 
meaning is, the protecting [&c.] : he says that 
the persons who protected were four brothers, 
H&shim and 'Abd-Shems and EI-Muttalib and 
Nowfel, the sons of' Abd-Mendf: these gave pro- 
tection to ^ureysh in their procuring of com : 
(T :) H&shim obtmned a giant of security from 
the lung of the Greeks, and Nowfid from Kisr&, 

and 'Abd-Shems from die Nej&diee, and El- 
Muftalib from the kings of ^imyer; and the 
merchants of ^ureysh used to go to and from the 
great towns of these kings with the gmnts of 
security of these brothen, and none opposed 
them : Hfishim used to give protection (iJUj^ [in 
the copies of the ^ <JU^]) [to those journeying] 
to Syria, and 'Abd-Shems to Abyssiuia, and El- 
Mu^f^b to El- Yemen, and Now&l to Persia: 
(T, ?:') or t wi^t in the Blur signifies a covenant, 
or an obligation ; and what resembles permission, 
(ij VI , as in some copies of the ^ and in the TA,) 
or protection, (ijV't as in the C^,) with an 
obligation involving respotuibUity for safety ; 
first obtained by Hftshim, from the kings of 
Syria ; (]^,* TA ;) and the explanation is, that 
j^ureysh were dwelling in the sacred territory, 
(]^,) having neither seed-produce nor udders [to 
yield them milk], (TA,) secure in the procuring 
of their provisions from other ports, and in their 
changes of place, in winter and summer, or spring; 
the people around them having their proper^ 
seized ; whereas, when any cause of mischief 
occurred to them, they said, " We are people of 
the sacred territory," and then no one opposed 
them : (5 :) so in the O : (TA :) or the J is to 
denote wonder; and the meaning is, wonder ys 
at the m%\ of J^ureyth [&x.]: (i^:) some say 
that the meaning is connected with what follows ; 
i. e., let them worship the Lord of this House for 
the i^^l [&c., agreeably with the first explana- 
tion which we have given] ; others, that it is 
connected with what precedes ; as J says ; (TA;) 
the meaning being, I have destroyed the masters 
of the elephant to make Kureysh remain at 
Mekkeh, and /or their uniting tke journey of tke 
nrinter and of tke summer, or spring ; that when 
they finished one, they should commence the 
other ; (T, ^ ;) and this is like the saying, 
I Ji£J t jiJ *:iif^, with suppression of the [con- 
junctive] J : (8 ;) but Ibn-'Arafeh disapproves 
of this, for two reasons : first, because the phrase 
" In the name of God" tec. occurs between ^e 
two chapters : [Bd, however, mentions that in 
Ubei's copy, the two compose one chapter :] 
secondly, because wi^l signifies the covenants, 
or obligations, which tkey obtained when they 
we^ forth on m^ercantHe expeditions, and whereby 
they became secure, (TA.) ^>J^\ [in like manner] 
signifies A writing of security, written by the 
king for people, that they may be secure in hit 
territory : and is used \rf Mus6wir Ibn-Hind in 
the sense of i_*^jUjt, [as is also uUI ,] when be says, 
in satirizing Benoo-Asad, 

meaning Ye asserted [that your brothers are 
Kureysh ; i. e.,] that ye are like Kureysh : but 
how should ye be like them ? for they have [an 
alliance whereby they are protected in] the trade 
of El- Yemen and Syria ; and ye kave not that 
[alliance], (^am p. 636.) [Hence,] M J^jl, 
[a pbrase used in the manner of an oath,] accord, 
to some, signifies Tke safeguard, or protection, of 
Qod: or, accord, to others, an honourable station 
from God. (TA.) ^ iijl, aor. ; , He gave kim 


a thousand ; (S, 5 ;) of articleB of property, and 
of camels. (TA.) 

2. ^^ uUI, inf. n. JyU, (T, Msb, T^,) He 
united themy or brought them together^ (T, Mf b, 
TA,) after separation ; (T, TA ;) and made them 
to love one another ; (Msb ;) he caused union, or 

companionship, (^^) ^^ ^^^ place between them. 
(5.) And sj^^S Oti ^Ji^U in^- »• a* above, [/ 
united, or put together, the two things.] (S.) And 
i^^ijt UUl J^e united, or connected, (T,) or ^a- 
thered or collected or brought together, (M,) tA« 
several parts of the thing. (T, M.) -i. Hence, 

v^^ wJyO [^%« composition of boohs]. (T, TA.) 

•— w^U is The putting many things into such a 
state that one name becomes applicable to them, 
whether there be to some of the parts a relation to 
others by precedence and sequence, or not : so that 
it is a more general term than v^>» : (KT :) or 
the coUecting together, or putting together, suitable 

things ; from W^\ [i. e. aA)*^)] ; and is a more 
particular term than ^»^^, which is the putting 
together things, whether suitable or not, or placed 
in order or not. (Kull p. 118.) ^ t ji> ^J\ tyJt : 
see S.^liUt uUI He wrote an alif; (J^-,) like 
as one says Ut^.,«e^. (TA.)^See also 4, in 
three places. 


[Book I« 


J •• 

3. AA3t : see 1, first sentence. ^ uUI, (M, TA,) 

inf. n. iii\^, (TA,) [app.. He made a covenant 
with another to be protected during a journey for 
tlie purpose of trade, or traffic : (see 1 :) and 
hence,] he (a man) traded, or trafficked. (M, 

TA.)^i&)tJ^ di9j\L He made a condition with 
him for a thousand : (I A^, M :) like as one 
says, l\\^ A^jl^, meaning, for a hundred. (I A^r, 
M, K, in art. ^U.) 

4. aA)T, inf. n. i»J^t : see 1, in three places. 

■■;^« iAjf, (T, M,) or ^^<, (S,) or JSU 

t J^, (]^,) inf. n. as above, (T,) He made him to 
keep, or cleave, to the thing, or to the place, or to 

such a place. (T, 8,» M, IK.*) i^\ ciJT I 

joined, conjoined, or united, the thing. (T.)aB 

y^\ ciiT, (T,* §, B:,*) inf. n. as above, (S,) / 
m>ade the people, or company of men, to be a 
thousand complete [by adding to them myself] ; 
(T, 8, ]^, TA ;) they being before nine hundred 
and ninety-nine. (T, TA.) And i jji)! uWT He 
made the number to be a thousand; as also t^^jt : 
(M :) or lJU^)t * uUt A« completed the thousand. 
(]^.) And in like manner, (^,) ^tjjJt CjJf I 
made the dirhems to be a thousand (S, K) com^ 

plete. (S.) And jvU^I^ tyjf They said to 
them, May you live a thousand years. (A in art. 
j^.) ^ lyjT They became a thousand (T, S, M) 
complete. (§.) And ^^tjJOl cJuT The dirhems 
became a thousand (§, ]^) complete. (S.) 

6. JL^t uUU, (M$b, ]^,) and t |yju5T [written 

with the disjunctive alif Iyi£j1], (T, ^,) The 

people, or party, became united, or came together^ 
(Mf b, ]gl,) [a/if«r separation, (see 2, of which 
each is said in the TA to be quasi-pass.,)] and 
loved one another: (Msb:) or the meaning of 

t iJ*ju5r[and JUli also] is the being in a state of 
union, alliance, agreement, congruity, or congre^ 
gation : (Msb :) and the being familiar, sociable, 
companionable, friendly,^ or amicable, one with 
another. (TA.) And UJu is said of two things ; 
[meaning They became united, or put together ; 

(see 2 ;)] as also tUJll^l. (S.) And ^^1 tjULzSl 
signifies The severed parts of the thing kept, or 
clave, together. (M.) And uUO It became put 
together in order. (M.)..tyJU They sought, 
desired, or asked, [a covenant to ensure them] 
protection, (lA^, T, M,) \jJ9 ^] [meaning in 
a journey for the purpose of trade, or traffic, to such 
a place, as is shown in the T by an explanation 

of the words of lA^, ^djl ^1 Jd^ ^\k J^, 

in a passage in which the foregoing signification 

is assigned to tyJU] ; (M ;) as abo t J^ ^Jt t tJjI. 

(M.)aB4i)CI He treated him with gentleness or 
blandishment, coaxed him, or wheedled him ; Q^ ;) 
behaved in a sociable, friendly, or familiar, man- 
ner with him ; (TA ;) attracted him, or allured 
him; and gave him a gift, or gifts; (T, ^5*) 
in order to incline him to him: (K:) or he affected 
sociableness, friendliness, ot familiarity, with him. 

(Mgh.) You say, >%»SI yjs^ ilSu [I attracted 

him, or allured him; and gave him a gift, or 
gifts, in order to incline him; to embrajce EU 
Isldm]. (S.) 

8 : see 6, in four places. 

the pi. of Jul is sJ"^', (T, M ;) which is also pL 
of t J>f : (TA :) and that of t J^t is Js*^\ (ip, 


^t, meaning A certain number, (S, M, 1^,) 
well known, (M,) i. e. a certain round number, 
(Msb,) [namely a thousand,] is of the masc. 
gender : (T, §, Mfb, 1^ :) you say sJ'jiS ij^ 
[Three thousand], not sJ'^S lf*j3 ; (f A ;) and 
Jk^U uUt \jJk [This is one thousand], not Sj^^U^ 
(S ;) and e^l %Ji\, [A complete thousand], (T, S,) 

not i\ij3 : (S :) it is not allowable to make it 
fem. : so say lAmb and others : (Msb :) or it is 
allowable to make it fem. as being a pi. : (T :) or, 

accord, to ISk, it is allowable to say, uUI ojJk as 
meaning uUt^tjjJt ^jM [TJiese dirhems are a 
thousand] ; (S, % ;*) and Fr and Zj say the like : 
(Msb :) the pi. is \^\, applied to three, (M,) and 
^*^\, (T, S, M, Msb, ]^,) applied to a number 

from three to ten, inclusively, (TA,) and \mi^S, 

(T, S, M, Msb, K,) used to denote more than ten ; 

(T;) and Jl^l [in the TA Ji^\] is used by 

poetic licence for o*^^)t, by suppression of the 
[radical] J. (M.) 

i* t 

\Ji^\ [originally an inf. n. of aA)), q. v.,] He 

rvith whom one is familiar, sociable, companion- 
able, Jriendly, or amicable; he to whom one keeps 
or cleaves; [a constant companion or associate; 
a mate ; a fellow ; a yoke-fellow ; one who is 
familiar, &c., nfith another or others ; (see 

Jjji ;)] (M ;) i. q. ♦ Je>j ; (T, 8, M, 1^ ;) whidi 
is an act. part. n. of A&3t ; (Msb ;) as is also t ^^t ; 
(Msb, K ;) and t ^Ul also is syn. with ^Jl^\ : (1^ :) 
the female is termed iU)t and «^l ; (M ;) both of 
these signifying a woman with whom thou art 
familiar, &c., and who is familiar, &c., with 
thee: Q^i) and the fem. of t Jjli is iif: QS.i) 

5, TA) and ^liJl : (M, TA :) and that of t ^| 

is J^^f (T, S, Msb, 5) and J% like as Jujf is 
pi. of >^0, (TA,) and so, (M, TA,) in my opinion, 

[says ISd,] (M,) is J^Jl, like as \^ is pi. of 
jk*V£, (M, TA,) though some say that it is pi. of 

Jfl : (M :) and the pi. of t m is Jjljf and 

cm. (5.) You say, ji\ o^ and t ^j 
[Such a one is my constant companion or assih 
date, &c.] (T.) And ui^\ J'l Ji^\ O^i 
[Tlie female mate yearned towards the mate]. 

^^ ^ J 

(S.) And dh'^S ^^« j^\ ftp [The camel yearned 

towards his mates]. (T.) J*^, (T,) or 3^\, 
(TA,) is said by lA^ to mean Persons who keep 

to the large towns, or cities. (T, TA.) wlyt in 
the l^ur ii. 244 is said by some to be pi. of uUt 
or of ^ uUt: but by others, to simify "thou- 
sands." (Bd, L, TA.) JLl t JjUl signifies The 
birds that keep to Mekkeh and the sa/red terrir 
tory : and j»UaJt ^ i^t^t, Domestic pigeons. (T.) 

• t 

sJ^\ : see \J^\ , in two places. •» As some say, 

(O,) it also signifies A man having no wife. (O, 
^.) ^ One of the letters of the alphabet ; (M ;) 

the/r<^ thereof; (K ;) as also t jyi : (M :) Ks 
says that, accord, to the usage of the Arabs, it is 
fem., and so are all the other letters of the 

alphabet; [and hence its pi. isOU));] but it is 

allowable to make it masc. : Sb says that every one 

of them is masc. and fem., like as is ^^^LJ. (M.) 

See art t. .. I A certain vein lying in the inr 
terior of the upper arm, [extending] to the fore 
arm : (1^, TA :) so called as being likened to an t : 

(TA:) the two are called oW^t. (^.) X One 

of any kind of things : (K, T A :) as being likened 
to the t ; for it denotes the number one. (TA.) 

U( A state of keeping or cleaving [to a person 
or thing] : (M :) a state of union, alliance, agree- 
metU, congruity, or congregation ; (Mfb ;) a 
subst. from J^jui'^t : (Msb, Tji, TA :) and, as 
such, (TA,) signifying also familiarity, sociable- 
ness, socialness, companionableness, friendliness, 
fellowship, companionship, fi'iendship, and amity. 
(Msb, TA.») 

S n 

Tj^S Of, or relating to, or belonging to, the 

number termed uUt [a thousand]. (TA.) 

[^tJUl X«U A stature resembling the letter alif. 
Often occurring in late works.] 

i^*^t an inf. n. of aAJ) : and used as a subst : 
see l.-^i^'^l Jji^ Lightning of which the flashes 
are consecutive or continuous. (TA.) 

ijyi Having much ^\ [meaning familiarity, 
sociableness, &c.] : pi. uUt. (^l.) 

%Jiif\ : see uUt , in three places : ^and see uUt. 

Jufand iijf; and iJ)lil, the pL of the latter: 
see i^t, m seven places. 

ij^t an inf. n. : and used as a subst : see 1. 

Book I.] 

iJUU [An accustomed place ;] a place to which 
a man keeps or cleaves ; [which he frequents, or 
to which he habitually resorts;] with which he is 
familiar, or to which he is accustomed ; (Meb ;) 
a place with which men or camels [or birds and 
the like] are familiar, &c. (1^,* TA.) _ And 
hence^ Leafy trees to which animals of the chase 
draw near, (AZ, K.) 

Oyi>, with fet-h, [i. e. O^^^ or t oyjji,] 
Possessors of thousands; or men whose camels 
have become, to each, a thousand. (TA.) 

uU^ and * ^yU Kept to, or clove to ; applied 
to a thing [and to a person ; and meaning when 
applied to the latter^ with whom one is familiar, 
sociable, &c.]. (T.) It is said in a trad., O^J^t 

▼ oy U oUI [The believer is one who is familiar, 
or sociable, &c.y with others, and with whom 

others are familiar, &c.]. (TA.) ..^^^f^^ls iJAI^^M 
Those whose hearts are made to incline, or are 
conciliated, by beneficence and love or affection : 
(§,♦ Msb :) as used in the BLur [ix. 60], it is 
applied to certain chief persons of the Arabs, 
whom the Propliet wa>s comm^mded to attra^ct, or 
allure, and to present with gifts, (T,'K.,)from the 
poor^ates, (TA,) in order that they might make 
those after them desirous of becoming Muslims, 
(T, 50 ^^ ^^^ care for things which they deemed 
sacred, or inviolable, together with the weakness 
of their intentions, should induce tliem to combine 
in hostility with the unbelievers against the Mus- 
lims; for which purpose, he gave them, on the 
day of Honeyn, eighty [in the TA two hundred] 
camels : (T :) they were certain men of eminence, 
of the Arabs, to whom the Prophet used to give 
gifts from the poor-rates; to some of them, to 
prevent their acting injuriously; and to some, 
from a desire of their becoming Muslims, (Mgh, 
Msb,) and their followers also ; (Msb ;) and to 
same, in order that they might remain stedfast as 
Muslims, because of their having recently become 
such ; but when Aboo-Bekr became appointed to 
the government, he forbade this practice. (Mgh, 

MBb.)HBiUU|5.« uUI [These are a thousand] made 
complete. (S.) «. See also ^yU^. 


[wijyo A composer of a book or books; an 

^yU: see 

, in two places. 

1. Jj«, (JK,]^,TA,) aor.-,; (?:, TA ;) or 


iJ3t, aor. - ; (CK ; [in which it would seem, 
from what follows in this paragraph and the next, 
that the pret is wrong, but that the aor. is 

right ;]) inf. n. J3I and ^}*^)\ ; (JK, K, ;) It 
(lightning) lied ; (AHeyth, ]^ ;) [i. e.] it was 
without rain. (JK.) _ See also 6. _ Also, 

JJt, aor. - , inf. n. Jli\, He lied ; spoke falsely : 
whence the reading of Aboo-Jaafar and Zeyd 

Ibn-Aslam, [in the TS.var xxiv. 14,] aJyUU 3^ 
^^«£JuJv [When ye spoke it falsely with your 
tongues]. (TA.) 

6. J3U It (lightning) shone, gleamed, or glis- 
tened; as also t JJLL^t [written with the disjunctive 

ahf Jfet] ; (JK,S, IJ,lf.;) and so t Jjf, aor. -. 

(TA.) Ibn-Ahmar has made the second trans., 

using the phrase Oy^^ J^^j either by suppres- 
sing a prep., [meaning She shines to tlie eyes,] or 
meaning thereby she ravishes the eyes. (TA.) ... 

And CJUU, said of a woman, She adorned 
herself: (Sgh, K :) or sJie became active and 
quick to engage in contention or altercation, and 
prepared Jierself for evil or mischief, and raised 

her head: (IF,]^:) or she became like the Ut 

[fem. of J31, q. v.]. (lA^r.) 

8 : see 6, in two places. 

JjJ A he-wolf: fem. with S: (IA§ir, S, ]^ :) 
and the fem. is also applied to a she-ape or 
monkey; the male of which is not called ^t, 
but I^, (S, 5,) and l^j. (S.) \ EvU in 

disposition, applied to a man ; and so with I 
applied to a woman : and the latter, a [demon 

of the kind called] T^ILjui ; because of its evil, 

or malignant, nature : (TA :) and a bold woman ; 
(Lth, EL ;) for the same reason. (TA.) 

^*^\ [an inf. n. (see 1) used as an epithet ;] 
Lying, or fallacious, lightning; Q^i) that has 
no rain; (JK,K;) as also t J*^?; (B:,*TA:) 
* J9t, likewise, is an epithet applied to lightning 
[in the same sense; or as signifying shining, 
gleaming, or glistening : see 1 and 6] : and so is 

▼ jut, as syn. with %^M> [that excites hope of 
rain, but deceives the expectation], (TA.) .i. 
Also, applied to a mah. Lying : (JK :) or lying 
much, or often, or habituaUy : (TA :) and very 
deceitful, and variable in disposition. (TA.) 

JlJt [app. an inf. n. of J9t ; (see 6 ;)] The 

shining, gleaming, or glistening, of lightning. 

J31 : see J'^l. 

J}\, like %^\, [in a copy of the JK incorrectly 
written J3t,] i. q. J3uo [Shining, gleaming, or 
glistening] ; (S,]^;) applied to lightning. (JK.) 

...Also fAn inconstant man; from JtJUJt as 
relating to lightning. (JK: there, in this instance, 

written 4) 

,, ) Bee J'>>l. 


^ ^ wt 

1. >UJJt ^\, (ISd, B:,) [aor. '- or - ,] inf. n. 
JD1, (TSd,TA,) He (a horse) chewed, or champed, 
the bit; syn. a^. (ISd, 1^.) One says, of a 

horse, j^at^\ ^W ^^ chews, or champs, the bits : 
but the verb commonly known is ^^, or «2Uju. 
(Lth.) .. [Hence, accord, to some, (see h^\,)\ 
^^\ J>^ M, (Msb, TA,) aor.-, inf. n. J! 

and i)^t, (Msb,) lie acted as a inessenger {J^ji) 

between the people. (Msb, TA.) -. And A5Jt, 

aor. -^ , inf. n. Jut, He conveyed, or communicated, 

to him a message. (Kr.)_And Ji3t He sent. 
(IB in art. J^.) 

4. t<^t is from ^1 signifying "he sent;" 

and is originally ^yxJU; the [second] hemzeh 


being transposed and placed after the J, it 
becomes ^^^Sm\ ; then the hemzeh has its vowel 
transferred to the J, and is thrown out; as is 

done in the case of <1JUU, which is originally diJu, 

then ^^, and then JJUU : (IB in art. Jy :) it 
means Be thou my messenger; and bear thou 
my message; and is oflen used by the poets. 
(S in art. ^^•) Accord, to lAmb, one says, 

O^ ^' ^^5^^ meaning send thou m£ to such 
a one: [but I do not know any instance in 
which this meaning is applicable :] and the 
original form is ^^^^^ ; or, if from i)y*^t, the 

original form is ^«;;^n: and he also says that 

it means be thou my messenger to such a one. 

(TA.) One says also, aJUj^ Q\ ^JJ, which 

should properly mean Send thou me to her with 
a message : but it is an inverted phrase ; since 
the meaning is, be thou my messenger to her 
with this message [or rather with a message] : 

and >*^|LJl^ \^\ ^JXJ\ i. e. convey thou, or com- 

municate thou, to her my salutation ; or be tlioti 
my messenger to her [with salutation] : and some- 
times this [prep.] ^ is suppressed, so that one 

says, j^%J\ ly^r ^yxJ\ : sometimes, also, the 
person sent is he to whom the message is sent ; 
as in the saying, j»*^|LJt Jl^Jt 15^ t [virtually 
meaning receive thou my salutation ; but literally] 
be thou my messenger to thyself with salutation. 
(TA.) Lh mentions the phrase A^t 4lxJt, with 
respect to a message, aor. A^Jt, inf. n. Al&'^)1 ; 
in which case, the hemzeh [in the aor. and inf. n.] 
is converted into a letter of prolongation. (TA 
in art. J*^.) ^- 

_ •• -'^ 

: see ^^\. 

** <. 


10. AliJU Ji3Uwl He bore, or conveyed, his 
message ; (^ ;) as also J*^l. (TA.) 

• Jt 

J)^\ A thing that is eaten [or rather chewed, 
as will be seen below] : so in the phrases, 

JjL.0 J Jt t Jj^ like Jju^ ;r5^ ^^^ Jju0 JJLfr 
[This is an excellerU thing that is chewed], and 
jyi^ C^^jb U [or JyW t cuOU U (^ in art. 

«JLfr)] like 9^^^ C%%Jjo U [app. meaning 

I have not occupied myself in chewing with any- 
thing that is chewed]. (TA..) -. [And henceii 
accord, to some,] A message, or cammumeaiion 
sent from one person or part^ to another ; (Lth, 

S, M, ^, &e. ; [in the C^i after 2^P^ ^7 
which Jy*^t is explained in the ^ &c., we find 
Lu J^ dUjt Jj, in which the first two 
words should be ^iUJt J^J, as in other copies of 
the 1^ and in the TA ; and J^^l is erroneously 

put, in the C^, for iJ^^t ;]) said by Lth and 
ISd to be so called because it is -[as it ww»] 
chewed in the mouth; (TA;) as aldo. tai»yt 
(ISd, Sgh, ]^) and t aCJU (Lth, S, Msb, BL, &c.) 

and t kSt (Msb, 1^) and t JiiL : (S, M, Msb, 
K, &c. :) accord, to Kr, (TA,) this last is the 

V J o < 

only word of the measure JjU^ : (K, TA :) but 
accord, to Sb and Akh, there is no word of this 
measure : (T A :) [i. e. there is none originally 



of this measure :] other instances have been men- 
tioned ; namelji >•£« and Oy^ [originally 

Oy^] &"<1 j-^ ^^^ "^^^ ^^ j'^^y which last 
occurs in the i^^ur [ii. 280], accord, to one read- 
ing, in the words t> 


9 A'' 

but it is said 

that each of these, and iUU also, may be regarded 
as originally with I ; or, accord, to AHei, each 
is [virtually, though not in the language of 
the grammarians,] a pi. of the same with l\ 
(MF, TA ;) and Akh says the same with respect 

to j»;X^ and O^^ • C^-^ S^®'' ^7* ^^^ ^^^ 
is curtailed of I by poetic licence ; but tliis asser- 

tion will not apply to >-i*ts^, as it occurs in the 

Kur. (MF, TA.)-. Jyt also signifies A mes- 
senger. (Ibn-'Abbdd, 1^. [In the CTSi here fol- 
lows, (JyUI^ i^Ul^ : but the right reading is 

jyOt ^^Ui^39 as '^^ other copies and in the 

• ^ ji • jS 

a&yt : see J^\. 

iUU is said to be the original form of «2AJU 
[An angel; so called because he conveys, or 
communicates, the message from God ; (]^,* TA, 

in art. J^) ;)] derived from ^/\ ; (Msb, El, TA ; 
[but in the Cl^ is a mistake here, pointed out 

above, voce ^^\ ;]) so that the measure of «£iJU 
is Jjbo : (Mf b ;) JULo is both sing, and pi. : ELs 

says that it is originally «2UU, from ^^\ signifying 

'^a message;" then, by transposition, «i)^, a 
fonn also in use ; and then, in consequence of 
frequency of usage, the hemzeh is suppressed, 
SO that it becomes iUU ; but in forming the pi., 
they restore it to J^, saying ^Ucj^, and db^ 

also : (S in art. JUU :) or, accord.* to some, it is 

^t* • ^ ^ 

from ^*^ '' he sent ;" so that the measure of «1JUU 

is JjU : and there are other opinions respecting 
it : (Msb :) some say that its > is a radical : see 

art. JLU. (TA in art. J*^.) 

aOU : / see J^t. 
JU: j 


1. ^l, aor. - , inf. n. ^1, 7<, (as, for instance, 

the belly, T, S, or the head, Msb,) or he^ (a 
man, T, S, Msb,) was in pain ; had, or suffered, 

pain ; ached. (T, 8, M, Msb, K.) ^ Jj\ [He 

was in pain, or had pain, in his belli/] (M) and 

JmI^; C^t [thou wast in pain, or hadst pain, 

in thy heUy] (T, 8) or JUIj [in thy head] (Msb) 
are like A^tj djL (M) and i)j^t C^jSj (8, T) and 

iiU tj wju^^ ; (Msb ;) the noun being in the accus. 
case accord, to Ks as an explicative, though 
explicatives are [by rule] indeterminate, as in 

\Zfi> 4V Oj i and UjS a^ cJ-tf» ; (T 5) the regular 

form being [iii^ > and] iUiii >, (T, S,) 
as the verb is intrans. (T.) 

-> J •^^ 

4. 4:^\, (S, M, Mfb, 5.) inf. n. ^^j^.!, (S, 
M$b,) I caused him pain or aching. ($,*M, 
Mfb, 5.) 

6. ^U jQ^i? TiMM, or became, pained : (M,* Msb, 
15^ :*) or 7*6 expressed pain, grief, or sorrow ; 
lamented ; complained ; fTio^ lamentation or 

complaint ; moaned ; syn. ^>^> (T, 8,) and 

^. (T.) You say, ^S^ v>* O"** ^^ [Such 
o one expressed pain. Sec, on account of the 
conduct or the like of such a one; complained 

of such a one] : (T :) and O^P^ ^^ [^^ account 
of the hardness of the time], (TA in art.j»jt.) 

^t: see^. 

^\Pain; ache; (T,S,M,K;) asalsot£jLl: 

(T, M, B: :) pi. (of the former, T, M) J-^T. (T, 

M,K.) You say, 01 ^3 ^KXi\ !^\ \^ I do 

not find pain nor ache ; i. e. U^^ : so says AZ : 

and lA^ says, *^t *^^ ^UJ^l as meaning the 

same. (T.) And the Arabs say, . JU iJu^*^ 

▼ ^UJ^t, meaning / nn// assuredly bring upon 

thee [lit. m^ike thee to poM the night in] distress, 
or difficulty. (Sh.) 

9 t 

jj\ Being in pain; having, or suffering, pain; 


aching. (M, K.) 

9^^t 9^t 

^t : see^t. 

jil^\ a contraction of U ^1: see ^\, last 

^f Causing pain or aching; painjul; (8, K;) 
** ?• TVy^ 9 f^'y M, Msb ;) iike %^if^m^ as syn. with 
m ....0 : (8 :) so when applied to punishment [or 

torment or torture] : (T, Msb :) or, thus applied, 
painful, or causing pain or aching, in the utmost 
degree. (M, K..) 

3U^\ Lowness, ignobleness, baseness, vileness, or 
meanness. (O, EL.) 

2l^\: see ^t, in three places. .. Accord, to 
lA^r, (T,) A sound, or voice. (T, K.) You say, 

3l^\ d) Cot»>rf to Z heard not any sound, or 

voice, of, or belonging to, him, or 17. (1 A^r, T.) 
Accord, to A A, (T,) Motion. (T, ^.) 

« ft J 

^: see^!. 


.» . >'•'• 

^l^t, or i^Wt : see art ^y^» 


1. d)t, (8, and so in some copies of the K,) with 

fet-h, (8,) or a)!, (Mgh, Msb, and so in some 

^ ^ ^ 

copies of the SI,) like ^i^^ju, aor. - , (Msb,) inf. n. 

i**:^t (8, Msb, ]§:) and 1*^ ( and t^^\, (K,) He 

served, worshipped, or adored; syn. jue. (8, 
Msb, ]l^.) Hence the reading of I 'Ab, [in tiie 

^lur vii. 124,] iJlib'^l j -^jJ^i [^^ ^^^'^ <^«j 
ancf the service, or worship, or adoration, of thee ; 
instead of %2JUy3t3 an£? fAy ^0£2s, which is the com- 
moix reading] ; for he used to say that Pharaoh 
was worshipped, and did not worship : (8 :) so, 
too, says Th: and IB says that the opinion of 
I 'Ab is strengthened by the sayings of Pharaoh 
[mentioned in the IBlur Ixxix. 24 and xxviii. 38], 
'' I am your lord the most high," and ^* I did not 

[Book I. 

know any god of yours beside me." (TA.)aB 
aJI, aor. - , (8, ]^,) inf. n. d)t, (8,) He was, or 
became, confounded, or perplexed, and unable to 
see his right course ; (8, T^ ;) originally 4J3. (§.) 

— O^ L^ ^^ ^^ ^^^9 ^^ became, vehemently 
impatient, or affected with veliement grief, or he 
manifested vehement grief and aviation, on ac- 

count of such a one ; (8, K. ;) like aU. (S.) _ 
dJt a)) ^(0 betooh himself to him by reason of 

fright or ^ear, seehing protection ; or sought, or 
ashed, aid, or succour, of him: he had recourse, 
or betooh himself, to him for refuge, protection, 

or preservation. (El.) -i^v^^UC^i/ a)! JET*? remained, 

stayed, abode, or dwelt, in the place. (MF.) ^ 

Vf, (]g:,) like iiU, (TA,) [in the C?! i^l,] ^« 

protected him; granted him refuge; preserved, 
saved, rescued, or liberated, him ; aided, or sue* 
coured, him; or delivered him from evil: he 
rendered him secure, or safe. (K.) 

2. A^U [mf. n. of A^t He mrdde him, or (ooA 

Am £», a slave; he enslaved him;] i. q, Ju*ju. 

(8, 1^.) ..[The primary signification of Ay3t seems 
to be. He made him to serve, worship, or adore, 
.. Accord, to Freytag, besides having the former 
of the two meanings explained above, it signifies 
He rechoned him among gods ; held him to be a 
god; made him a god: but he does not mention 
his authority.] 

6. a)U He devoted himself to religious services 
or exercises ; applied himself to acts of devotion. 
(JK, 8, Msb, 5.) 

«d ^ftl 9* ^ 

a^JVl : see a*<^l. 

A)t , or 6^\ , [the former of which is the more 
common mode of writing the word,] is of the 

measure jUi (8, Msb, !^) in the sense of the 

9 J » ^ 9 ^ 

measure J^nU^ (8, Msb,) like w^U^ in the sense 

of ^(^Ji^, and h\L^ in the sense of i>3...^..o, 


(Msb,) meaning t«yu [An o&;Vcf of worship or 
adoration ; i. e. a ^0(f, a deity] ; (8, Msb, ^ ;) 
anything that is taken as an object of worship or 
adoration, accord, to him who takes it as such : 

(K :) with the article Jt, properly, i. q. aDI ; [see 
this word below ;] but applied by the believers in 

a plurality of gods to what is worshipped by them 

I 9^ f* 

to the exclusion of A&t : (Msb :) pi. ^t : (Msb, 

TA :) which signifies idols : (JK, 8, TA :) in 
the ]K1, this meaning is erroneously assigned to 

lAr^\: (TA:) [not so in the CK; but there, 
^*^)l is put in a place where we should read 
ijiTffj or aib':5l without the article :] t i*<^t [ig 
the fem. of •*^St, and] signifies [the goddess : and 
particularly] the serpent : [(a meaning erroneously 
assigned in the CK to i^^\ ; as also other mean- 
ings here following:) because it was a special 
object of the worship of some of the ancient 
Arabs:] (^:) or the great serpent: (Th:) and 
the [new moon; or the moon when it is termed] 
Jjjk: (Th,]^:) and, (S,!?:,) as also ^ik^), 
without J1, the former perfectly decl., and the 
latter imperfectly decl., (§,) and * iit^\, (lAyr, 
^,) and t a»% (IA?r, TA,) and t ai-^J, (^) 

Book I.] 

[and app. t ik^\,] and t i^^\, (1^,) the mn; (S, 
¥0 ^PP* ^ called because of the honour and wor- 
ship which they paid to it : (S :) or the hot eun, (Th, 

TA.) [d)t is the same as the Hebrew rflSM and 

the Chaldee H^M ; and is of uncertain deriva^ 
tion : accord, to some,] it is originally d*^^, like 
as ».U^) is originally ^t^^ ; meaning that man- 
kind yearn towards him who is thus called, 
[seeking protection or aid,] in their wants, and 
humble themselves to him in their afflictions, like 
as every infant yearns towards its mother. (TA.) 
[See also the opinions, cited below, on the deriva- 

tion of 4[bt.] 

23k^\ and lh^\ : see d)t. 


a**^) and iM^S : see d)t.8^a**^t : see a**^t. 

U*:^) inf. n. of 1, q. v. (S, M§b, El.) ^ Godr 

ehip; divinity; (5;) as also t ai'^i (CBl [not 
found by me in any MS. copy of the El) and 

t a^gi. (]g:.)^a**^l and U*^\ : see lit. 
a^e)*^! : see d)t. 

[^-^! , or ^yk'^l , O/*, or relating to, Ood or a 
god; divine: theological: Hence, ^^*^t j^^^ 
or •5*'ih)^ : see what next follows.] 

[a^*^t, or ifiA'^'^l, Theology; the science of 
the being and attributes of Ood, and of the 
articles of religious belief; also termed cAt^^\ j^ 

or oC*'9^t, and t l^^\!j!^\ or lj&f^:\ 

^t, [written with the disjunctive alif 4[bt, 
meaning 6o<i^, i. e. the only true god,] accord, to 
the most correct of the opinions respecting it, 
which are twenty in number, (K,) or more than 
thirty, (MF,) is a proper name, (Msb,]?!,) applied 
to the Being who exists necessarily, by Himself, 
comprising all the attributes of perfection ; (TA ;) 
a proper name denoting the true god, comprising 
all the excellent divine names ; a unity comprising 
all the essences of existing things ; (Ibn-£1- 
'Arabee, TA ;) the Jt being inseparable from it : 
(Mf b :) not derived : (Lth, Msb, 1^ :) or it is 
originally lit , or \^\ , (Sb, AHeyth, S, Msb, TS.,) 
of the measure JU^ in the sense of the measure 

JlyuU, meaning ^^U, (S, Igl,*) with [the article] 
Jl prefixed to it, (Sb, AHeyth, S, Msb,) so that 
it becomes i'^NI, (Sb, AHeyth, Msb,) then the 
Towel of the hemzeh is transferred to the J [before 
it], (Mfb,) and the hemzeh is suppressed, (Sb, 
AHeyth, S, Msb,) so that there remains aJJI, or 
i^t, after which the former J is made quiescent, 
and incorporated into the other: (Sb, AHeyth, 
Mfb :) the suppression of the hemzeh is for the 
purpose of rendering the word easy of utterance, 
on account of the frequency of its occurrence : 
and the Jt is not a substitute for the hemzeh ; for 
were it so, it would not occur therewith in t!^\ : 
($':) so says J; but IB says that this is not a 
necessary inference, because «*>)Nt applies to God 
(il^t) and also to the idol that is worshipped; 
whereat ^\ applies only to Grod ; and therefore. 

4)t— 3Jt 

in using the vocative form of address, one may 

say, 4ii\Ki[0 Ood], with the article Jt and with 
the disjunctive hemzeh; but one may not say, 
0^^\ \^ either with the disjunctive or with the 
conjunctive hemzeh: (TA:) Sb allows that it 
may be originally «*>) : see art. a^ : (S :) some 
say that it is from di\, either because minds are 

confounded, or perplexed, by the greatness, or 
majesty, of Ood, or because He is Uie object of 
recourse for protection, or aid, in every case : or 

from A^it, meaning '^ he protected him," &c., as 
explained above : see 1, last sentence. (TA.) The 
Jt is pronounced with the disjunctive hemzeh in 

using the vocative form of address [4[ut b] because 
it is inseparably prefixed as an honourable dis- 
tinction of this name ; (S ;) or because a pause 
upon the vocative particle is intended in honour 
of the name ; (S in art a^ ;) and AAF says that 
it is also thus pronounced in a form of swearing ; 

as in ^j^jii^ AbUt [an elliptical phrase, as will be 

shown below, meaning Then, by Ood, mlt thou 
indeed do such a thing?] ; though he denies its 
being thus pronounced because it is inseparable ; 
regarding it as a substitute for the suppressed 

hemzeh of «*>)Nt: (S in the present art:) Sb 

mentions this pronunciation in iilt b; and Th 

mentions the pronunciation of Aut l; also, with the 
conjunctive hemzeh : Ks, moreover, mentions, as 

used by the Arabs, the phrase ^J Ift^t aX^ [O 

Ood, forgive me], fo;* Abt I; ; but this is disap- 
proved. (ISd, TA.) The word is pronounced in 

the manner termed ^^^^iLJJ, [i. e., with the broad 

sound of the lengthened fet-h, and with a full 
sound of the letter J,] for the purpose of showing 
honour to it ; but when it is preceded by a kesreh, 

[as in Abl/ By Ood, and Abt j^^^ In the name of 
Ood^ it is pronounced in the [contr.] manner 
termed Jljip : AHdt says that some of the vulgar 

say, ^\^ "^ [iVio, by Ood], suppressing the alif, 

which should necessarily be uttered, as in ^^j^^jiX, 
which is in like manner written without alif; and 
he adds that some person has composed a verse 
in which the alif [in this word] is suppressed, 

" ^ ^1 40 ^t ' 

erroneously, (Mfb.) You say, tjL£» ^ Abt Atlt, 
[a verb being understood,] meaning Fear ye 
Ood, fear ye Ood, with respect to such a thing. 
(Marginal note in a copy of the Jdmi' es-Sagheer. 

[See another ex. voce S/^.]) ^^^ O^*^ ^^ 
and v>Ui*^ Abt [By Ood, I will assuredly do 
such a thing] : in the former is understood a verb 
significant of swearing ; and in the latter, [or in 
both, for a noun is often put in the accus. case 
because of a particle understood,] a particle [such 

as w^ or ^] denoting an oath. (Bd in ii. 1.) And 

cJLib U aO, meaning wJUi U i3\^ [By Ood, I 
did not, or have not done, such a thing]. (JK.) 

And Jj> dS) XTo Ood be attributed thy deed! (A 

in art. j> :) or the good that hath proceeded from 
thee ! or thy good deed ! or thy gift ! and what is 
received from thee ! [and thy flow of eloquence ! 
and the lihe] : a phrase expressive of admiration 
of anything : (TA in art. j> :) [when said to an 
eloquent speaker or poet, it may be rendered 

divinely art thou gifted!], And«j> ^ii \To Ood be 


attributed his deed! [&&]• (^ and 1^ in art j>.) 
And JiUlt Ab [meaning To Ood be attributed 
(the eloquence of) the sayer ! or] how good, or 
beautiful, is the saying of the sayer, or of him 
who says [such and such words] ! or it is like the 

phrase «j> aO, meaning tTo Ood be attributed 
his goodness! and his pure action! (Har p. 11.) 
And rAi aD [To Ood be attributed (the excel- 
lence, or goodness, or deed, &c., of) such a one !] 
explained by Az as meaning wonder ye at such a 

one : how perfect is he! (Har ibid.) [And i)*/t aD : 
see art ^t.] And CU^t «*>), meaning c^\ aD [lit. 
To Ood be thou attributed! i. e. to Ood be attri" 
buted thine excellence! or thy goodness! or thy 
deed! &c.]. (JK.) [Similar to 43(1, thus used, is 

the Hebrew expression D*^n7M v after an epithet 
signifying '* great" or the like.] A^Jt Ut^ dv Ot 
^yu^tj, in the Elur [ii. 151], said on the occasion 

of an affliction, means Verily to Ood we belong, 
as property and servants. He doing with us what 
He willeth, and verily unto Sim we retwm in 
the ultimate state of existence, and He will 
recompense us. (Jel.) AZ mentions the phrase 

»*) «k#*Jt [meaning dU jk^^)\ Praise be to Ood] : 

but this is not allowable in the l^ur-dn : it is only 
related as heard from the Arabs of the desert, and 
those not knowing the usi^e of the Elur-dn. (Az, 

TA.)^tJ^^) is an expression used in prayer; 

a J ^ 

^» ' " 

as also^*^; (JK, Msb;) meaning AUt l^ [O 
Ood^ ; the j» being a substitute for [the suppressed 
vocative particle] b ; (S in art. aJ, and Bd in 

iii. 25 ;) but one says also, ^^^\ l^, ( JK, and S 
ibid,) by poetic licence : (S ibid :) or the meaning, 

accord, to some, is j^i^ tut Aut b [ O Ood, bring 
us good] ; ( Jl^, and Bd ubi supr& ;) and hence 
the origin of the expression. (Bd.) You say also 

•^t j^\ [which may be rendered, inversely, Un- 
less, indeed; or unless, possibly] : the former word 
being thus used to denote that tlie exception is 
something very rare. (Mtr in the commencement 
of his Expos, of the Makdmdt of El-Hareeree, 

and Har pp. 52 and 53.) And^^ ^^^t [which 
may be rendered, inversely, Yes, indeed; or yea, 
verily] : the former word being used in this case 
as corroborative of the answer to an interrogation, 
negative and affirmative. (Har p. 563.) 

^.ot^t : see what next precedes. 

• A. 

d^\^ : see di\. 


1. ijl, (S, M, Mgh, ?:,) aor. ^t, (S, Mgh,) 
inf. n. yt (T, M, Mgh, ]g:) and yt (K, TA [in 

a copy of the M yt]) and /Jt ; (]g:,TA; [in 

is . 

a copy of the M jJt, and in a copy of the Mgh 

written with fet-h and damm to the t ;]) and 

t Jt, (S, M,E:,) aor. J^,, inf. n. l^JJ ; (S ;) 
and t ^^XiSt [written with the disjunctive alif 
j^yj^t] ; (S, M,^^;) [and * ^\j, as appears from 
an ex. in a verse cited in art. %,f^, q. v. ;] He 
fell short ; or he fell short of doing what was 
requisite, or what he ought to have clone ; or he 

judged, OT teas remiu ; syn. j^ai: (^, M,]||l; 
and Fr, JA^, T, Mgh, in explanation of the firet 
of these verbs :) and he was tlon, or tardy : 
(M, "K. ; and AA, T, S, in explanation of the 
second verb:) or he Jlagged, or too* remiit, or 
languid, and weak. (AHeyth and T in explana- 
tion of all of the above-mentioned verbe except the 
last.) You Bay, ^*)I Ji ^1, (Mgh,) and t ,_^1 
*e*, (8,) ffefeU ihort, kc, (j^,) in the affair. 
(S, Mgh.) In Uie saying, M ij* J-^o] jV J), 
i. e. He did not fall short, &c., (^.aJ4^,) in 
acting equitably and equally in that, ^ ia 
--V, suppressed before ^1 : but in the phrase, yQ ^ 
Jjji]l^;>,«, as some relate it, [the mea^iing intended 
seems to be, They did not hold bach, or the likej 
Jrom acting equitably ; for here] the verb is 
made to imply the meaning of another verb : and 
such is the casts in the saying, Ui^ it^lt *^, 
meaning / roWi not refuse to thee, nor partially 
or wholly deprive thee of, sincere, honest, oi 
Jaithful, advice : (Mgh :) or this last signifies 
I mill not ^g, or he remiss, nor Jail short, 
to thee in giving sincere, honest, or faithful, 
advice. (T, S.*) It is said in the ^ur [iii. 114], 
^iji^ ^^ij^Xi *^, meaning They wiU not fall short, 
or fag, or he remits, in corrupting you. (lAar, 
T.) And the same meaning is assigned to the 
verb in the saying jJi-» J>liJ()l y^l ^ JsC "j^, 
the Klur [xxiv. 22], by A 'Obeyd : but the pre- 
ferable rendering in this case is that of AHeyth, 
which will be found below : see 4. (T.) Ks 
mentions the phrase, Jl^ '9 ^j^ Ji^II [Se came 
with a blow, not falling short, &c.], for jlU '^ ; 
like ^jl ^ [for ^^'i\ *:)]. (S, M : [but in the 
copies of the former in my hands, for 3^^^, I 
find A^j>aj.]) *jj" [with teshdeed] is also said 
of a d<^, and of a hawk, meaning ffe fell short 
of attaining the game that he pursued, (TA.) 
And of a cake of bread, meaning It was slow 
in becoming thm-ougMy baked. (lAar, IB.) [See 
iilso the phrase C^JOI '^j o^j> ^ in a latei 
part of tills paragraph.]^ You say also, Ojlt U 
,^^l, (?,) or iiiil ol oy I U, (M,) inf. n y I 
(M,K) and ^'l, (I^.TA, [in a copy of die M 
^1,]) meaning I did not leave, qvit, cease from, 
omit, or neglect, (M,K,) the thing, (K,) or doing 
it. (M.) And 1^ y'g •:J J,^ Such a one does 
not leave, quit, or cease from, doing good. (M.) 
And \.>^af oyi U I did not leane, omit, o 
neglect, labour, exertion, effort, or endeavour 
and the vulgar say, l^^i^ ^yi U ; but this is 
wrong : so says As. (T. [See, however, similar 
phrases mentioned above.]) ^ "^1, aor. as aboVe, 
(TA,) inf. n. j», (IA»r, T, TA,) also signifies 
He strove, or laboured; he exerted himself, or 
his pomer or ability ; (lA^r, T, TA ;) as also 
* (Jti : (T, TA :) tiie contr. of a significati. 
before mentioned ; i. e. " he flawed," or " was 
remiss, or languid, and weak." (TA.) You 
say, Ve* ^^ *^^ i^ (j'^C He came to me 
respecting a want, and I strove, or laboured, &c., 
to accomplish it. (T.) ^_ And a^)f, aor. as above, 

(T, S,) inf. n. yi, (lAar, T, S,) He was, or 
became, able to doit: (lAjr, T, 8:) and 'jj!l, 
inf. n. 2c)U, also signifies he was, or became, 
able, (TA;) and so * ,^1. (ISk, S, TA.) 
You say, j^*9' 'J* jf^ >» -H* " "^'^ '" petform, 
or accomplish, this affair. (T.) And isyi U I 
was not able to do it. (T, M, ?.) And ^^151 
«%' oyi O <^-l»- 1^ illt^ Such a one came 
to me respecting a want, and I mas not able to 
rebuff him. (T.) It is said in a trad., jLo ^>* 

* L^ "^i -'•^ *** J*^' [-^« ^'"> f"^ "^' O"" 
always, may he neither fast] nor be able to &st : 
as though it were an imprecation : or it may 
be enunciative : another reading is J1 "^j, ex- 
pkined as meaning a*.j ^^ : [see art. Jjl :] 
but El-Khatt&bee says that it is correctiy ^\ 
and "^t. (TA.) And the Arabs used to say, 
(S, M,) [and] accord, to a trad, it will be said to 
the hypocrite [in his grave], on his being asked 
respecting Mohammad and what he brought, 
and answering " I know not," (T in art. ^Lj,) 
t si^r -^j iJja i, (T, 8, M, 5,) meaning, 
accord, to A?, (T,) or ISk, (§,) Mayest thou 
not know, nor be able to know : (T, 8 ;•) or, 
accord, to Fr, nor fall short, or fag, in seeking 
to know ; that the case may be the more miserable 
to thee : (T :) or i£^l "jj, as an imitative sequent 
[for wi)]) "^j, to which the same explanations 
are applicable] : (M^ ;) or C-^U "iij •C.^ji '^, 
the latter verb being assimilated to the former, 
(ISk, T in art. ^, S,) said to mean O^ "iij, 
i. e. nor mayest thou read nor study : (T in art. 
^ :) or <i-eUI ^j C-^jj "^j i. e. [mayest thou 
not hnow,"] nor mayest thou have camels follonied 
byyoungones. (Yoo, ISk, T,^, M,^.)^Also, 
(IA»r, T,) inf n. yi', (I A^r, T, %.,) He gave him 
a thing: (lA^r, T, ^:*) [doubly trans.:] the 
contr. of a signification before mentioned, (also 
^ven by lA^r, T and TA,) which is that of 
"refusing" [a person anything: see, above, 

C-kiiiyr-^]. (TA.) 

2 : see 1, in four places. 

4. yit, (T, 8, M, &c.,) aor. ^^., inf. n. Sbl, 
(T, 8, Mgh,) [and in poetry l'^\, (see a reading 
of a verse cited voce i^l,)] He swore ; (T, 8, M, 
Mgh.K;) aflalsotjU,andt,jU5l. (T,8,M, 
1^.) You say, i^jiJt ,jii c-e)l and 4^1 [J swore 
to do the thing]. (M.) [And lji> Jiil "^ C^'\ 
I swore that I mould not do such a thing; and, 
emphatically, I swear that I will not do such 
a thing. And \ie^ ^1 He swore an oath.] It 
is said in the ?ur [xxiv. 22], ^jl ' jS\i -^j 
j^i^^ f^^ai^, meaning, accord, to AHeyth and 
Fr, And let not those of you who possess super- 
abundance swear [thai they will not give to 
relations &c.] ; for Aboo-Bekr [is particularly 
alluded to thereby, because he] had sworn that he 
would not expend upon Mis{ah and his relations 
who bad made mention of [the scandal respecting] 
'Aisheh : and some of the people of £1-Medeeneh 
read ♦ Jl^ ^Ij, but this disagrees with the written 
text : A 'Obeyd explains it differently : see 1 : 
but the preferable meaning is that here given. 

[Book I, 

(T.) And it is SEud in a trad., t^ nSLJ ^ ^T 
He swore that he would not go in to his wives 
for a month : the verb being here made trans, 
by means of ^>« because it implies the meaning 
of cUlLal, which is thus trans. (TA.) [See also 
an ex. of the verb thus used in the ^ur ii. 226.] 
^1 _U t^tJt is said to mean One's saying. 
By Ood, such a one will assuredly enter the fire 
[of Hell], and God wiU assuredly make to have 
a good issue the work of such a one : but see 
the act. part. n. below. (TA.) ^ cJT, inf. n. 
as above, She (a woman) took for herself, or 
made, or prepared, a S^jii*, q. v. (TA.) 

6 : see 1, in two places : ^ and see 4, in three 

8 : see 1, in five places : ^m and see 4, in two 

yi, or jSl : see ^1 in art. ^J\. 

yi, (so in some copies of the 8, and so in 
the K in the last division of that work, and in 
the C^ in art. Jl, [and thus it is always pro- 
nounced,] but in some copies of the %. in art Jl 
it is written ^y^ W though to show the original 
form of its termination,]) or ^jt, (so in the M, 
and in some copies of the S, [and thus it is 
generally written,]) i. q. j^J [Possessors of; 
possessed of; possessing; having]; a pi. which 
has no sing. (S, M, If) of its own proper letters, 
(8, ^,) its sing, being ^i t (S :) or, as some 
say, a quasi-pl. n., of which the sing, is ji ; (^ :) 
the fern, is O^l, (so in some copies of the 8 and 
5i [and thus it is always pronounced,]) or 
O'^jl, (so in other copies of the ^ and T^, [and 
thus it is generally written,]) of which the sing, 
is Oli : (S, ^ :) it is as though its sing, were 
Jl, (M,5, [in the C^ Jt,]) tiie [final] j [in 
the masc.] being the sign of the pi., (M,) for 
it has J [for its termination] in the nora. case, 
and ^ in the accus. and gen. (M, ?..) It is 
never used but as a prefixed noun. (M, E.) 
The following are exs. of the nom. case : y^l tjM^ 
j^^^\i^j\yi^ [We are possessors of strength, 
and possessors (^vehement courage], in the 
[xxvii. 23]; and ,^ J^\ ^U^'-«>rj^''*J>jl 
[The possessors of relationships, these have the 
best title to inheritance, one with respect to 
another], in the same [viii. last verse and xxxiii. 
6]; (TA;) onA ..j(^'j\ J}\ ^^^'\^ [The person* 
of understandings came to me] ; and Jl*^"^ •^'^jt 
[Those who are with child; occurring in the 
If ur Ixv. 4] : (S :) and the following are exs. 
of the accus. and gen. cases : ^e^JCJIj i^J^3 
i«jiJI ^Jj\ [And leave thou me, or let me alone, 
with the beliers, or discrediters, (i, e., commit 
their case to me,) the possessors of ease and plenty], 
in the :^ur [Ixxiii. 11]; and ^jl al.1^^ 4^' 
S^l [Would weigh down the company of me* 
possessing strength], in the same [zzviii. 76]. 
(TA.) ^J:l» JH\ u^lj, in tiie ^ar [iv. 62], 
[And those, of you, mho are possessors of com- 
mand], (M, ^,*) accord, to Aboo-Is-^, (M.) 

Book I.] 

means the companions of the Prophet^ and tlie 
men of knowledge their foUowerSj (M, 1^,) and 
the possessors ofcommund, who are their foUowers, 
when also possessors of knowledge and religion : 
Q^ :) or, as some say, [simply] the possessors 
of command; for when these are possessors of 
knowledge and religion, and take, or adopt and 
maintain, and follow, what the men of knowledge 
say, to obey them is of divine obligation : and 

in general those who are termed >>o*^t 3)5), of the 
Muslims, are those who superintend the affairs of 
such with respect to religion^ and everything con- 
ducing to the right disposal of their affairs. (M.) 

jJI , accord, to Sb, is originally with 3 in the 
place of the [^, i.e. the final] alif ; and so is^^^ ; for 
the ali& [in these two particles] are not susceptible 
of imdleh ; [i. e., they may not be pronounced 
il^ and 'al^ ;] and if either be used as the proper 

name of a man, the dual [of the former] is ^t^t 
and [that of the latter] o!^^ 5 ^^^ when a pro- 
noun is affixed to it, the alif is changed into y6, 
so that you say ^Vt and ^^M^ ; though some of 
the Arabs leave it as it was, saying J^)t and ^^. 
(S.) It is a prep., or particle governing a noun 
in the gen. case, (S, Mughnee, K,) and denotes 
the end, as opposed to [^>o, which denotes] the 
beginning, of an extent, or of the space between 
two points or limits ; (S, M ;) or the end of an 
extent (T, Mughnee, ^^) of place ; [signifying To, 
or as far as ;] as in the phrase [in tlie Kur xvii. 1], 

the Sacred Mosque to, or as far as, the Furthest 
Mosque ; meaning from the mosque of Mekkeh 
to that of Jerusalem] ; (Mughnee, T^ ;) or in the 
saying, ic« ^1 ai^l ^ C^Ji. [J went forth 
from EUKoofeh to Mekkeh], which may mean 
that you entered it, [namely, the latter place,] or 
that you reached it without entering it, for the 
end includes the beginning of the limit and the 
farthest part thereof, but does not extend beyond 

it. (S.) [In some respects it agrees with Lc^y 
q. V. And sometimes it signifies Towards ; as in 
^\ jiaj He looked towards me; and 4^1 JU 

Se, or it, inclined towards him, or it. ^ It also 
denotes the end of a space of time ; [signifying To, 
iiU, OT until;] as in the saying [in the l^ur ii. 183], 

cM^^ ^^ >W^^ l>^t jo-^ [Then complete ye the 
fasting to, or till, or untU, the night]. (Mughnee, 
Igl.) [Hence, ^\ jJl (followed by a mansoob 
aor.) Tt//, or until : and ^^^ ^\ Till, or untU, 
what tirne, or when ? i. e. how long ? and also to, 
till, or until, the time when. See also the last 
sentence in this paragraph.] ^ [In like manner 

it is used in the phrases JU3 j^ ^J\ , and cj^\ ^J\ , 
meaning, {And so on,) to other things, and to the 
end thereof; equivalent to et c<e^era.]_ Some- 
times, (S,) it occurs in the sense of %a, (T, S, M, 
Mughnee, K,) when a thing is joined to another 
thing ; (Mughnee, K ;) as in the phrase [in the 
l^va iii. 45 and Ixi. 14], i^Tjjl jjyjUJl J>i [Who 
will he my aiders with, or in addition to, Ood?], 
(S, Mughnee, K,) accord, to the Koofees and 
some of the Basrees ; (Mughnee ;) i. e. who will 
be joined to Ood in aiding me? (M, TA;) and 

as in the sa3ring [in the l^ur iv. 2], UX£»U N« 
jr^^y^^ ^'^ j9^^y^^ [And devour not ye their pos- 
sessions with, or in addition to, your possessions] ; 

(T, S ;) and [in the same, ii. 13,] ^\ t^ \h\^ 

^«^J^l^ [And when they are alone with their 

devils] ; (S ;) and in the saying, J^t ^^JJt ^\ ^^JJt 

[A few she-camels with, or added to, a few she- 
camels are a herd of camels], (S, Mughnee, ]^,) a 
prov., meaning f a little with a little m^xkes much; 
(S and A in art ^^^, q. v. ;) though one may not 

say, JU j^j ^\ meaning JU jlj %^ : (Mugh- 

nee :) so too in the saying, 4ii« ^>l ^t ^.^eJU. ^yj3 

[Such a one is clement, or forbearing, with good 
education, or polite accomplishments, and intelli- 
gence, or knowledge of the \aw] ; (M, TA ;) and 

SO, accord, to Kh, m the phrase, ^IjJ) 4(b) j^^^t 
[I praise Ood with thee : but see another ren- 
dering of this phrase below]. (ISh.) In the 

saymg m the !l>^ur [v. 8], ,jAj^\^ jfij^y^^ I^X^U 
[j»\jji\ ^\ , it is disputed whether [the meaning 
be Hien wash ye your faces, and your arms with 
the elbows, or, and your arms as far as the 
elbows; i. e., whether] the elbows be meant to be 
included among the parts to be washed, or ex- 
cluded therefirom. (T.) A context sometimes 
shows that what follows it is included in what 

precedes it; as in oj^t ^t d)^t ^>o O!/^^ 0U5 
[I read, or recited, the Kur dn, from the beginning 
thereof to the end thereof] : or that it is excluded j 

as m J^l ^J^ jtljMcJt |w)^ [explained above] : 

when this is not the case, some say that it is 
included if it be of the same kind [as that which 
precedes] ; some, that it is included absolutely ; 
and some, that it is excluded absolutely ; and this 
is the right assertion ; for with the context it is in 
most instances excluded. (Mughnee.) ^ It is 
also used to show the grammatical agency of the 
noun governed by it, after a verb of wonder ; or 
after a noun of excess importing love or hatred ; 

«t ^ jS y t y 

[as in jJ) A«^t U How lovely, or pleasing, is he 

to me ! (TA in art. s.g^'^,) and ^\ a^as^I U How 
hateful, or odious, is he to me ! (S in art. c/oa^ ;) 

and] as in the saying [in the Kur xii. 33], ^j 

a * i y t J wt 

^J\ ^^0^ ^>fci.*JI [O my Lord, the prison is more 

pleasing to me], (Mughnee, K.) [This usage is 
similar to that explained in the next sentence.] 

It is syn. with 

<• • 

; (S, M, Mughnee, Msb, K ;) 
-^ • s$ ^ y •t y J 

as in the phrase, )Jl£» ^>« ^\ ^^^^t ^ [It is 
more desirable, or pleasant, in my estimation than 
such a thing] ; (Msb ;) and in the saying of the 

*• S 

S " 


[Is there no way of return to youth, seeing that 
tlie remembrance thereof is more pleasant to me, 
or in my estimation, than mellow wine ?] (Mugh- 
nee, K :) and accord, to this usage of ^t in the 
sense of ju^ may be explained the saying, wJt 

^ " 

^\ (>)l^, meaning Thou art divorced at the 
commencement of a year. (Msb.) ^ It is also 

^9^ J 9t * 

syn. with J ; as in the phrase, ^! j^*^\^ [And 
command, or to command, belongeth unto Thee, 


meaning God, as in the Elur xiii. 30, and xxx. 3], 
(Mughnee, 1^,) in a trad, respecting supplication : 
(TA:) or, as some say, it is here used in the 
manner first explained above, meaning, is ulti- 

mately referable to Thee : and they say, j^^^t 
diJ) aS}\, meaning, I tell tlie praise of Ood unto 
thee : (Mughnee :) [but see another rendering of 
this last phrase above :] you say also, A^\ ^t> 
Jliat is committed to thee, or to thy arbitration. 
(Har p. 329.) ^ It also occurs as syn. with ^JL^ ; 

as in the saying in the l^ur [xvii. 4], ^J) U««a9) 
" ^ • -» ^^ * 

s}^\j^\ i^ [And we decreed against the children 
of Israel] : (Msb :) or this means and we revealed 
to the children of Israel (Bd, Jel) decisively. 
(Bd.)^It is also syn. with J\ (M, Mughnee, 

1^ ;) as in the saying [in the Kur iv. 89 and vi. 12], 
^l^ij) jo^ ^\ ^Cino^a^ [He will assuredly col- 
Uct you together on the day of resurrection] : 
(K :) thus it may be used in this instance accord, 
to Ibn-Mdlik : (Mughnee :) and it is said to be 
so used in the saying [of £n-Ndbighah, (M, 

St ^ ^ ttt ^ J $ * ^ ^ 

^L& ^^JW ^i^ ^ 

[Then do not thou leave me with threatening, as 
though I were, among men, smeared with tar, 
being like a mangy camel] ; (M, Mughnee ;) or, 
accord, to some, there is an ellipsis and inversion 
in this verse ; ^\ being here in dependence 
upon a word suppressed, and the meaning being, 
smeared with pitch, [like a camel,] yet being 

united to men : or, accord, to Ibn-'Osfoor, ^J>^ 
is here considered as made to import the meaning 
of rendered hateful, or odious ; for he says that if 
^J^ were correctly used in the sense of ^J, it 

it would be allowable to say, 4i^£Jt ^\ juj: 

(Mughnee :) [or the meaning may be, as though 
I were, compared to men, a mangy camel, smeared 
with pitch : for] I 'Ab said, after mentioning 

'Alee, ^fLlii^S ^ ij:^\£:> aJ^ J\ ,^, mean- 
ing My knowledge compared to his knowledge is 
like the ij\j3 [or small pool of water left by a 
torrent] placed by the side of tlie middle of the 
sea [or the main deep], (K in art. ja^M.) It is 
also [said to be] .used in the sense of ^ in the 

saying in the Kur [Ixxix. 18], y^fi O* ^^^ ^ ji 
[WiU thou purify thyself from infidelity?] be- 
cause it imports the meaning of invitation. (TA.) 
^It is also used [in a manner contr. to its 
primitive application, i. e.,] to denote beginning, 

[or origination,] being syn. with ^>o ; as in the 
saying [of a poet], 

• l^y j^W ^:^^ ^3 Jy^ 


[Slie says, (namely my camel,) when I have 
raised the saddle upon her, Will IbnrAhmar be 
supplied with drink and not satisfy his thirst 
fromm>e? i.e., will he never be satisfied with 
drawing forth my sweat?]. (Mughnee, K.) _ It 
is also used as a corroborative, and is thus [syn- 
tactically] redundant ; as in the saying in the Kur 

[xiv. 40], ^'t iji^iJ^Wt o^ Ijj^f ji^'S, with 
fet-^i to the 3 [in ^^], (Mughnee, ]^,) accord. 

to one reaiUng, (Mu^nee,) meaning ja*'>J ['- ^• 
And make Thou hearts of men to love them] : 
(5:) BO Bays Fr: but some explain it by Baying 
that fj^ importe the meaning of Je«3 ; or that 
it is originally ^jv3| with kesr, the kesreh being 
changed to a fet-hah, and the y4 to an alif, as 
when one says Ldj for ^^<0]t and iWU for 3^\i: 
so says Ibn-M&lik ; but this requires considera- 
tion ; for it is a condition in such cases that the 
it in the original form must be movent. (Mugh- 
nee.) [See art. ij^.]^jQ\ _^^\, occurring 
in a trad., [is elliptical, and] means Ood,Icom- 
plain unto Thee: or tahe Thou me unto Thee. 
(TA.)__AndiMlj ii^ IJI m^m I am of thee, 
and related to thee. (TA.) — You say also, 
jt^JI .^i-aV I meaning Betake, or apply, thyself 
to, or occupy thyself with, thine own affairs. (T, 
^.*) And Bimilar to this is the phrase used by 
El-A^shi, Jgi U ^Jf^■ (TA.) And >$! 
[alone is nsed in a similar manner, elliptically, or 
as an imperative verbal noun, and] means Betake, 
or apply, yourselves to, or occupy yourselves with, 
your own affairs, {j^\ I^^Ajl,) and retire ye, 
or withdraw ye, to a distance, or far away, from 
us. (ISk.) And ,JU il^l means Bold, or re- 
frain, thou from me: (T, 5:) ot remove, with- 
draw, or retire, thou to a distance from me : Ji^\ 
used in this sense is an imperative verbal noun. 
C^r p. 508.) Sb says, (M,) or Akb, (Har ubi 
Buprk,) I heard an Arab of the desert, on its being 
said to him JX^\, reply, ^1 ; as though it were 
said to him Remove, withdraw, or retire, thou to 
a distance, and ho replied, I mill remove, &c. 
(M.) Aboo-Fir'own says, satirizing a NabathiEan 
woman of whom he asked for water to drink, 

[When thou thalt demand water, the will say, 
Retire thou to a distance} ; meaning, [by U^, 
i. e. j}^ with an adjunct alif for the sake of 
the rhyme,] ^\, in the sense last explained 
above. (M.)^One also says, \i^ ^l> mean- 
ing, Take thou such a thing. (T, ^.) When 

^1 is immetUately followed by the interrogative 
U, both tt^ther are written ^•^l [meaning. To 
what? whither? and till, or until, what time, 
or when? i.e. how long?]; and in like manner 
one writes >t^ for U^^, (^* and ^ voce U,) 
and^ll^ for U j_5^. (8 voce ^j|^.) 
syt and syt and syt : see I^L 

jjJt One who smears much; who utt^s many 
oath^: (IA»r,T,^:) mentioned in the ^ in 
art. Jl ; but the present is its proper art. (TA.) 

■1^1 [A falling short ; or a faUing short of 
what is requisite, or what one ought to do ; or 
a flagging, or remismess ; and slowness, or tardi- 
ness :} a Bubst. from ^)t as signifying jZi and 
Itjl. (M.) Hence the prov., (M,) SJ ^^ •§[ 
iff], i. e. If I be not in favour, and high esHmO' 
tion, I will not cease seeking, and labouring, 
and Tvearyinff myself, to become so : (M, ^ :•) 
or if tlwu fail of good fortune in that which 
thou seekest, fall not short, otflag not, of be 

not remiit, in shoioing love, or affection, to men ; 
may-be thou wilt attain Bomewhat of that which 
thou wisheBt : originally relating to a woman 
who becomes displeasing to her husband : (S in 
^kfc ;) it is one of the proverbs of women : 
one Bays, if I be not in favour, and high estima- 
tion, with my husband, I mill not fall short, or 
Jlag, or be remiss, in that which may render me 
so, by betaking myself to that which he loveih : 
(T and TA in art. yii»~ :) Meyd says that the 
two nouns are in the accus. case because the 
implied meaning is 3«)t ^^31 ^ <Q>» O^' *>' i 
the Utter noun being [accord, to him] for ^ 3^\, 
for which it may be put for the sake of conformity 
[with the- former] ; ^d the former having the 
signification of the pass. part. n. of iJ^^^, 
that of the part. n. of ^jii^ [or c^^tU.]. (Har 
p. 78.) n An oath ; (T, $, M, Mgh, EL ;) as also 

♦ Of (M,?) and iy\ (T,?,M,?) and »5yi 
andtiift: (8, M,^: [in the C?:, ii^ jy-)lj 
is erroneously put for aJuU sy-^Ij :]) it iB [origi- 
nally he'^r] of the measure 31^ : (S :) pi. l^'ijl. 
(8, Mgh.) A poet says, (namely, Kutheiyir, TA,) 

• Ay^ i*U. g-^l J^ 

[A person of few oaths, who keeps his oath from 
being uttered on ordinary or mean occasi 
but if the oath has proceeded from him at any 
former time, or hastUy, it proves true]: (8,TA:) 
or, as IKh relates it, (*WI J«Ai ; meaning, he 
says, i^St J^ ; the ^ being Buppressed 
see 4. (TA.) 

Q t : see the latter part of the part^raph next 

JI Falling short ; or falling short of what 
is requisite, ot what one ought to do; or flagging, 
or remiss: [and slow, or tardy: kc.: see 1:] 
fem. with a : and pi. of this latter Jiy. (8, TA.) 
See S«ll, used, accord, to Meyd, for 3^\. ^ 
Niggardly, penurious, or avaricious ; impotent 
to fulfil duties or obligations, or to pay dd>ts. 
(?ar p. 78.) 

r^ The piece of rag which a woman holds 
in mailing, (8, TA,) and with which she makes 
signs : (TA :) [it is generally dyed blue, the 
colour of mourning ; and the woman sometimes 
holds It over her shoulders, and sometimes twirls 
it with both hands over her head, or before her 
fece:] pi. JU: (8, TA:) which also sign 
rags used for the mcTtses. (TA in art.^.) 

JUa [part. n. of fi]. It is said in a ti 
jj^t ^>* ^>Ju«A] ^J^, explained as meaning 
Woe to those of my people mho' pronounce sen- 
tence against Ood, saying, Such a one is in 
Paradise, and such aotieisin thefre [of Hell] : 
but see the verb. (TA.) 

1- jj. (?> 5,) «<"■ j^, inf. n. J\, (§,) Hj 
(a man, ^) nvu, or became, large in the 3^t, 

[Book I. 
■ >z^\ "^^ wjjj ^9 : see 1 in 

and see also o^'- 

q.V. (8,?.-). 
art yi. 


J\ : see J\. 

^1, (bo in some copies of the 8 and in the 
M,) accord, to 8b, or "^t, (so likewise in the 
M, in which it is mentioned in art ,^1, [and thus 
it is always pronounced,]) or ^^1 ; (so in several 
copies of the 8 and in the ^, in the last division 
of each of those works, [and thus it is generally 
written;]) and with the lengthened I, [and this 
is the more common form of the word, i. e. '^ ^\, 
as it is always pronounced, or t'jj)\, as it is 
generally written, both of which modes of writing 
it I 6nd in the M.,] (S,.M,E:,) of the same 
measure as v'j^i (M,) indect., with a kesreh 
for its termination ; (§ ;) [These and those,} 
a pi. having no proper sing., (8, ^,) or a noon 
denoting a pi., (M,) or its sing, is 1^ for the 
masc. and a> for the fem., (8, I^,) for it is both 
masc. and fem., (8,) and is apphed to rational 
beings and to irrational things. (M.) [Thus,] 
lS»J1 ^J* .^jl ^, in the l^ur xx. 86, means 
[They are these, following near offer me; or] 
they are near me, coming near after me. (Jel, 
and Bd Bays the like.) And in the same, iii. 115, 

JJ-^y:^ "^3 .^r^ '"iij' -^' •* ^<^ y«» o ye 

these believers, love them, and titey love not you. 

(Jel.) The particle (M) U (S,K) used bb 

an inceptive to give notice of what is about to 
be said is prefixed to it, [i. e., to the form with 
the lengthened I,] (^, M,]^,) so that you say, 
t ,^^ [meaning These, like as I.>a means " this"]. 
(§, !^.) And AZ says that some of the Arabs 
say, iuy iSi* [These are thy people], (8, M,*) 
and ♦ jSi* o^'j [I saw these}, (M,) with tenween 
and kesr (^, M) to the hemzeh ; (8 ;) and this, 
says IJ, is of the dial, of Benoo-'Okeyl. (M.) 
^^And the ^ of allocution is added to it, so 

that you say, iUJ^I, [or JJ^jl, which is the 

• , 1 j' .J-. i' - , 1 

same, and jjSij\, or ^^*i3^, Jcc.,] and ilSjl, 

(8,^,) and jM'jjt, (bo in some copies of the ^ 
and in (he ^,) or iU'^l, (so in some copies of 
the ^ and in the M,)' in which the [second] J 
is augmentative, (M,) and t ^"^X, with teshdeed, 
(^,) [all meaning Those, like as Jl> and iU> 
mean " that ;" and hence] ^ says that when 
one says ^"^jt, the sing, is Jl}> ; and when one 
Bays il'^jl, the sing, is JlJ ; (8 ;) or iu-^t [or 
■IUSIjI, each with an augmentative J, like jiUi, 
(and this, I doubt not, ia the correct Btatement,)] 
is as though it were pi. ofiU>: (M:) but one 
does not say ^"^jU, or ^'^j\i,, (M,) [nor 
•iU*^^, or the Uke.] [Thus it is said in the 

?ur ii.^4, ^ iuSijij ^ a^ i^i* ^ iis^jt 

^j j ^JUL^I Tliose follow a right direction from 
their Lord, and those are they who shall prosper.} 
And sometimes ^'^^X is apphed to instional 

Book I.] 

things, as in the phrase >b^t ^*:)^\ jji^ [After 
those days]; and in the ]^ur [xvii. 38], where 

it is said, ^y^\ ji> >t^t^ ^^.^Jt^ ^^1 O] 

*jji^«^ a;^ ^l£» [Verily the ears and the eyes 
and the hearty all of those shall be inquired of]. 

(S.) The dims, are t $t and t ji^\ (S, M) 

and t (Cj^ : (M :) for the formation of the dim. 
of a noun of vague application does not alter 
its commencement, but leaves it in its original 
state, with fet-h or damm, [as the case may be,] 
and the ^ which is ^e characteristic of the dim. 
is inserted in the second place if the word is 

one of two letters, [as in the instance of U3y dim. 
of tS«1 and in the third place if it is a word of 
three letters. (S.) 8aB^*>)t, (as in some copies of 

the S and T,) of the same measure as ^^^)bi)t; 
(S ; [wherefore the author of the TA prefers this 
mode of writing it, which expresses the manner 

in which it is always pronounced ;]) or ^*^\ ; 

(ISd, TA ;) or jj^*^l ; (so in some copies of the 

S and T ;) is likewise a pi. having no proper 

sing., [meaning They whoy those which, and 

simply who, and which,] its sing, being ^JJ) ; 

(S ;) or is changed from being a noun of indica- 

<* s 
tion so as to have the meaning of ^ JJt ; as also 

t j'9'^l ; wherefore they have the lengthened as 
well as the shortened alif, and that with the 
lengthened alif is made iudecl. by terminating 
with a kesreh. (ISd.) A poet says. 


• ^0* ^ 

[And they who are in Et-Taff, of the family 
of Hdshim, shared their property, one with 
another, and so set the example, to the generotis, 
of the sharing of property], (T, and S in art. 

Aurfl, where, in one copy, I find ^J*^^ in the place 

^ i 
of iJ|^*^t.) And another poet says. 

[And verily they who know thee, of them] : which 
shows what has been said above, respecting the 
change of meaning. (ISd.) Ziydd £1-A^*am 
uses the former of the two words without Jt, 

I •J«Cx 

I ^ ^ <» ^ 

[For ye are they who came with the herbs, or 
leguminous plants, and the young locusts, and 
they have gone away, while these, yourselves, 
are not going away] : (T :) he means that their 
nobility is recent, (l^am p. 678 ; where, instead 

of ^LiU and ^J^\, we find JJ:J\^ and ^\.) — In 

the phrase ^^*^t ^rJ^^ (^ ^^ ^^^ ^> ^^^ ^^ 
some copies of the ^ and El,) or ^j)*^t, (as also 
in the L, and in other copies of tiie S and T^, 
[and thus it is always pronounced,]) ^^*^t or 

J*^t may also signify O^J^t, the verb tyUU 
being suppressed afler it, because understood; 
[bo that the meaning is. The Arabs who have 
preceded, or passed away;] so says Ibn-£sh- 


Shejeree : (L :) or it is formed by transposition 

from J^*^!, being pi. of ^^\ [fem. of J^t], like 

as j^\ is pi. of j^t : and it is thus in the phrase, 

^J^^\ ^^\ C^iS or ^"^l [The first Arabs 
have passed away], (S, K.) 'Obeyd Ibn-El- 

A J • ^ 

Abras uses the phrase, ^*!)\ O'^ [^ meaning 
We are the first], (TA.) 

^y I : see ^U 

yj\ : see ^\ : sasand see also art ^\, 

Jj (T, S, M, K) and t Jt, (S, M, K,) the 
latter said by Zekereey^ to be the most common, 
and the same is implied in the S, but MF says 
that this is not known, (TA,) and t^l, (T,) or 
t ^\, (£s-Semeen, !^,) like y^, (Es-Semeen, 
TA,) [belonging to art. ^\,] and t Ml (T, M, K) 

and t ^\ (M,?;) and t % (Es-Sakhdwee, Zeke- 
reeyi, T A) and ▼ ^1 , (the same,) or ^\ , occur- 
ring at the end of a verse, but it may be a 

contraction of ^\ , meaning \j^, (M,) A benefit, 
benefaction, favour, boon, or blessing : pi. l*^\, 

(T, S, M, K, &c.) I Amb says that ^J\ and ^J^ 
are originally *^^ and •^^. (TA.) 


2^\ The buttoch, or buttocks, rump, or poste- 
riors, syn. Ijtfl^^, (K,) or [more properly] Jj^, 
(M,) of a man &c., (M,) or of a sheep or goat, 
(Lth, T, S,) and of a man, (Lth, T,) or of a ewe : 
(ISk, T :) or the flesh and fat thereon : (M, T^ :) 
you should not say ▼ a^\ , (T, S, 1^,) a form men- 
tioned by the expositors of the Fs, but said to be 
vulgar and low ; (TA ;) nor Sj, (T, S, K,) with 
kesr to the J, and with teshdeed to the ^, as in 
the S, [but in a copy of the S, and in one of the 
T, written without teshdeed,] a form asserted to 
be correct by some, but it is rarer and lower than 
2^\ , though it is the form commonly obtaining 
with the vulgar : (TA :) the dual, is t ^juJ |, (AZ, 
T, S,) without O ; (S ;) but oM sometimes 

occurs : (IB :) ^>«^*^t ^\ is an epithet applied 
to the Zenjee, (£[ in art ^fci,) meaning having the 
buttocks cleaving together : (TA in that art. :) the 

pi. is oyt (T,M,'K) and g-^l; (M,K:;) the 
latter anomalous. (M.) Lh mentions the phrase, 

Ole^t ^J^ Aj\ [Verily he has large buttocks] ; as 
though the term ij\ applied to every part of what 
is thus called. (M.) ^ Fat, as a subst. : (M :) 
and a piece of fat, (M, ]^)^The tail, or fat 
of the tail, (Pers. aJ>,) of a sheep. (KL.) [Both 
of these significations (the " tail," and " fat of the 
tail," of a sheep) are now commonly given to 

3ifi, a corruption of ^t mentioned above: and in 
the ^, voce jy^y it is said that the Pers. tj^ aJ^ 
signifies J^l ajt.] JIJ) ij!\ Hie muscle of 

St J ^ ^ ' 

the shank; syn. JLJ) SU^ [which see, in art. 
y^]. (AAF, M^ ?:.) — ^V/^« 0? The portion 
of flesh that is at the root of the thumb ; (S, M ;) 

Si ^ 

and which is also called its lj^\ (M;) or the 

St * 

part to which corresponds the cj^; (S;) and 

mt f » ^%it St " 

which is also called \JSJ\ ^\ ; the ij^ being the 


portion of flesh in (^^ [app* & mistranscription 
for ^>6 from]) the little finger to the prominent 
extremity of the ulna next that finger, at the 
wrist : (TA :) or the portion of flesh in the Ij^ 
of the thumb, (]§[.) _j-JdJl i^\ The portion 
of flesh that is beneath the little finger; [app. 
wfiat is described above, as called the Zj^o, extend- 
if^ from that finger to the prominent extremity 
of the ulna, at the wrist;] also called jJt iQt. 
(Lth, T.) — JO! lyl The aj( of thi thumb 

ut ^ J^V^ 

[described above as also called by itself USii\ ^t] 
and the Zj^ of the little finger [respecting which 
see the next preceding sentence]. (TA, from a 
trad.)^j»jjU) a^t The part of the human foot 
upon which one treads, which is the portion of 
flesh beneath [or next to] the little toe, (M.) «« 
jiUJt 3Lfi\ The hinder part of the solid hoof, 

a M.) 

ajt : see a«Jt. 
C\^\ : see ^\^\. 

"Of %"»t 

OV^ an irreg. dual of ^t, q. v. 

• ""t 

J "Bt 

Oyi (T,S,M,K) and t ^yt (M, ?[) and 
^ i/^f (T, ?, K:,) of the measure Jill, (S,) and 
^ J^ (M,) or t jf, (so in some copies of the K, 
and so accord, to the TA,) or t Jj\^ (go in a copy 
of the If,) or * ^Jl, (accord, to the CK,) and 
t J!, (M, K,) applied to a ram. Large in the 2^\, 
q. V. : (T,* S, M,* If,* TA :) and so, applied to a 
ewe, h\J\, (T, M, ?, [in the CEl hQ\,]) fem. of 
oQ\; (T;) and tTQl, (T, S, M, B:,) fem. of 
^\ : (T, S :) and in like manner these epithets 
[masc. and fem. respectively, ^T, however, being 
omitted in the M,] are applied to a man and to 
a woman ; (M, K ;) or, accord, to Aboo-Is-hd^, 
(M,) ^t is applied to a man, and iSja^^ to a 

woman, but not i\m^\, (S, M,) though [it b asserted 
that] some say this, (S,) Yz saying so, accord, to 
A'Obeyd, (IB,) but A 'Obeyd has erred in this 

matter : (M :) the pi. is ^*!, (T, S, M, ]f , [in 
the CKl erroneously written with fet-h to the I,]) 
pi. of ^JT, (T, S, M,) or of jT; of the former 
because an epithet of this kind is generally of the 

J" tS 

measure Jj^t, or of the latter afrer the manner of 

Jsv as pi. of Jjl/, and >*^ as pi. of aSU ; (M ;) 

applied to rams (T, S, M) and to ewes, (T, S,) 

• " ""% 
and to men and to women ; (M, ]f \) and oOV^t, 

(s, M, K, [in the c?: ooyi,]) pi. of aSQt, 

(TA,) [but] applied to rams (S) [as well as ewes], 
or to women, (M, ]f ,) and, also applied to women, 
V^\ , (M, and so in a copy of the K, [in the Clf 

*'^M) or V^\, (so in some copies of the El, and in 
the TA,) with medd, pi. of ^^1, (TA,) and \^:t\ 
(K,) pi. of oOl. (TA.) 

i»A f"i\ f"»\ Vxl A 

••^l and f'^jA and •^JjA and ••^'^t : see ^^1. 

^\, mentioned in this art. in the ]f : see art 

^\ : a^and see also ^\^\, 


: see ^^t 

S'l '^stA ■ 

\4\ and eW^ ^^^ ^ 

t^l A man mho sells fat, nhich u termed 3^'4\. 

' si A 

^•91 : aee ^^1. 


^t, and its fern. t\^\ ; see ^Vl, in two places. 

1. i^l, (T, S, M, &c.,) aor i, (T, M, Mfb,) 
inf. n. J\, (T,S, M, M?b,) He tended, repaired, 
betook kimtelf, or directed hi* coune, to, or to- 
wards, him, or /(; aimed at, eought, endeavoured 
after, purtued, or endeavoured to reach or attain 
or obtain, him, or i( ; intended it, or purposed it 
Byn. ij-^, (Lth, T, S, M, Mgh, Msb, T^,) and 
«1^y, (T,) and '>,j.U3, (Mgh,) and v'l d^^ ; 
(TA B8 also ♦ Z^\, and * i^U, (T, 8, M, 
Mgh, Mfb, ?,,) and ♦iiJ'. (M, Jg^,) and t i^^i, 
(T,M,K,) and tii^'; (T,M,Mgh,5;) the 
last two being forraed by substitution [of ^_j for I]. 
(M.) Hence, ^ U^t ^\ C [0 Ood, bring us 
good]. (JK in art. Alt, and Bd in iii. 25.) And 
^ U ^'9, occurring in a trad., meaning .ffe hat 
indeed betaken himself to, or pursued, the right 
way : or it i» used in a pass, sense, as meaning 
he is in the way which ought to he pursued. (TA.) 
And idJl ^3^j 'f^^bt C«*i»i.''l, in another trad., 
/ went ajoay, betaking myself to the ApottU of 
Ood. (TA.) Hence, also, rJL^ J*».ijl t.^ 
life betook kimtelf to dust, or pure dvtt, to wipe 
his face and his hands and arms therewith, for 
prayer] : (T,* M,* Mgh, TA :) as in the K.^ 
iv. 46 and v. 9 : (I8k, M, TA :) whence ^ 
as meaning the wiping the face and the kandt and 
armswitk dust; (I8k, T,' M,» Mgh, TA;) i.e. 
the performing the act termed y^yi with dust : 
formed by substitution [of ^ for I] : (M, (f :) 

originally ^(jt. (K.) See also S.^A^t, (S, 

M, Mgh, &c.,) aor. i , (M, Mgh,) inf. n. % (M, 
Mgh, ^,) He brolte hit head, to as to cleave the 
thin, (S, M$b,) indicting a wound tuck at is 
termed all [q. v.] ; (S ;) [i. e.] he ttruck, (M, 
Mgh, K,) or wounded, (M, ?,) the ^1 [q. v.] of 
his head, (M, Mgb, ^,) with a staff, or etick. 
(Mgh.)-ij;:i (S.M,^) and^Jl, (M,?,) 
[aor. ; ,] inf. n. iiu, (§, [but in'the M and K 
it seems to be indicated that this is a simple 
Bubst.,]) He preceded tkem; went before them; 
took precedence of them; or led tkem, so at to 
serve at an example, or object of imitation ; syn. 
„,^jJu; (M, ¥;) [and particularly] i'jJ^\ ^ 
[inprayer]. (8.) And a«1 and *^Jil Heprayed 
(M^Ut [q. v.] with him. (Msb.) AndiJyLaJt^l 
He became [or acted at] ^Ul to the people com- 
poring therankt [in a mosque ice.], (^arp. 680.) 
You say also, *juJl, ^ Jjl.Jll J^^l^jS ■^' [A 
man thall not take precedence of a man in his 
autkority] ; meaning, in his house, and where he 
lias predominance, or superior power, or authority; 
nor shall he sit upon bia cusbioo ; for in doing so 

he would show him contempt. (Mgh in art. JkJu<.) 

^C^t, (^, M,K,) [first pers. C.^^1,] aor.-', 

(M,) inf. n. *C^\, (M, ^,) Ske (a woman, 8) 

became a mother ; ($, M, ^ ;) [as also C^t 

having for its iirst pers. w.«>1, aor. - ; for] you 

it ,1 

say, Cs«>l jJUj Ul wsi& U [Thou watt not a 

mother, and tkou katt become a mctker], (8, M, 
E:, [in the last c4^&,]) with kesr, (1^,) inf. n. 
.i^yS, (^,M,^.)^a:ivM\ I was tohimamo- 
tker. (A in art. ^^j.) lA^, speaking of a 
woman, stud, X^*^ "U* V <^^) meaning [She 
liad, lit. tliere wat to her, a paternal aunt] who 
was to Iter like the mother. (M.) 

8. A*«l and A*«j : see 1, first sentence, in two 

3. imI It agreed with it, neither exceeding nor 
falling short. (M.) ^ [See also the part. n. 
>t^, voce,,v«l; whence it seems that tliere are 
other senses in which ^t may be used, intransi- 

6. .^U and ^^^ : see 1, former part, in four 
places. BB 4/ „«.*U: see 8. t^w<«.*U Z took for 
^y>elfi or adopted, a motker. (^.) And \itM 
He took her for himulf, or adopted her, as a 
mother; (S,»M,?;) as also tV*ti*l, (M, K:,) 
and^i.^:. (M.) 

8. A^l [written with the disjunctive abf 
A^l]: see 1, first sentence. ^ «^ ,>l21 He fol- 
lowed hit example; he imitated kirn; he did as 
he did, following Ais example ; or taking kirn as 
an example, an exemplar, a pattern, or an object 
of imitation ; (S, Mgh, Msb ;) as also ♦ Itl : (Bd 
in xvi. 121 :) the object of the verb is termed 
>UI ; (§, M, Mgh, Msb, K ;) applied to a learned 
man, (M|b,) or a head, chief, or leader, or some 
other person. (M, ^.) He made it an lUI or i«l 
[i. e. a way, course, or rule, of life or conduct; 
as explained immediately before in the work 
whence this is taken] ; as also d^ ^^^U. (M.) 
You say, •|_^V>*-^' ^^^ *i |_5*~>I> by substitu- 
tion [of|_yfor>], (M, K,) disapproving of the 
doubling [ofthe^]. (M.) 



^t is a conjunction, (8, M, ^,) connected with 
what precedes it (M|b, Mughnee) so that neither 
what precedes it nor what follows it is inde- 
pendent, the one of the other. (Mughnee.) It 
denotes interrogation ; (M, ^ ;) or is used in a 
case of interrogation, (8, Msb,) corresponding to 
the interrogative I, and meaning (^1, (S,) or, as 
Z says, ^\^ Oi/^'i^ ij?! ; [for an explanation of 
which, see what follows;] (Mughnee;) or, [in 
other words,] corresponding to the intem^tive I, 
whereby, and by >l, one seeks, or desires, parti- 
cularization : (Mughnee :) it is as though it were 
an interrogative after an interrogative. (Lth, T.) 
Thus you say, jj^ ^1 jljjl ^ ^j\ [Is Zeyd in 
tlte house, or 'Amr ?] ; (8, Mughnee ;) i. e. which 
of them two (CvdO i^ in the house? (S;) there- 
fore what follows ^\ and what precedes it compose 

[Book I. 

one sentence ; and it is not used in commanding 
nor in forbidding ; and what follows it must cor- 
respond to what precedes it in the quality of noun 
and of verb ; so that you say, .*£l3 j,\ ^U j,jjl 
[Is Zeyd standing, or sitting?] and^l ^jjtW 
jjJ [Did Zeyd stand, or sit ?]. (Msb.) It is not 
to be coupled with I a^r it: you may not say, 
j^^«e iljJ«t ^1 j^j ^j^l. (§.) ^ As connected 
in like manner with what goes before, it is pre- 
ceded by t denoting equality [by occurring after 
ayt &c.], and corresponds thereto, as in [the Kur 

Uiii.6,]^'>Aili^'>i^o>iiili^^ :t;: 

[It will be equal to tkem whether thou beg forgive- 
ness for tkem or do not beg forgiveness for tkem]. 
(Mughnee.)^It is also unconnected with what 
precedes it, (S, M;b, Mughnee,) implying always 
digression, (Mughnee,) preceded by an enuncia- 
tive, or an interrogative, (8, M|b, Mughnee,) 
other than ), (Mughnee,) or by I not meant 
[really] as an interrogative but to denote disap- 
proval, (Mughnee,) and signifies J^, (Lth, Zj, 
T, S, M, Mughnee, ^,) or J^ and I together, 
(Msb,) and this is its meaning always accord, 
to all the Basrees, but the Koofees deny this. 
(Mughnee.) Thus, using it after an enunciative, 
you say, !li >! J^S t^t [Verily they are camels : 
nay, or nay but, they are sheep, or goait : or nay, 
are they sheep, or goats ?] : (§, Msb, Mughnee :) 
this being said when one looks at a bodily form, 
and imagines it to be a number of cameb, and 
says what first occurs to him ; then the opinion 
that it is a number of sheep or goats suggests 
itself to him, and he turns from the first idea, and 
says, i\ii jt\, meaning Jv, because it is a digression 
from what precedes it ; though what follows ^ 
is [properly] a thing known certainly, and what 
follows ^t is opined. (8, TA) And using it after 
an interrogative in this case, you say, ojj ^ 
^j^ ^\ ij^ioi^ [Is Zeyd going away? JVay 
rather, OT, or rather, is 'Amr ?]i you digress from 
the question respecting Zeyd's going away, and 
make the question to relate to 'Amr; so that ^t 
implies indecisive opinion, and interrogation, and 
digression. (8.) And thus using it, you say, juj Ja 
}j^_^\y3 [Did Zeyd stand? Nay ratk^r, or 
or rather, did 'Amr?}. (Msb.) And qn ex. of 
the same is the saying [in the Kur xiii. 17], 
oCiwTj^^ ji^t ^t^3 i^"^^ ijy^ J* 
jjJIj [Are the blind and tke seeing equal? Or 
rather are darkness and light equal?]. (Mughnee.) 
And an ex. of it preceded by I used to denote 
disapproval is the saying [in the ^ur vii. 194], 

they feet, to walk therewith? Or have they hands 
to assault therewith?} : for I is here equivalent to 
a negation. (Mughnee.) [It has been shown 
above that] ^1 is sometimes introduced imme- 
diately before Ja : (8, ^ :) but IB says that this 
is when J* occurs in a phrase nest before it ; [as 
in the ei. from the '^at xiii. 17, cited above ;] 
and in this case, the interrogative meaning of^t 
mulled; it being introduced only to denote a 
digression. (TA.) ^ It is also used as a simple 
interrogative ; accord, to the assertion of AO; in 

Book I.] 

the Miue of ^ ; (Mughnee ;) or ia the sense of 
the mterrogatiTe t ; (Lth, T, ^ ;) aa in the Baying, 
^W I1Jl± ^j.^ jA, meBDing Satt thou a mom- 
inff-itual ready ? a good form of speech used hj 
the Arabs; (Lth, T;) and allovable when pre- 
ceded by another phrase. (T.)^AndsometinieB 
it is redundant; (AZ,T,S,Mugfanee,^;) in the 
dial, of the people of El-Yemen ; (T ;) as in the 

UJJ ^ o^ U^t ^'i <i 

uJp ^j^ oJ^ ji J; 

(T, §,* [in the latter, j^;* t, and only the fonner 
hemistich is giren,]) meaning O Dahnd, (the 
curtailed form ,^i being used for tUkj,) my 
ivalking wa* not, as now in my age, [a ieeble 
movement like] dancing : but in my youth, my 
mawur of walking tued to be a bounding : (T :) 
this is accord, to the opinion of AZ : but accord, 
to another opinion, ^t is here [virtually] conjoined 
with a preceding clause which is suppressed ; as 
though the speaker had stud, ^Jt^ ijl^l ,^> Xt 
^i^^t^ U^l Cij. (A'94t,TA.)^It is 
also used (T, Mughnee) in the dial, of the people 
of El-Yemen, (T,) or of Ipeiyi and ^myer, 
(Mughnee,) in the sense of ^1, (T,) to render a 
noun determinate. (Mughnee.) So in the trad., 
^ilif Ji ^Cf-l" jJ>^ O^ J4. (T, Mughnee,) 
i. e. _^t ij*^C4" J?" O^ J-i [Fattiag in 
journeying it not an act of obedience to God]. 
(T, and M in art. ^.) So too in the trad., ^-Jl 
.^{I^mI ^\if Nam fighting hae become lawful; 
as relaled accord, to the dial, of ^imyer, for 
^j^\. (TA in art. «,»eb-) It has been said that 
tlds formal is only used in those cases in which 
Hm ^ of the article does not become incorporated 
into the first letter of the noun to which it is pre- 
fixed; as in the phrase, ,^Ji«l -r^/i ^^1 J^ 
[Take dtou the tpear, and mount the mare, or 
hort«\, related as heard in El-Yemen; but this 
otage may be peculiar to some of the people of 
tbat country ; not common to all of them ; as 
appears from what we have cited above. (Mugh- 
nee.) ^4>>l for Ul, before an oath: see art. Ut, 
ivAnd ^T^l and ^'^1 kc.: see^T^t,in 
art. t>^. 

Jl A mother (T, 8, M, Mjb, ]^, &c.) [of a 
human being and] of any animal; (lA^, T;) 
aa also tjl, (8b,M,M?b,¥,) and tUl, (T, 
M, Mfb, ^,) and * a^l, ($, M, Mf b, ^,) which 
last ia the original form (^, Msb) accord, to 
acme, (M{b,) or the • in this is augmentative (M, 
Mfb) accord, to others : (M$b :) the pi. is ol^l 
(Xth, T, 9, M, Mfb, ^) and od ; (S, M, Mfb, 
^ ;) or the former is applied to human beings, 
and the Utter to beasta ; (T, S ;) or the fonner to 
ntional beings, and the latter to irrational; (M, 
$;) or the former is much applied to human 
beings, and the latter to others, for the sake 
of distinction ; (M;b;) but the reverse is some- 
tunca the case : (IB :) IDrst and others hold 
the latter to be of weak authority : (TA :) the 
dim. . oC ^1 IB t l«««l (T, 1^, ^) accord, to some 

of the Arabs: but correctly, [accord, to those 

Si *,ii 

who hold the original form of^l to be i^Al,] 

it is t V^l. (Ltii, T, TA. [In a copy of the 
T, I find this latter form of die dim. written 
2y««l.])_iuji1 '^denotes disprtuse; (^;) being 
used by the Araba as meaning Thou hast 
free, or ingenuous, mother; because the sons 
of female slaves are objects of dispraise with the 
Arabs; and is only said in anger and reviling: 
(AHeyth, T :) or, as some say, it means thou 
art one who has been picked up as a foundling, 
having no known mother : (TA :) [or] it is also 
BometimeB used in praise; (A 'Obeyd, T, 8, ]^ ;) 
and is used as an imprecation without the desire 
of its being fulfilled upon the person addressed, 
being said in vehemence of love, [Ut. meaning 

- ■" - "^ 

mayeet thou have no mother!], like J)UI JKiS3, 

and iU g'l i, [and ^T Jjj'i,] kc (^ar p. 166.) 

Some elide the t of ^1 ; as in the saying of 

'Adee Ibn-Zeyd, 

[0 thou who art biamitig in my pretence the 
mother of Zeyd] ; meaning, jJj _j,\ ^J»fr ; the 
^^ of ^jUe being also elided on account of the 
occurrence of two quiescent letters [after the 
elision of the t of >l] : (Lth, T, S :) and as in 
the phrase aJ^j, ($,) which means Aa*^ J.^^. 
(8, and ?: in art. ^ j, q. v.) ^ iui lU means 
Tkey two are thy two parents: or thy mother 
and thy maternal aunt. (^.) [But] 4*1^ *|ji 
is said to mean [ffe expretted a with that he 
(another) might be ransomed mith] hit mother 
and kit grandmother. (TA.)^One says also, 
^J^»iL> '•} ^ <Z^\ tj [0 my mother, do not thou 
such a thing], and [in like manner] J»i\ ■Z^\ ^ ; 
making the sign of the fem. gender a substitute 
for the [pronominal] affix fj; and in a case 
of pause, you say tut Ij. (8.)^ And one says, 

**b (j*l ^' ^^ *J^i 1,^^ ^' meaning [What 
relationship have I to him, or it? OTwhatconcem 
have I with him, or it? or] what it my cote 
and [what is] his or its, case ? because of his, 
or its, remoteness from me : whence, (T,) 
a. ,, il, .1 ., 

[And what concern have I with the wild animalt 
when hoarinets hath spread in the places where 
my hair partt?]; (T, § ;) i. e. »i-U»J *^' ^ 
C>(& U jjv lA^j" ["• e- lA^V ' -T-^J 1^' ^ '■ 
in one copy of the §, i^JlLij, i. e. with j aa a 
prep, denoting concomitance, and therefore go- 
verning the accuB. case : both readings virtually 
meaning what concern have I with the pursuing 
of the wild animals ajier I have grown old ?] : 

he means, the sirls: and the mention of^l in 

the verse is superfiuous. (B.)^^a\ also relates 
to inanimate things that have growth; as in 
. , a 31 ° .n it 

{j^\ jt\ [T%e mother of the tree} ; and U»^\ ^\ 

[the mother of the paljn-tree'\ ; and i}y^\^\ [the 

mother of the banana-tree; of which see an ex. 
in art. j^]; and the hke. (M, TA.)^And 
it signifies also The source, origin, foundation, 
or batis, (9, M, M(b, ?,) of a tiling, (8, Mfb, 
[in the former of which, this is the first of the 
meanings assigned to the word,]) or of anything ; , 
(M, JjC ;) its tlay, support, or efficient cause of 
subsistence. (M, 5-) — Anything to which other 
thingt are collected together, or adjoined: (IDrd, 
M, ^ :) anything to which the other things that 
are next thereto are collected together, or adjoined: 
(Lth,T:) the main, or chief, part of a thing; 
the main body thereof: and that which is a com- 
priter, or comprehender, of [other] things : (^am 
p. 44 :) the place of collection, comprisal, or cont- 
prehension, of a thing ; the place of combination 

thereof. (En-Nadr, T.) And hence, (IDrd, 

M,) The head, or chief, of a people, or company 
of men ; (IDrd, 8> M, ^ ;) because others collect 
themselves together to him : (IDrd, TA :) so 
in the phrase Jle»^l [lit the mother of a house- 
hold], in a poem of Esh-Shenfar& : (IDrd, M :) 
or in this instance, it has the signification next 

following, accord, to Esh-Shdfi'ee. (T.) A 

nuin who h4it the charge of the food and service 
of a people, or company of men ; accord, to Esh- 

Shdfi'ee: (T:) or their MnwBf. (?.) A 

man's aged wife, (lA^, T, ^.) ^ A place of 
habitation or abode. (^.) So in the ^nr [ci. 6], 
<^jU aM Sit place of habitation or abode [shall 
be] the fire [of Hell] : (Bd, Jel, TA :) or, as 
some say, the meaning is \^ ^jl* a^Ij >I [hit 
brain ihall fall iiUo U, namely, the fire of Hell]. 
(TA) ^ The ensign, or standard, which an army 

follows. ($.) [See ^^1 ^1, below.] It U said 

in a trad., respecting the prophets, ^J^J^^^^t 
meaning that, though their religion is one, their 
lawt, or ordinances, or statutes, are various, or 
different: or the meaning is, their times are 
various, or different. (TA in art. Ow.) ^ See 
also <UI, in two places. ^^1 is also prefixed to 
noons significant of many thingB. (M.) [Most 
of the compounds thus formed will be found 
explained in die arts, to which belong the nouns 
that occupy the second place. The following are 
among the more common, and are therefore hero 
mentioned, with the meanings assigned to them 
in lexicons in the present art., and arranged in 
distinct classes.]^ J^t ^l The man's wife; 
and the perion who manages the affairi of hit 
house or tent. (TA.) And ^jJI ,^^ j,\ The 
man's wife, to whom he betakes himtelffor lodging, 
or abode: (T:) the mitlrett of the man' i place 

of abode. ($, M.) ^ j.«U ^1 The hyena, or 

' ' • . it 
female hyena ; as also »«« jt\ ; (TA ;) and 

s it 
^J^JU^^^. (9,TA. [See also other significations 

ofthefirstand last below.]) ,^JL-^l[or,,JLjt^t 
(as in the 9 and Ij; in art. UJU.)] 2%« <Ae-aii. 
(TA.) ,>J^1 ^1 The female ottrich. (8, ]^.) 
^^yt-»1 The brain: (T,M,K:) or the thin 
thin that it upon it : (IDrd, M,?.:) or the bag 
in which is the brain : (T :) or the thin that 
comprises the brain; [the meninx, or dura mater 
and pia mater;] (§, Mgh;) whidi is called 

&UjJl ^1 (S, Mfb) likewise. (?.) — ^ji^^ J^t 
The Milky way ; (S, M, ]^ ;) because it is tie 
place where the stars are collected together [in 
great maltitude] : (M :) or, as some say, the tun ; 
which is the greatest of the stars, (^xm pp. 43 

and 44.) Because of the multitude of the stare 

' J I , 

in the Milky way, one says, jt\i .l t .J^.4 a^I U 

jty^\ I [Hore like it thine anembly to the MUky 

may!]. (TA-) i^jst j»t [The mother of the 

townt; the metropolit: particularly] Mekkeh ; 
(T, S, M, '^ ;) because asserted to be in the 
middle of the earth ; (M, 1^ ;) or because it 
is the l^ibleh of all men, and thither they repair ; 
(M, ^ ;*) or because it is the greatest of towns 
in dignity : (M, 5 ^'^^ every city is the ^l of 
the towns around it. (T.) tjUUjJI >l Tlte mont 
difficult of Aetertt or of roaterlett detertt: (T;) 
or a detert, or waterlett desert, (^,^,)_/ar ea-- 
tendiag. (S.) Ji^t >.l (T, §, M) and ♦ ill 
Jo^l Q^t ^ The main part [or track] of the 
road: (T,S,M,]^:) when it it a great road 
or track, with smaU roads or tracki around it 
[or on either tide], tlie greatett it so called. (T. 
[The former has bIbo another signification, men- 
tioned above.]) mU jt\ Tlie cemetery, qt plate 
of graves. (T. [This, also, has another significa- 
tion, mentioned before^]) •»«yi>t The ensign, 
or standard; (M,^;) also called vi^^l ji\ ; 
(TA ;) [and simply ^'^\, as shown above ;] and 
the piece of cloth which iiwound upon the spear. 

(T, M.*) ji'i^ ^\ Bread : and also the ear of 

" -- U 

com. (T.) .i-Sl^I j,\ [The mother of enil 

qualities or ditpositiont ; i. e.] mine. (T.) ^1 
yUXJI [in the Kur iii. 5 and liii. 39] (S, M, &c.) 
The original of the booh or scripture [i. e. of the 
Kiir-dn]: (Zj,M,^:) or the Preserved Tablet , 
iyuUll ^Ji}l: (M,M8b,^:) or it signifies, 
(M,^,) or signifies also, (M;b,) the opening 
chapter of the Kur-dn ; the aljU; (M, Msb, T^ ;) 
because every prayer begins therewith; (M ;) as 
also Ol^t -^1 : (Alfb, 1^ :) or the former, the 
whole of the Kur-dn, (I 'Ab, 5i) y*wn itt begin- 
ning to its end : (TA :) and the latter, every 
plain, or explicit, verse of tlie Kur-dn, of those 
which relate to laws and statutes and obligatory 
ordinances. (T,If.) ^I >l Every evil upon 
the face of the earth : and j«^l ^\ every good 
upon the face of the earth. (T.) 
a Si 

^t : see ^1, first sentence. 

1^ : see 1^. 


<U1 A way, course, mode, or manner, of acting, 

or conduct, or the tike ; (AZ, 8 ;) as also * 1*1 : 
(AZ, §, 5 :) Fr assigns this meaning to the latter, 
and that next following to the former : (T :) a 
may, course, or rule, of life, or conduct; (Fr, T, 
M, 1^ ;) ^as also * 1^1. (M, ^.} ^ Seligion ; 
asalso'iSj: (AZ.^.M,^: [one of the worda 
by which this meaning is expressed in the M and 
^ is JUsji i for which Goliua found in the K 

i^j^ :}) one course, nhich people follow, in reli' 
gion. (T.) You say, <J JUI '^ If^i Such a one 
has no religion; no religious pereuation. (S.) 
And a poet saya, 

lAnd are one who hat religion and one who it 
an infidel equal?]. (S.) ^ Obedience [app. to 
God]. (T, M, K:.)^The peopU of a [particular] 
religion : (Akh, ? " people to whom an apostle 
it tent, (M, ^,) unbelievert and believers; such 
being called his i-al : (M :) any people called 
afier a prophet are said to be his i«t : (Ltb, T :) 
the folltmert of the prophet : pl.^l. (T, M?b.) 
It is said in the ^ur [u.20g], Sj»1^ 1^1 J^t J^, 
meaning Mankind wat [a people] of one religion. 
(Zj, T, TA.)__A notion; a people; a race; a 
tribe, distinct body, or family ; (Lth, T, M, ^ ;) 
of mankind^ (Lth, T ;) or of any living beings 
as also *v»l ; (M, IJ:) a collective body [of men 
or other living beings] ; (T, S ;) a sing, word 
with a pi. meaning : (Akh, 8:) a kind, genus, 
generical chut, (T, S, M, ?,) by itself, (T,) of 
any animals, or living beings, (T, S, M, TA,) 
others than the sons of Adam, (T,) as i 
(T, ^, M,) and of other beasts, and of birds ; (T, 
M,' TA ;) as also t^l ; (M, K ;) pi. of the 
former^^l ; (S, M ;) which occurs in a trad, as 
relating to dogs ; (8 ;) and in the Eur vi. 38, as 
relating to beasts and birds. (T, M,' TA.) __ 
A man's people, community, tribe, kinsfolk, or 
party; (M,'^,T A;) hie company. (TA.y^A 
generation of men ; or people of one time : pi. 
jfu\; as in the saying, ^^1 sf«a« Jj Generations 
of men have passed away. (T.)^The creatures 
of God. (M, ?,.) You say, Jb\ 3^\ o^ ^j U 
<U« ,j,-^\ [I have not seen, of the creatures of 
God, one more beautiful than he]. (M.) i 
^Ul; (T,M,K;) accord, to A'Obeyd, applied 
in this sense to Abraham, in the Kur i 
(T.)^A righteous man who is an object of 
imitation. (T.) ^ One who foUoms the true 
religion, holding, or doing, what it different from, 
or contrary to, all other religions : (M, ^ :) [said 
to be] thus applied to Abraham, ubi supr&. (M.) 
^ One who it htionm for goodnett : (Fr, T :) 
so explained by Ibn-Mes'ood as applied to Abra- 
ham : (TA :) or, so applied, it has the signification 
next following : (TA :) a man combining all 
kindi of good qualities: (T, M, ^;) or, as some 
say, repaired to : or imitated. (B^.)^^ A learned 
man; (T, M, ^:) one who has no equal: (T :) 
the learned man of hit age, or time, who 
singular in his learning: (Mfb :) and one who 
alone in respect of religion. (T.)^See also^f, 
first sentence. Hence, C-.«t U, which see in the 
same paragraph. MB The stature of a man; faU- 
nest, and beauty of stature ; or justness of stature; 
syn. ailj; (T, S, M, Mfb, IJ ;) and l\ki: (M, 
TA : [in the ]^, the signification of £UJ is 
asngned to it ; but this is evidently a mistake for 
ilki ; for the next three significations before the 
former of these words in the ^ are the same as 
the nest three before the latter of them in the M 
and the next five after the former word in the I^ 

[Boos I. 

sre the sune as die next five after the latter in the 
M| yrith only this difference, that one of these five 
is the first of them in the M and the third of them 

the ?. :]) pl- Jiil- (T, S, M.') You say, ijj 
i^'jy o^-iJ, i. e. ^lkl}1 [Verily he it beautiful 

justness of stature], (M.) And El-Afshii 

-U'-^i J^^ •*;•> O^ 

[Beautiful in respect of the fares,] tall in respect 
of the statures. (T, §, M.* [In the last, ^jktf 

>^^t.]) The/ace. (T,M,^.) 4-^1 4^1 T^e 

form of tlie face: (AZ, T :) or the principal 
part thereof; (M, ^ ;) the part thereof in which 
beauty is usually known to lie. (M.) You say, 
(^.yi (Ul o--*J *'J Verily lie is beautiful in the 
form of the face : and dib.y 1 ii^l *.»•] sS\ verily 

he is ugly in the form of the face. (AZ, T.) 

^}iJ^\ 2.*1 : Bee jt\.^mA time; a period of time; 
a while. (T, 8, M, ]^.) So in the I^ar [xii. 45], 
i.»\ jjv j^>lj [And he remembered, or became 
reminded, after a time] : (8, M ;) or, ajier a 
long period of time : but some read ^ 3.*l , i. e., 
after favour had been shown him, in his escape: 
and some read <ul, i. e., forgetting. (Bd.) And 
so in the same [xi. 11], v'^l^'vot-^ ^j*-^ 0^3 
%i^,^*ut lUI ^1 [And verily, if me kept back from 
them the punishment] until a short period of time. 

<L*I : see lUI, in three places; fiiat and second 
sentences. ^J.q.^ i^Ut (K.) [i. e. The office of 
>UI , q. V. : or] the acting at, or performing the 
office of,^C\: (T in explanation of Itt, and M 
and M;b in explanation of i*Ul :) and tiie made, 

OTmanner,of performing that office. (T.) I.q. 

XL^ (Ih, M, 5) and o\i. (M, ?) and JU. (M) 
and 1)1^ (M, ^) [all as meaning State, condition, 
or case: or by the first may be here meant ex- 
ternal state OT condition; form, or appearance; 
or state with respect to apparel and the like].,^ 
An eaty and ample state of life; (T;) eatinets, 
or pleasantness of life ; amplenets of the conve- 
niencet of life, or of the means of subsistence ; eate 
and enjoyment; plenty; prosperity; welfare, 
(lA^r, M, ^■') You say of an old man when he 
has strength remaining, 3yt\f t^^, meaning Suck 
a one it returning to a state of meHbeing and ease 
and enjoyment, (TA.) — Dominion ; master- 
ship; authority. {Fr, T, Ig^ft.) — A bletting, 
or what God bestows upon one ; a benefit, bene- 
faction, favour, or boon ,- a cause of happinett ; 
(T, 8, M, Mfb, ?. ;) as being tfaat which men 
aim at, pursue, or endeavour to obtain. (T.) See 
i«l, last sentence but one. ^ Accord, to I^tt, it 
signifies also i. q. j^\ [bat in what sense is not 
said]. (TA.) 

l^ Ntameu. (9,M,¥0 [Near; nigh.] 

You say,^l ^ iUi cUit / took that from 
near; from nigh. (8, TA.) And ^,^1 _^jti 
Your haute is near, or nigh. (M, TA.) And 
iu«„«.*l yk He, or it, it near to thee: and in 
like manner you say of two : (M, TA :) and of 

Book I.] 

a pL number, (S^MyTA.) And ^t>^^f ^jt> 

My house is opposite to, facing, or tit front of, 
his house, (S.) ^ Easy : (S, M, 1^ :) near at 
hand; near to be reached, or laid hold of, (T, 
TA.) ^ Between near and distant, (ISk, T, S.) 
mmmm Confomiing, or conformable^ to the just mean : 

(M, ? :•) and ♦ Jl>, (AA, T, 8, M, ?,) [in 

form] like ,U^, ($,) originally J^l>, (TA,) f A« 

MfiM ; (T ;) of a middle, or middling, kind or 
«>r*; neither exceeding, nor falling short of, what 
is right ; (AA, T^ S, M ;) applied to an afibir, or 
a ease, (T, S,) and a thing [of any kind] ; (S ;) 

as also ▼>5ui ; (TA ;) and convenient, or suitable : 

(M,]^:) and ^^\ and '^tj-* both signify an 
affiiir, or a case, that is manifest, clear, or plain, 
(M, ]^,) not exceeding the due bounds or limits. 

J^A^^\ The location tltat is before ; (M, Msb,* 

EI ;) con/r. of ^1;^ t. (M, El.) It is used [abso- 
lutely] as a noun, and adverbially, (M, Msb,* ]^,) 
necessarily prefixed to another noun : (Mgh :) 
and is fern., (Ks, M,) and sometimes masc. : (M, 
T^ :) or it is masc., and sometimes fem. as meaning 

the Z^ : or, as Zj says, they differ as to making 

it masc. and making it fem. (Msb.) You say, 

4^Ut wU£> I was before him, in respect of place* 
(S.) In the saying of Mohammad, to Us&meh, 

«2)UU) i^^JLoIt, the meaning is The time of prayer 
lis before thee], or the place thereof; and by the 
prayer is meant the prayer of sunset. (Mgh.) 

You also say, <2)UUt [i. e. Look before thee; 
meaning beware thou; or take thou note;] when 
you caution another, (M, El,) or notify him, of a 
thing. (M.) 

•. ^ 

jiU! A person, (S, Mgh,) or learned man, 

(Mfb,) whose example is followed, or who is 
imitated; (S, Mgh, Msb;) any exemplar, or 
ob}ect of imitation, (T, M, K,) to a people, or 
company of men, (T,) such as a head, chief, or 
leader, or some other person, (M,K,) whether 
they be following the right way or be erring 
therefrom : (T :) applied alike to a male and to a 
female: (Mgh, Msb:) applied to a female, it 
occurs in a phrase in which it is written by some 
with S : (Mgh :) but this is said to be a mistake : 
(Mfb :) it is correctly without 5, because it is a 
subst, not an epithet: (Mgh, Msb :) or it is 

allowable with 5, because it implies the meaning 

• si 
of an epithet: (Msb:) and "^ 2u\ signifies the 

same : (T, M, EI :) the pi. of the former is ^1, 
(T, S, M, 1^, [but omitted in the CK,]) originaliy 

a^n, (T, S,) of the measure lXsi\, Hke iltlf, 
pi. of JCU, (T,) but as two meems come together, 
the former is incorporated into the latter, and its 
vowel is transferred to the hemzeh before it, which 
hemzeh, being thus pronounced with kesr, is 
changed into ^^; (T, S ;*) or it is thus changed 
because difficult to pronounce ; (M ;) or, as Akh 
eays, because it is with kesr and is preceded by 
another hemzeh with fet-h: (S:) but some pro- 
nounce it 2l^\, (Akh, T, §, M, 1$.,) namely, those 
who hold that two hemzehs may occur together ; 
(Akh,S;) the Koofees reading it thus in the 
%ya is. 12 \ (M \) but this is anomalous : (M, 

I^ :) it is mentioned as on the authority of Aboo- 
Is-]|^d^, and [Az says,] I do not say that it is not 
allowable, but the former is the preferable : (T :) 

or the pi. is ^t, originally i^^U, like 2JUUt ; one 

of the two meems being incorporated into the 
other after the transfer of its vowel to the hemzeh 
[next before it] ; some of the readers of the l^ur 
pronouncing the [said] hemzeh with its true 
sound ; some softening it, agreeably with analogy, 

in the manner termed ^;>^ ^;^ ; and some of the 
grammarians changing it into ^; but some of 
them reckon this incorrect, sa3ring that there is no 
analogical reason for it : (Msb :) and accord, to 

some, (M,) its pi. is also >Ut , (M, 1^,) like the 
sing., (K,) occurring in the Elur xxv. 74; (M;) 
not of the same category as Jj^ (M,]^) and l<0j, 
(M,) because they sometimes said ^UUt , but a 
broken pi. : (M, EI :*) or, accord, to A 'Obeyd, 
it is in this instance a sing, denoting a pi. : (M, 

S:*) or it is pi. of>t, [which is originally ^^t,] 
like as ^\^*^ is pi. of >,.g^^\^ : (M :) the dim. 

of ^1 IS * a^j^t ; or, as £1-Mazinee says, ▼ iU«^t« 
(S.) ^JUN! also signifies The Propliet : (JS. :) 

he is called A;ut >Ut [the exemplar, object of 

imitation, leader, or head, of his nation, or people] ; 

si J ^ 
(T;) or Xo*>))>Ut [the exemplar, &c., of the na- 
tion, or people] ; (M ;) it being incumbent on all 
to imitate his rule of life or conduct. (T.)^ 

7^ Khaleefeh : (Msb, 1^ :) he is caUed 2^j)l >U) 
[the exemplar, &c., of the people, or subjects], 
(M.) The tide of JUNt is still applied to the 
Kings of £1- Yemen : Aboo-Bekr says, you say, 
j^yii\ >U1 0*^9 meaning such a one is the first 
in authority over the people, or company of men : 
and ^>i^JU*^t >Ut means the head, chief, or 

leader, of the Muslims, (TA,)^The person 
whose example is followed, or who is imitated, 
[i. e. the leader,] in prayer, (Msh,)^^ [The 
leading authority, or head, of a persuasion, or 

s $ St 

sect. The four iUdit or iU^f are the heads of the 

four principal persuasions, or sects, of the Sun- 
nees ; namely, the Hanafees, Sh4fi'ees, Mdlikees, 
and Hambelees. And* the Hanafees call the two 
chief doctors of their persuasion, after Aboo- 
Haneefeh, namely, Aboo-Yoosuf and Mohammad, 

^UUNt The two Imdms,] ^^ The leader of an 
army. (M, ]^.) ^ Tlie guide : (K :) he is called 
jJlJ\ >Ut [the leader of the travellers], (M.) ^ 
The conductor, or driver, of camels (M, T^) is 
called J^S! >U1, though he Bb behind them, 
because he guides them. (M.,)^The manager, 
or conductor, and right disposer, orderer, or 

rectifier, of anything. (M, IgL*) 1^ Kur^n 

(M, TfS) is called |*h^JL>^t >Ut [the guide of the 
Muslims] ; (M ;) because it is an exemplar. 
(T A.) [The model-copy, or standard-copy, of the 
Kur-dn, namely the copy of the Khaleefeh '0th- 

m&n, is particularly called >UNt.] ^ [7^ scrip- 
ture of any people: and, without the article, a 
book, or written record.] It is said in the Tfjir 

[xvii. 73], ^Ub ^Ul jA> ^ijj jiL The day 

when we shall call every one of mankind with 
their scripture : .or, as some say, with their 


prophet and their law: or, as some say, with 
their book in which their deeds are recorded, (T.) 

It is also said in the l^ur [xxxvi. 11], ^^J^ J^i 
Ot^* J^^l (^ 5 Ufl , rf^ ^l, meaning, says El-^asan, 
[And everything have we recorded] in a perspi- 
cuous book, or writing ; (S, Jel ;) i. e., on the 
Preserved Tablet, (Bd, Jel.) ^ Tke lesson of a 
boy, tkat is learned each day (T, M, Ij[) in the 

school: (T:) also caUed j^IIm. (TA.)_3^ 
model, or pattern, of a semblance, or shape. (M, 
K.) .^ The builder's wooden instrument [or rule] 
whereby he makes tke building even, (1^, 1^.*) ^ 
Hie cord which the builder extends to make even, 
thereby, the row of stones or bricks of tke building; 

also called ^t and j^jtjt; (T;) tke string 

wkick is extended upon, or against, a building, 
and according to which one builds, (M, 1^.*) ^^ 

>Ut signifies also A road, or way: (S, [but 
omitted in some copies,] M, 1^ :) or a m/inifest 
road, or way, (TA.) It is said in the l^ur 

[XV. 79], ^ >Ug Wii (?, M) And they 
were both, indeed, in a way pursued and manifest : 
(M :) or in a way which they travelled in their 

journeys, (Fr.)^The direction (»UJL3) of the 
l^ibleh. (M, 1^.*)...^ tract, quarter, or region, 
of land, or of tke eartk, {^,)^A string [of a 
bow or lute &c.] ; syn. jiy (Sgh, Igl.) 

1 Beautiful in stature; (^;) applied to 

a man. (TA.) as I, q. 0>^U ; (S, M, Mfb, 
E[ ;) i. e. one wko raves, or is delirious, (imi^, 
[in two copies of the S ^J^, but the former 
appears, from a remark made voce l«t, to be 
the right reading,]) ^om [a wound in] wkai is 

termed duaU ja\ [see >t] : (S :) or wounded in 
what is so termed; (M,]IBL;) kaving a wound 

suck as is termed Xot, q. v. (Msb.) It is also 
used, metaphorically, in relation to other parts 
than that named above ; as in the saying, 

Ml ^ 

\ ^3\jii\j^ o^ ^^^^3 

I [And my bowels are wounded by reason of the 
burning pain of separation], (M.) a^ A stone 
with which the kead is broken : (S, O :) bu^ in 

the M and 1^ * ^Ut^t, [in a copy of the M, how- 
ever, I find it* without any syll. signs, so that 

it would seem to be * ^U««ty] explained as signi- 
fying stones witk wkick keads are broken : (TA :) 
pLjSUI. (S,TA.) 

J ^ 

A«Ut Tkree kundred camels : (M, ^ :) so ex- 
plained by Abu-l-'Al§u (M.) 

«.' ^ • s 

^Ut : see ^1. 

• ^•"1 

SL^t^\: see ^MS^t- — Also, (Sgh,) or ' 2l^^\, 

(T^,) A blacksmitk's kammer, (Sgh, 1^.) 

2^\ dim. of>t, q. v. (T, S, K.) a^ See also 


l^U*^t One of tke exorbitant sects of tke 
8kee*ak, (TA,) wko asserted tkat *Alee was ex- 
pressly appointed by Mohammad to be his suc- 
cessor, (Esh-Shahrast4nee p. 122, and KT.) 

\il^^ [dim. of ly^\] : see J^, first sentence. 



^1 (T, M, Mgh, Mfb,]?:) and t o^« (?) [the 

former a rel. n. from ^t, and thus properly 

meaning OentUe : whence, in a secondaiy, or 
tropical, sense, fa heathen;] tone not having 
a revealed scripture ; (Bd in iii. 19 and 69 ;) so 
applied bv those having a revealed scripture: 
(B4 in iii. 69 :) [and particularly] an Arab : 
(Jel in iii. 69, and Bd and Jel in Ixii. 2 :) [or] 
in the proper language [of the Arabs], of, or 

belonging to, or relating to, the nation (^t) of 
the Arabs, who did not write nor read: and 
therefore metaphorically applied to \ any one not 
knowing the art of writing nor that of reading : 
(Mgh :) or f one who does not write ; (T, M, 1^ ;) 
because the art of writing is acquired ; as though 
he were thus called in relation to the condition 

J Si 

in which his mother (4»«t) brought him forth : 
(T :) or t one who is in the natural condition of 

the nation (il'^1) to which he belongs, (Zj,» T, M,* 

J^*) in respect of not writing, (T,) or 7wt 

having learned writing ; thus remaining in his 

natural state : (M, K :) or t one who does not 

write well ; said to be a rel. n. from >t ; because 

the art of writing is acquired, and such a person 
is as his mother brought him forth, in respect of 

ignorance of that art ; or, as some say, from Xot 
^jMi\ ; because most of the Arabs were of this 
description: (M§b:) the art ofwriting was known 
among the Arabs [in the time of Mohammad] by 
the people of £t-Tdif, who learned it from a man 
of the people of £1-Heereh, and these had it from 

the people of El-Ambdr. (T.) 0>i^ ^ 6>?«^ 
^UJ3t, in the l^ur ii. 73, means Vulgar persons, 
[or heathen^ who know not the Book of the Law 
revealed to Moses ;> (Jel :) or ignorant persons, 
who know not writing, so that they may read that 
book ; or, who know not the Book of the Law 
revealed to Moses. (Bd.) Mohammad was termed 

WS ^m 

^yi\ [meaning A OentUe, as distinguished from 
an Israelite : or, accord, to most of his followers, 

meaning illiterate;'] because the nation (^t) of 
the Arabs did not write, nor read writing ; and 
[they say that] Grod sent him as an apostle when 
he did not write, nor read from a book ; and this 
natural condition of his was one of his miraculous 
signs, to which reference is made in the IBLur 
[xxix. 47], where it is said, " thou didst not read, 
before it, from a book, nor didst thou write it 
with thy right hand :" (T, TA :) but accord, to the 
more correct opinion, he was not well acquainted 
with written characters nor with poetry, but 
he discriminated between good and bad poetry : 
or, as some assert, he became acquainted with 
writing after he had been unacquainted there- 
with, on account of the expression " before it " 
in the verse of the TSjir mentioned above: or, as 
some say, this may mean that he wrote though 
ignorant of the art of writing, like as some 

of the kings, being Ol5«^^ ^nte their signs, or 
marks : (TA ;) or, accord, to Ja§ifar Es-Sddi^, 
he used to read from the book, or scripture, if 
he did not write. (KuU p. 73.) [Some judicious 
observations on this word are comprised in Dr. 

Sprenger's Life of Mohammad (pp. 101 ^2)* 

a work which, in the portion ah^y published 

jol — W 
(Part I.), contains much very valuable informa- 
tion.] Also, (5,) or [only] ^t, (AZ,T,M;) 

applied to a man, (AZ, T,) Impotent in speech, 
(^-e^, in the K incorrectly written ^-^, TA,) 

of few words, and rude, churlish, uncivil, or 

surly. (AZ,T,M,?:.) 

• fl til 

ifgA\ The quality denoted by the epithet ^\ : 

(TA :) [gentilism : f heathenism : &c. :] t Ae 
quality of being [in the natural condition of 
the nation to which one belongs, or] as brought 
forth by one*s mother, in respect of not having 
learned the art ofwriting nor the reading thereof 
(KuU p. 73.) 

• fii a-i ^ , 

^Ut : see ^\ : and see also art. ^j^\. 

I^S : see j»). 

fl^ • " 

j»t [act. part. n. of 1 ;] t. q. juoli : [see 1, first 

sentence:] (TA:) pi. >Ut, like as ^W.«0 is 

pi. ois^g^-rnXo, (M,]^,) accord, to some, but others 

say that this is pi. of >U) [q. v. ; the sing, and 

pi. being alike] ; (M ;) and 0>*'' (TA.) Hence, 
in the Iglur [v. 2], >IJ1jT O^T o^\ ^\ [Nor 
those repairing to the Sacred Souse], (TA.) 

2^\ (S, Msb) and ▼ ^y«U, as some of the 
Arabs say, (IB, Msb,) because it implies the 
meaning of a pass. part, n., originally ; (Msb ;) 
but 'Aiee Ibn-Qamzeh says that this is a mistake; 
for the latter word is an epithet applied to the 

^ at il 

part called ^UjJt >t when it is broken; (IB;) 

or i^ iLl and t i;^U ; (M,Mgh,B:;) A 
wound by which the head is broken, (S, M, Msb, 

¥^,) reaching to the part called &UjJt >!, (S, 

Msb,) or, [which means the same,] ^\ji\ >l, 
(M, ]^,) so that tJicre remdiins between it and 
the brain [only] a thin skin : (S :) it is the most 

[except that which reaches the 

severe of »-UiJti 

brain (see ^U(»Jtr)] : ISk says that the person 
suffering from it roars, or bellows, (JmiJ,) like 
thunder, and like the braying of camels, and 
is unable to go forth into the sun : (Msb :) the 
mulct for it is one third of the whole price of 
blood : (TA :) I A^r assigns the meaning of [this 

kmd of] ^isfJ^ to * ^t ; which seems, therefore, 
to be either a dial. var. or a contraction of i^\ : 

(Msb:) the pi. of iSTisJlJ! (Mgh, Msb) and 
^^U ; or this latter has no proper sing. : (M, 

TA :) the pi. of t :u^U is oUyiu. (Mgh, 

^^S and^o^t Better in the performance of the 
office termed WU\ ; followed by ^>o : (Zj, T, M, 

K :) originally jM : the second hemzeh being 
changed by some into 3 and by some into ^. 
(Zj, T, M.) 

• fi«^l • itA •St • ^ 

^^t, or 2^d:;t, dim. of 3l^\, pi. of ^U), 

q.v. (§.) 


[Book I. 

0^ J 


fU A camel that leads and guides : (M :) or 

a guide that shows the right way : and a camel 
that goes before the other camels: (BL:) fem. 
with S ; (M, ]^;) applied to a she-camel (M,TA) 

.7/ ^/m before the otker she-camels, and is 
r^^-^medhythem. (TA.) 

^J^jytU: see ^,«e^t. «. Also A camel having his 

hump bruised internally by his being much ridden^ 
or having his hump swollen in consequence of the 
galling of the saddle and the cloth beneath it, 
and bruised, and having his hump corroded : 
(S :) or whose fur has gone from kis back in 
consequence of beating, or of galls, or sores, pro- 
duced by the saddle or the like. (M,]^.),.. 

X05U1U : see 2^t, in three places. 
j»|3ui : see^^t, m two places. 

jfiy^ act. part. n. of a^ j^\ ; Following as 
an example; imitating; taking as an example, 
an exemplar, a pattern, or an object of imitor 

turn. (Msb.) ^ Af j9^y^ ^peiS». part. n. of the 
same ; Followed as an example ; imitated ; &c. : 
thus distinguished from the former by the pre- 
position with the object of its government (Msb.) 

» J** 


^U : see Xot. 


ut, used to denote an interrogation, is a com- 
pound of the interrogative hemzeh and the nega- 

tive U : (M :) it is a mere interrogative [respect- 

't ,t 

ing a negative, like *>)!]; as in the saying, Ut 

dUt ^>o ^jsjmJLJj [Art not thou ashamed for thy* 
self, or of thyself, with respect to Ood?], (Lth, T.) 
_[IHsh says, after exjilaining two other usages 

of U) which we have yet to mention,] £1-M&la^ee 

adds a third meaning of Ut, saying that it is a par- 

tide denoting ^^j^ [or the asking, or requiring, a 

thing in a gentle manner], like [*^t (q. v.) and] 

^<^ ; and is connected peculiarly with a verb ; 

as in >yu Ut [Wherefore wilt not thou stand?], 

and Jjuu Ut [Wherefore wilt not thou do such 

a thing ?] ; which may be explained by saying 

tliat the hemzeh is used as an interrogative to 

make one confess, or acknowledge, a thing, as 

•"t "t - " 

It is in^t and *^t, and that U is a negative. 

(Mughnee.) ^ It is also an inceptive word, used 
in the manner of *^t : (M :) followed by Ait , it 
is syn, with *^\ : (1^ :) [meaning Now : or now 
surely : or] both of these meaning verily, or truly; 

i. e. 


and for this reason Sb allows one's 
saying, Jjlku aJt Ut and JXLu aj\ Ut [Verily, 
or truly, he is going away] ; with kesr afler the 

jS "$ 

manner ofdj\ *^t, and with fet-h after the manner 
of 4Jt U*. : and MS^ ^l£» jJU 4S3\^ U* is men- 
tioned as meaning 4S3\^ Ut [&c., i. e. Verily, or 
truly, by Ood, such a thing did indeed happen] ; 
the 6 being a substitute for the hemzeh : (M :) 
so too dDtj ^^^^ [or dSbtj U^] : (Sgh and IgL 
in art. i5«»- :) it denotes the truth of the words 
which follow it; as when you say, J3U t j^ ^^^t Ut, 
meaning Truly, or properly speaking, not tro- 
pically, 2eyd is intelligent ; and v>^ ^ ^b ^^ 
\j^ juj [Truly, &c., by God, Zeyd beat, or 
struck, 'Amr] : (S in art. yo\ :) [in other words,] 
it corroborates an oath and a sentence; as in 

Book I.] 


or no90 surely y by Oody if I remain awake for 
thee a night j then will I indeed leave thee repent- 

ing^y and aju ^Sk:^}^ ^IC« C^^JL^y Ul [Verilyy 
or nom surely y if I had known thy place of being y 
then had I unsettled thee, or removed thee, from 

it]; BXkdj^j^ J^j^ **' ^^ ly^^lyt or now 
surely y he is (emphatically) a generous man]: 
(T:) or it is an inceptive particle, used in the 

manner of *j\ ; [meaning now : or now surely ;] 
(Mughnee :) or a particle used to give notice of 
what is about to be said : only put before a pro- 
position [as in exs. mentioned above] : (TA :) 
and often occurring before an oath [as in exs. 
mentioned above] : and sometimes its hemzeh 
is changed into « or e, before the oath ; each 

with the \ remaining ; [written Ua or U^ ;] and 

with the I elided; [written^ or^^;] or with 
the t elided, but without the substitution ; [written 

jb\;] and when ^t occurs after Ul, it is with 

kesr, as it is after *^\: and it also means U*. 

[verily, or truly] : or U*.l [verily ? or truly ?] : 
accord, to different opinions: and in this case, 

^t after it is with fet-h, as it is after U*. : accord, 
to Ibn-ELharoof, this is a particle : but some say 

that it is a noun in the sense of U». : and others, 
that it consists of two words, namely, the interro- 

gative hemzeh and U as a noun in the sense of 
l^ ; i. e. J^ i^S ibif [m that thing true?] ; 

80 that the meamng is U*.t : [if so, JJJft*^ 4jt Ut 
means Verilyy or truly y is he going away 7] and 
this, which is what Sb says, is the correct opinion : 
U is virtually in the accus. case, as an adverbial 

noun, like as U*. is literally : and ^j\ with its 
complement is an inchoative, of which the adver- 
bial noun is the enunciative : but Mbr says that 

UU» is the inf. n. of J^oi*^, which is suppressed. 

At , ' 

and that ^\ with its complement is an agent. 


Ut is a conditional and partitive and corrobora^ 

tive particle; and is sometimes wiitten U:»t, by 
the change of the first > into ^. (Mughnee, ]^.) 
...It is used as a conditional particle in the 
words of the Iglur [ii. 24], o>iiiIS !^T^>i jjTdU 

• «' 

-» i J "* 

J" * 

Su» Stt* O a*^ 

9t ^ »i» J St 

^jU« t J^ 4111 >|;t 13 [For as for those who have 

believedy they know that it is the truth from tiieir 
Lord; but as for those who have disbelieved, they 
say, What is it that God meaneth by this as a 
parable?]. (Mughnee,* 1^,» TA.) That it denotes 
a condition is shown by the necessary occurrence 

of y^ aft^r it ; for if this 1^ were a conjunction, it 
would not be prefixed to the enunciative ; and if 
it were redundant, it might be dispensed with; 
but it may not be dispensed with except in a case 
of necessity in poetry or in a case of an ellipsis. 
... In most cases, (Mughnee, K,) it is used as a 
partitive, (S, Mughnee, 1^,) implying the meaning 
of a condition ; (S ; [in which it is mentioned with 

Ut ;]) and thus it is used in the passage of the 
l^ur cited above; (Mughnee;) and in the fol- 
lowing exs. [in the IgLur xviii. 78 and 79 and 81], 

^J 03^ Qt^ c^lO ;LtkJ\ ut and 

a » ^*t " ,^* J *i^0» At^ ^ tf^ J ^ ^ta St 

^\^\ o^>!^t Utj and o^ jtj^t Ut^ 

J i^^aa^UJ [As for the shipy it belonged to 
poor men who worked on the sea . . . and as for 
the boy, his two parents were believers . . . a7id 
as for the wall, it belonged to two orphan boys], 
(Mughnee,* K,* TA.) [It is a partitive also in 

the phrase jji^ Ut, which see in art. jji^.]^ 
Few have mentioned its use as a corroborative : 

• 0^ St 

(Mughnee :) it is thus used in the phrase juj Ut 

^^f^\JS [Whatever be the case, or happen wfiat 

will or what may, or at all events, Zeyd is going 
away], when you mean that Zeyd is inevitably 
going away, and determined, or decided, upon 
doing so: (Z cited in the Mughnee, and 1^:) 
therefore Sb explains it as meaning, in this case, 

k<^ v>* Cr^ W* ii^hatever be the case, Ike, as 
above, or, in some instances, happen what would 
or what might] ; thereby showing i.t to be a 
corroborative, and to have a conditional meaning : 
(Z cited in the Mughnee : [and the same explana- 
tion of it is given, with a similar ex., in the S, in 

art y^\ :]) the %J, in this case, is transferred from 
its proper place before the inchoative, and put 
before the enunciative. (I 'Ak p. 306.) Ks says 


that Ut is used in commanding and forbidding 

and announcing: you say, ju^U dut Ut [What- 
ever be the case, or happen what will. Sec, Ood 

worship thou] : and ly^ytJ ^ >»*Jt Ut [i. e. 

l^jii ^ 1;^^ *jl3 j-^t lot (as is shown in the 
case of a similar ex. in the Mughnee, though you 

may say ly^pJ *j^ j^^i^^ Ut, without an ellipsis, 

like as you say ^U^jL^i >^ Ut as well as 

" J' St 

>^^ Ut, in the Kur xli. 16, accord, to different 
readers,) Whatever be the case, &c., wine (drink 

^ * ^ «• f*^ St 

not), drink not thou it] : and 9rj^^ ^j Ut 

[Whatever be the case, &c., with respect to other 

things, Zeyd has gone forth ; or whatever be the 

case with respect to others, as for Zeyd, he has 

gone forth] : whereas Ut [which see in the next 

paragraph] is used in expressing a condition and in 

expressing doubt and in giving option and in 

taking option. (T.)^[IHsh says that in his 

^ j^ ^ ^ fit 
opinion,] in the phrase j^^^ jji Ji^\ Ut, thus 

heard, with j^^^jJt in the accus. case, the meaning 

is, C:j£9^ V«y« [&c., i. e. Whenever thou men- 
tionest the slaves, he is a possessor of slaves : but 

" J » St 

I would rather say that the meaning is, J)jj&3 Ut 
j^MjJt, &c., i. e. as for thy mentioning the slaves, 
&c.] : and so in similar phrases which have been 

heard. (Mughnee.) bb: Distinct from the fore- 

going is Ut in the saying in the T^\xt [xxvii. 86], 

0^>^^ ji^i^ t3 Ut [Or rather, what is it that 
ye were doing ?] : for here it is a compound of the 

ct , . ^ 

unconnected j»t and the interrogative U. (Mugh- 
nee.) 8^ So too in the saying of the poet, 


^ tt St * ^ , i ,t 

z^\ Ut a^t^ i^t 

•• ^ 

[ O Aboo-Khurdsheh, becatise thou wast possessor 
of a number of men dost thou boast? Verily, my 
people, the year of dearth, or of sterility, hath not 
consumed them] : for here it is a compound of the 

• t , _ 

(jt termed ^ 

* • * 


[which combines with a verb 
following it to form an equivalent to an inf. n.] 
and the redundant ti : C-^t Ut is for C%t4> J)*^; 
the preposition and the verb are suppressed for 
the sake of abridgment, so that the pronoun [o 

m c«U^] becomes separate ; and U is substituted 
for the verb [thus deprived of its affixed pro- 
noun], and the ^ [of ^t] is incorporated into the 
> [of U]. (Mughnee.) [See another reading of 

this verse voce Ut ; and there also, immediately 
after, another ex. (accord, to the Mughnee) of 


Ut used in the manner explained above. See also 
• t \ • 

^t as a conditional particle, like ^t.]8^Also 

s ^ 

t. q. Ut , q. V. (Mughnee, K.) 

a , , St 

Ut is sometimes written Ut, and sometimes its 

firsts is changed into ^, [forming l^t or l^t or 
both, as will be shown below,] (Mughnee, [in 

my copy of which it is written 1^1, and so in 
some copies of the 1^,] and 1^, [in some copies of 
which it is written t^t ,]) and it is held by Sb to 
be a compound of ^t and U, (Mughnee,) or as 
denoting the complement of a condition it is a 
compound of ^t and U. (M, K.) ^ It denotes 
doubt; (Ks, T, Mughnee, K ;) as in ^>« ^j>t t^ 
yy^ UU juj Ut >Uf [1 know not who stood : 
either Zeyd or 'Amr] : (Ks, T :) and Ut iV*^ 
^j^ Ut^ jk^j [There came to me either Zeyd or 
Amr], said when one knows not which of them 

came. (Mughnee, K.) ^ It also denotes vague- 

ness of meaning; as in [the l^ur ix. 107,] Ut 

j9^^ ^yk Ut « j^^ju [Either He will punish 
them or He will turn unto them with forgiveness]. 

(Mughnee, 1^.) «. It also denotes giving option ; 

t s * ^ ^ , » t s 
as in [the Kur xviii. 80,] ^t Ut^ ^jju ^t Ut 

\;,m.^j^ Stk:L3 [Either do thou punish, or do 
thou what is good to them], (Mughnee, K.) «. 
It also denotes the making a thing allowable; 

as in t^a»j Ut^ \jb Ut j^Xsu [Learn thou eitfier 
law or syntax ; (an ex. given in the T, on the 
authority of Ks, as an instance of the usage of 

lit to denote giving option;)] but its use with 
this intent is disputed by some, (Mughnee, 1^,) 

while they assert it of ^t. (Mughnee.) ^ It is 
also used as a partitive ; as in [the ]^ur Ixxvi. 3,] 

\j^^ Ut^ tJ£»li l^t [Either, or whether, being 

thankful or being unthankful]; (Mughnee,]^;) 

the two epithets being here in the accus. case as 

denotatives of state : or, accord, to the Koofees, 

s * 

Ut may be here [a compound of] the conditional ^t 

and the redundant 1^ ; 0^> accord, to Ibn-Esh- 
Shejeree, being understood after it : (Mughnee :) 
and Fr says that the meaning is, jJk£9 ^J\^ Jci ^J^ 
[ifke be thankful and if he be unthankful]. (T.) 
i.. It also denotes taking option ; as in the sapng, 

»t s * ** »9t » t s " ^0* • ^ " . "f^ ^ J • ^ 

\^»J\ [I have a hotise in El-Koofeh, and I am 
going forth to it, and either I will inhabit it or I 
will sell it : but this is similar to the usage first 
mentioned above]. (Ks, T.)^ It is a conjunction, 
(S in art. y\, and Mughnee,) accord, to most 

authorities, i. e., the second Ut in the like of the 
^y^^g* ^r^ ^i-5 •Hi ^1 L^*^ [mentioned 

above] ; (Mugbnee ;} iue«l in the manner of jl 
in all its cases except this one, that in tbe use of 
•t you begin with assurance, and then doubt 
comes upon you ; whereas you begin with Ul in 
doubt, and must repeat it; as in the saying last 
mentioned : (S : [and the like is said in the 
Hughnee, after the explanations of the mean- 
ingB :]) but some assert that it is like the first Ul, 
not a conjunction; because it is generally pre- 
ceded by the conjuncdon j : and some assert that 
Ul conjoins the noun with the noun, and the 3 
conjoins Ul with 1*1 ; but the conjoining of a 
particle widi a particle is strange. (Muglmee.) 
^ Sometimes the j is suppressed ; as in tbe 
following Terse, (Mughnee,) of El-Ahwas ; (S ;) 

[0, mould that our mother took her departure, 
either to Paradite or HeU-fire .'] ; (8,* Mughnee, 
%.%) cited by K;, with \^\ for 1^1: (T :) and 
sometimes it is with kesr [i. e, WJ] ; (S :) IB 
says that it is correctly U^l , with kesr ; asserting 
the original to be Ul, with kesr, only. (TA.) — 
And sometimes the former Ul is dispensed with ; 
as in the following verse, (Mughnee,) which 
shows also that U is sometimes suppressed ; 

• bie^ yj^ ■■^bJ" " ■*■*"' ' 

{The thundering cUntda of iummer-rain ma- 
tered him, or of autumn^ain ; so he wtU not 
want sufficient drink] : i. e. ^ UU •tJ^ ^>« Ul 
tJjjA.. (Mughnee,^.) Mbr and A; say that 
^1 is here conditions!, and that the i3 is its com- 
plement : but this assertion is of no weight ; foi* 
the object is the description of a mountain-goat as 
having sufficient drink in every case : AO says 
that ^1 in this verse is redundant, (Mughnee.) 
^_ Sometimes, also, one does not require to men- 
tion the second Ul , by mentioning what supplies 
its place ; as in the saying, j^mf^^^^J |jl Ut 
CA-iU^lj [Either do thou ipeah mhatU good oi' 
eUe be eilent]. (Mughnee.) [See art. "^l, near 
its end.] ^Distinct from the foregoing is Ul in 
the saying in the ^ur [ziz. 26], ,j^ ^^ UU 
Iji^l ^«)l [And if thou lee, of manktiui, ani/ 
one] : for thb is [a compound of] the conditional 
^t and the redundant U. (S* in art y], and 
Mughnee.) [In like manner,] you say, in ex- 
pressing a condition, JUt^jL.^ <6U Ijijj i^f^ZlS C>\ 
[Zfthoti revile Zet/d, he miil treat thee with for- 
bearcmee). (Kb, T.) And Jl^jLl ,_^ 1^1 [If 
thou cotne to me, I miU treat thee Kith honour} . 
(S.)^In the follovring saying, UXiu* s£j| Ul 
sZ-mmI [If thou be going areag, I go awag], the 
U is not that which restrains the particle to which 
it is subjoined Irom governing, hut is a substitute 
for a verb ; (1^ and TA in art. U ;) as though the 
speaker said, UUku o^ l>J [or rather cj«0 ol]. 
(TA in that art) And hence the nying of Uie 

poet, [of which a reading different from that here 

following has been given voce Ul,] 

• >Li li ^ iSj iitji gi ' 

[0 Aboo-Khurd*1ieh, if thou be ponenor of a 
rMmber of men, verily, my people, the year of 
dearth, or oftterilUy, hath not conntmed them,} 
OB though he said, ^ l> -Ji^A ^1. (TA in that 
urt) [But IHsh states the case differently ; say- 
ing,] An instance of U not used to restrain from 
governing, butas a substitute for a verb, occurs in 
the saying, C-XLkJl Mi^i^ wJI Ul [Because thou 
mut going away, I nent amay] ; originally, 
ULUk^U CJ^ tj-j C^AJJabU : [for an explanation 
of which, see what is siud of w-il Ut in a reading 
of tbe verse commencing with Ulj^ 1^1 voce Ul:] 
t>ut accord, to El-F4risee and IJ, the government 
twlongs to U; not to ^jl^ [orC>sI»]. (Mugh- 
nee in art. U.)^So too in the saying, tjjh ^Jxil 
'^Ul, meaning #^ JJU^^ <Z.A ^1 [i.e. Do 
thou this if thou wUt not do another thing; or 
thou this at least]; (Mughnee and ^, each 
ut. U ;) indicating a person's refiisal to do [fully] 
that which he is ordered to do : (TA in that art. :) 
or \^£a Jjtili liJUl , meaning if thou milt not do 
that, then do thou this ; the three particles [^t 
and U and '^] being made as one word : so says 
(T :) [J says,] I ji» JiSu "^l^l is pro- 
nounced with imileh, [1. e. " imm6-l^,"] and is 
originally ") ^\ with U as a connective ; and the 
meaning is, if that thing foiU not be, then do thou 
thus: (Sin art,*^:) [but] A^At [disallows this 
pronunciation, and] says, sometimes tbe vulgar, 
in tbe place of ^lSj iUi Jill, say, ^jV oUi Jijt 
[Do thou that at least] ; but this is Persian, and is 
rejected as wrong: and they say also, ^Ut, with 
damm to the I [and with im&leh in the case of the 
final vowel, and thus it is vulgarly pronounced in 
the present day] ; but this too is wrong; for it is 
correctiy ^Ul, [with kesr, and] not pronounced 
with imiileh, for particles [in general] are not 
thus pronounced; (T:) and the vulgar also con- 
vert the hemzeh into « with damm [saying ^W*]. 
(TA in art. U.) [Pei says,] ■:j is a substitute for 
the verb in the saying, IJ>* ^^U "i^Ai the mean- 
ing being If thou do not that, then [at leatt] do 
thou this : the origin thereof is this ; that certain 
things are incumbent on a man to do, and he is 
required to do them, but refuses ; and then one is 
content with his doing some, or a part, of them, 
and says to him thus: i. e., if thou wVt not do 
all, then do thou this : then the verb is suppressed, 
on account of the frequency of the usage of the 
phrase, and U is added to give force to the 
meaning: and some say that it is for this reason 
that "j is here pronounced with imdleh ; because 
it serves for the verb; like as jji; is, and the 
vocative C : but it b said that it is coiTectly- pro- 
nounced without imdleh; because particles [i 
general] are not pronounced (herewith; as Az 
says. (M;b in art. '^.) [El-^a^eree says that] 
*^l is properly [a compound of] three particles. 


[Book I. 

. ^ ^in t^t end U and ^1, made as one wont, 
»"%/iie / at the end thereof is like the I of ^^jCL 
l'^ wbicb it is 'written ^, agreeably with nde] ; 
wlierefore it is pronounced with im&leh, like as is 
the I of this latter word. (Durrat el-Ohoww^, in 
De Sacy's Anthol. Gr. Ar. p. fi7 of the AraUc 
text.) In the Lub&b it is said that 'j is used as a 
negative of the future, as in JjtU '^i and the 
verb [in "^Ul ] is suppressed ; bo it [*j] serves as a 
substitute in the saying, "^Ut Iji* Jail ; therefore 
they pronounce its I with im&leh : and lAth says 
that the Arabs sometimes pronounced *^l with a 
slight imdleh ; and the vulgar make the im&leh 
thereof full, so that its 1 becomes ^J ; but thb is 
wrong. (TA.) You say also, ^1 tjua J^, 
meaning Take thou this if thou take not that. 
(T.) It is related that the Prophet saw a runaway 
camel, and said, " To whom belongeth this camel?" 
when, lo, some young men of the Anfdr said, 
" We have drawn water upon him during twen^ 
years, and yet he has in him fat; so we desired 
to slaughter him ; but he escaped from us." He 
said, " Will ye sell him ?" They answered, " No: 
but he is thine." And he said, V' !>■ *tf V^^l 
(d^.! A^ iS^' "leaning If ye mill not sell him, 
act feeU to him until his term of life come to 
him. (T.) 


1. 'dM, (T, 8, M, ^,) aor. ; , (T, M, 5,) inf. n. 
Ji\, (T, S, M,) Se measured it ; determined iu 

measure, quantity, or the Uke ; computed, or con- 
jectured, its measure, quantity, tc. ; (T, §,• M, 
K ;) as also t iui, (M, ¥,) in£ n. l^b. (TA) 
You say, yk^ ^ li* ^'U W <<^l Compote 
thou, O such a one, this, for me, horn many it is. 
(T.) And^^ls:>^l^ec(mpufsiJ,orcoR;seftirHf, 
the nwmSer of the people, or company of men. 
(T.) And :0l o^-*l Se TMiasured, OTComputed, 
the distance between him and the water. (T.)^ 
Also, (S, ^,) aor. as above, (^,) and so the 
inf. n., (^,) t. q. tjSei [He tended, repaired, 
betook hxJnself, or directed hie course, to it, or 
towards it} aimed at it; sought after it; or 
intended, or purposed, t<]; (^, ^;) namely, a 
thing. (§.) 

, .* ..a ' .1 

2. «-«l : see 1. ^jUKf t^-.*! lie was luapecled 

of evil. (M,TA.) 

w-*! A meaeure of distance [&c.]; as in the 
saying, iUjCll ^3 Ji^ U SS\ ^ What ie 
the meaeure of the distance between thee and 
EUKoofeh? (T,TA.}^ Doubt: (Th,T,M:) 
said to be so termed because this word signifies 
the " computing, or conjecturing, measure, quan- 
tity, and the like," in which there is doubt (T, 
TA.) [See 1.] So in the following ex. : ^C^l 
l^ 0^1 ^ 0.»j^ Wine is unlanifid .- there it no 
dmAt respecting the unlawfulness of it : (Sh, Th, 
T,^:) ortbemeaningis,fA«reunoiiu&f^penc0,or ' 
lenity, with respect to it ; firom >Z^\ as ngnifying 
"feebleness, or weakness," in a journey, or pace. 
(T,TA.) And in tbe saying, Ci^t^^^l ^ J^ 

Book I.] 

There it no doubt retptcting mne, that it is 
nnlawAiI. (Th, M.) [Or in the like of these 
two instftDces it fligaifies] Duagreement, or dir 
verrittf lif opinum, (i^^,^!,) respecting a thiag 
(Stjii |__j*). (M, 50 ^ Curvity, croohednett, 
distortion, or tmevenneM : (M, "^ :) nffgednea 
in one place and xmootlmett in another; (^ ;) 
[atequaUty of turface ;] one part being higher, 
or more prominent, than another : (TA :) an 
elevated place : (T, ^, ^ :) gmall moundt : (Ft, 
Th,T,$,M,J^:) otniiatieelevated, of ground: 
or, as Bome say, mater-coursei ij/* valleys, tuch 
a» are lorn, or depressed : (Ft, T, TA :) small 
hills; hilloekt: (M, TA:) a koUon>, or depressed 
place, between any two elevated portions of ground 
^C. : (lAar, T, M :) depression and elevation, 
or Unvness and highness, ($, M, A, ]^,) in the 
ground ; (A ;) used in this sense in the ^ur 
XX. 106; (S ;) and the same in a water-skin not 
completely filled : (8, A :*) or laxity in a water- 
skin nhen it is not neU filled so as to over/low ; 
(T,*TA:) oro [consequence of ] pouring [water] 
into a shin until it doubles, or creases, and not 
filling it ; so that one part of it is higher, or 
more promineTit, than another : (M, TA :) pi. 
OUI (M, 5, TA, but in some copies of the ^ 
out, and in the C^ oUI,) and o^. (M, 5-) 
You say, C^t t^ Ci ue;*^l Ciy^\ 2%« earth, 
or ground, mas even, so that there mas not in 
it any depression and elevation. (A, TA.) And 
^\ *i Ui i\ili\ "^'l The skin became full, 
so that there was not in it any depression [of one 
part of its surface] and elevation [of another 
part]. (9,A.*) Az says, (TA,) I have heard 
the Arabs say, «ei SJ^*)^ lijui *iS ^ He 
had filled the mater-sMn sofuU that there mas no 

lamty in it. (T,TA.) A fault, a defect, an 

imperfection, a bletnish, or the like, (T, M,^,) 
in the mouth, and in a garment, or piece of cloth, 
and in a stone. (M,]^.) [Hence the saying,] 
iM *) /i^l ,j* *=*^ '• e. [May there be a 
defect, or the like,] in stones ; not in thee : mean- 
ing, may God preserve thee when the stones shall 
have perished : (Sb, M :) <z—\ is here put in the 
Dom. case, though the phrase is significant of 
a prayer, because it is not a verbal word : the 
phrase is like si •^\j^\: and the commencing 
the sentence with an indeterminate noun is appro- 
Table because it is virtually a prayer. (M.) 
This prov, is mentioned by the expositors of the 
Tes-heel : not by Meyd. (TA.) — Weakness 
feebleness; (T,^;) langour; remissness. (TA.) 
You say, ^ C-^l "^ lj«-> ij~^ We performed a 
journey, or went a pace, in mhich was no weak- 
ness, or feebleness [kc.]. (T, TA.) ^ A good 
teay, course, mode, or manner, of acting^ 
conduct, OT the like. (T,^.) 

iZ^^ Suspected of evil and the like. (]^.) 
[See 2.j^[A water^kin] filled [so as to be 
equally distended : seeC«*l]. (S..) 

Oylu £ A mater of mhich the distance is 
computed, or conjectured. (TA.) — J^-l Jl >* 
C^yA* It «» imtil a determined, defined, or 

definite, period. ($, 5'*) — '^y^ *jji A thing 
that is knonn. (M, TA.) [And so 0>«^.] 

1. ««ifr lA*!, aor. - , inf. n. j^t, Se was angry 
with him: (S, M.Mfb,*? :) like J^I (§) and 
jMj and j^j and j^. (T in art. ^1.) 

8. .Mt, inf. n. .»t«l3, He declared the time, 
considered mith regard to its end; or tke utmost, 

extreme, extent, term, limit, point, or reach; 
expl. by lifjl ^f»^. (K.) THme, considered mith regard to its end: 
ijUj being time considered with regard to its 
end and its beginning : (Er-R&ghib :) [but some- 
dmes it is interchangeable with ^Laj, as will be 
aeen in what follows :] or the utmost, or extreme, 
extent, term, limit, point, or reach. (S, M, A, 
Msb, S..) You say, «j.4t iX/ He, or it, reached, 
or attained, Ms, or its, utmost, or extreme, extent, 
term, &c. (Msb.) And Ij^l «J oj-^ [^' 
assigned, or appointed, for him, or it, a term, 
or limit]. (A.) And ^U*^! j>,*^ ^ [He is one 
mkose limits are remote: )U1 being the pi.]. 
(A.} ^Tho period of life mhich OTie has reached; 
OS in the saying, iJjbat U What is thy period of 
life which thou hast reached ? (§,) ^ Each of 
the two terms of the life of a man; i. e. the time 
of hia birth, and the fint« o/his death. (Sh, T.) 
El-Hasan [El-Ba^ree], being asked by El-^jjij, 
i).)>«l U, meaning What was the time of thy 
birth ? answered by saying that it was two years 
before the expiration of 'Omar's reign as Kha- 

leefeh. (T, L, from a trad.) The staHing- 

place, and the goal, of horses in a race. (Sh, T, 
L.) ^_ t Any space of tirrie : (Er-R&ghib :) a 
space of time of unknown limit. (Kull pp. 9 and 
10.) ^ Sometimes, t-^ particular time; as in 
the phrase ijk^ J^\ The time of such a thing; 

like tii> tjUj. (Kull p. 10.) [It is also used 

for ,mI ji, and (applied to a fern, q.) j^t Ol^, 
Having a term, or limit; limited in duration; 
as in the saying,] j^\ iJA.'^lj .^1 W>>JI [The 
present state of existence is limited in duration, 
but the final state of existence is everlasting}. 
('Obeyd Ihn-'Omeyr, L in art. j>/l.) 

«j^t A remainder, or what remains, (5)) of 
anything. (TA.) 

j^^ SU-> A skin [exhausted;] in which there 
remains not a gulp, or as much as is smallowed 
at once, of water. (]^.) 

jij^U ,k«l An extreme term, Hmit, or point, 
reached, or attained. (K.) 

1. .j-l, (T, S, M, &c,) aor. i , (M, &c.,) in£ n. 
^1 (T, 8, M, Msb, ¥) and jU, (M, L, ^,) 
which latter, however, is disapproved by MF, 
(TA,) and JCjl is syn. therewith, (5,) but this 
also is disapproved by MF, and deemed by hi 
strange, [being by rule the inf. n. of ^ tj*\, re- 
specting which see what follows,] (TA,) and lj^\, 


(M, 5,) which is one of the inf. ns. [or quasi- 
inf. ns.] of the measure <U«U, like Sgtie and i^lU, 
(M,) He commanded him; ordered him; bade 
him; enjoijied him; the inf. n. signifying the 
contr.ofl^i (T,M,]^;) as also *ij^t, (Kr, 
M, ]^,) mentioned by A 'Obeyd also as a dial, 
var, of »j*\: (M;b:) but A 'Obeyd says that 
eS^\ and i3^\ are syn. [in a sense different from 
that explained above, i. e.] as meaning 43^^. 
(TA.) You say, a^ i^l, (§, M, ']^,) and i^[ t^\, 
suppressing the prep., (M,) He commandetl, 
ordered, bade, or enjoined, him to do it. (M, E.) 
And Jju3 Ot M^\, and Jj^L), and j^Js ol, 
/ commanded, ordered, bade, or enjoined, thee to 
do [such a thing]. (M.) [And tj.^ sj^\ as 
meaning He commanded him, or ordered him, to 
make use of such a thing; or the like : whence, 
a trad.,] .1)1^1^ Oj.*! [I have been commanded 
make use of the tooth-stick]. (EUJami' es- 
Sagheer.) [And He enjoined him such a thing ; 
as, for instance, patience.] The imperative of 
is j^; originally j-^^; which also occurs 
[with J in the place of ^ when the I is pronounced 
ith ^^mm] : (M :) but [generally] when it is 
not preceded by a conjunction, (Mjb,) i. e., by 
J or ij, (T,) you suppress the ., [i. e. the radical 
■ , and with it the conjunctive I preceding it,] 
contr. to role, and say, tj£/ »y* [Command, or 
order, or bid, or enjoin, thou him to do such a 
thing] ; like as you say, ,J& and J^ : when, 
however, it is preceded by a conjunction, the 
practice commonly obtaining is, to restore the >, 
agreeably with analogy, and thus to say, ^jSi^ j<«lj. 
(Msb.) ^ [You say also, J.Ui a/ y*\ He gave 
order respecting him, and accordingly he mas 
slain. And IJJI^ H j.*\ He ordered that such a 
thing should be done, or given, to him.] ^In the 
^ur [xvii. 17], V^ 1^*3 t^^^ U^t, so accord, 
to most of the readers, (T, kc.,) means We com- 
manded [its luxurious inhabitants] lo obey, but 
they transgressed therein, or departed from the 
right way, or disobeyed: (Fr,T,$, kc. :) so says 
Aboo-Is-hi^; adding that, although one says, 
\j^ Vj^ Wi >^j^') meaning / commanded 
Zeyd to beat 'Amr, and he beat him, yet one also 
says, i^j^i^jA ■iiSj*\ [I commanded thee, but thou 
disobeyedst me] : or, accord, to some, the meaning 
is. We multiplied its luxurious inhabitants ; (T ;) 
and this is agreeable with another reading, namely, 
♦lij^f; (TA;) and a reading of El-^asan, namely, 
Uj.*), like tI,JL«, may he a dial, var., of the same 
signification; (M :) see 4, in two places: or it 
may be from ejUNI ; (§, TA ;) (in which case it 
seems that we should read *t>«l; or, perhaps, 
U^l : see 2 :] Abu-l-'Aliyeh reads t CjJ, and 
this is i^reeable with the explanation of I 'Ab, 
who says that the meaning is, We made its chiefs 
to have authority, pomer, or dominion. (TA.) 
^tj^l, aor. ', also signifies He commanded, 
ordered, bade, or enjoined, him to do that which 
it behooved him to do. (A.) [He counselled, or 
advised, him.] One says, ,jJ/«, meaning Counsel 
thoumt; advisethoume. {A.)^i^t:^lt j*\, miA 

of a wild anima], tneaiu Se rendered the beholder 
detirout of capturing him. (M.)^j^l, (A;, Fr, 
Th, T, §, M, M?b, ¥,) aor. ^ ; (Mjb, TA ;) and 
'jX\, aor. t ; (9, M, IE:tt,]^;) and ^l &or. '- ; (M, 
^, and wveral other anthoridea ; but by some 
thie is disallowed; TA;) inf. n. ^1 (^) and \^\^ 
(S) and %U\ ; (As, T, ^ ;) or the second is a 
umple eubet ; (^ ;) or perhaps it is meant in the 
^ that this and the third are quasi-inf. ns. ; (MF ;) 
He had, or held, command; he preeided at a 
commander, governor, lord, prince, or king ; (M, 
Mfb,^;) he became anj^\; (Af,T,9;) ^ 
^^\ over the people. (M,*M^b,]^.) {See also 5.] 

AeXc j^'j O*^ >*'> ^' *^ ^J*h> (^ '" <li^^i>t 
copies of the $,) [8uck a one hat held command 
and been commaTtded,] is said of one who has 
been a commander, or governor, after having been 
a subject of a commander, or governor; meaning 
tuch a one u a person o/ experience ; or one teho 
has been tried, or proved and strengthened, by 
experience. (S.) ^ tj^i as syn. with o^l : see 4. 
— ^'> (S, M, Msb, ^,) aor. - , (Msb, ^,) inf. n. 
j^l and ij^l ; (M, ]^, TA ; the latter written 
in the C^ •jii;) and^t, aor. ^; (I^tt;) i It 
(a thing, M, Mjb, or a man's property, or camek 
or the like, Abu-l-Haaan and S, and a people, T, 
1^) multiplied; or became many, or much, or 
abundant ; (T, S, M, Msb, ^ ;) and became com- 
plete. (M, K.)^Aiid the former, f fi'u &«a(/* 
multiplied; or became many; (M, ^ ;) [fw also 
♦j-I ; for you say,] jj*^ yi/ *j-»'i 'nf- n. jCi'i 
1 7^ property, or camels or fAe /lAe, of fA« 
o/' fiicA a one multiplied ; or became many, or 
oAunt/onf. (M.) mh^^I j^t, ( Akh, S, ^,) aor. - , 
inf. n. jit, (Akh, 8,) t TAa ojfair, or case, (i. e., 
a man's a&ir, or case, Akh, $,) became severe, 
distressful, grievous, or afflictive. (Akh, S, ]^) 

2. aj^\, inf. n. j>«U, .He made him, or a^ 
pointed him, commander, governor, lord, pritKC, 
or king. (§,* Mgh, M;b.) [And it seems to be 
indicated in the 8 that f tjM\, without (eshdeed, 
signilieB the same.] See 1, in three places. You 
say also, Uj^ j^\ (A, TA) He mas made, or 
appointed, commander, kc, over us. (TA.)^ 
Also He appointed him judge, or umpire. (Mgh.) 
^lUill j^\ \He affixed a spear-head to the 
cane or spear. (T, M.) [See also the pass, part a., 
below.] ^IjUij^l He made [a thing] a sign, 
or marh, to shorn the may. (T.) 

3. ^I 1^ i^T, (T,« S, M, Mf b,) inf. n. I^ilji, 
(8, I^,) He consulted htm respecting his off-air, 
or case ; (T,« §, M, Mf b, ^,' TA ;) as also e^lj ; 
(TA ;) or this is not a chaste form ; (I Ath, TA ;) 
or it is vulpr; (§,TA;) and t ij^Vi-t, (M,) 
inf. n^ *j\JsJ; (8, ? ;) and t J^^i, (T,) inf. n. 
jCjT. (S,':^.) It is said in a trad., iLJi\ ljj.*T 
t>t-ii " 'l ^^ Consult ye women respecting them- 
selves, as to marrying them. (TA.) And in 
another trad., l y iLj O^t, meaning She con- 
sulted herself, or her mind; as also t,;;^tLil 
ly-Ai. (TA.) [See another ex. voce ,^. And 
see also 8.] 

4. j^\, inf. n. ^C^l : see 1, lost sentence but 
one, in two places. ^ »j^; (S, M, M^b, ^ ;) and 
* -i*'* (§) M, Msb, ]J,) acdftrd. to some, (M,) 
aor. S(MBb,B;,) inf.n. jil; (M?b ;) both sig- 
nifying the same accord, to AO, (S,) or A 'Obeyd, 
(TA,) but the latter is of weak authority, (?,) or 
is not allowable ; (M ;) and, accord, to El-^asan's 
reading of xvii. 17 of the ^ur, (see 1,) '* *^1 
also ; (M ;) t He (a man) multiplied it ; or made 
it many, or much, or abundant : (S, Msb ;) He 
(God) multiplied, or made ' many or much or 
abundant, his progeny, and his beasts i (M,^:) 
and fJUj-i" t-ffe (God) multiplied, ice, his 
property, or camels or the Uhe. (S.) ^ See also 
1, first sentence, in two places. 

5. j^\S He became made, or appointed, com- 
mander, governor, lord, prince, or king; (Msb ;) 
he received authority, power, or dominion ; j^^^ 
over them. (S, ^.) [See also Jit.] See also 8. 

6 : see 8, in three places. 

8. j«^l [written with the disjunctive alif ^«;^l] 
He obeyed, or coiformed to, a command; (S,* 
M, Mgh, ^ ;*) he heard and obeyed, (Msb.) 
You say, j^^ j^^t meaning He was as though 
his mind commanded him to do good and he 
obeyed the command. (M.) And [you use it 
transitively, saying,] _;*fjl j^l He obeyed, or 
conformed to, the command. (S.) And j.^\i '^ 
Ijij He will not do right of his onm accord. 
(A.) Imra el-Keys says, (§,) or En-Nemir Ibn- 
Towlab, (T,) 

. ,1 /.,. 

[And that which man obeys wrongs him,oiit0ures 
him] ; meaning, that which his own soul com- 
mands him to do, and which, he judges to be 
right, but in which often is found his destruction : 
(8 :) or, accord, to ^t, that evil which man pur- 
poses to do : (T :) or that which man does without 
consideration, and nnthout looking to its result. 
(A 'Obeyd, T-) [See what follows.] He under- 
took a thing without consulting ; (l^t, T ;) as 
though his soul, or mind, ordered him to do it 
and he obeyed it: (TA:) he foUowed his own 
opinion only. (Mgh.) One says, ^tj ^U a!^! 
f^\i ^\, (A, Mgh,) meaning / commanded him, 
but it followed his own opinion only, and refused 
to cAsjf. (Mgh.) — He formed an opinion, and 
ConsuUed his own mind, and determined upon it. 
(Sh, T.) And Ajtj ^«l5t He consulted hie own 
mind, or judgment, respecting what was right for 
him to do. (Sh, T.) — lJ,^»li1, (A, Mfb,) inf. n. 
jCiir; (S, 5 ;) and t tj^fc, (A,) inf. n. jTu, of 
die measure jk\i3 ; (S ;) and * \^Xi, (TA,) inf. n. 
^Is ; (5 ;) They consulted together : (8,' A, 
M;b, ^:*) or ^3j^\ and ^ tji^U signify they 
commanded, ordered, bade, or enjoined, one ano- 
ther; like as one saya, tjJLLIil and I^UW, and 
uA.t and 1>^UJ : (T :) or ^^1 j^jU Ij^^l 
and d^ t Ia^'^i '^^ determined, or settled, 
Iheir opinioru respecting the affair, or case : 
(M :) and ai lj_^«lSt, (8, M;b,) Inf. n. as above, 
(!^,) signifies they purposed it, (S, M?b, 5,*) 

[Book L 

"^^^i a thing, (Mjb, ?,) and consulted one 
"^^^h- respecting it. (?.) It is said in the ^ur 
l'^V. 6J, i^^jst^j^i^ ^ij^^i -^'"^ command ye, 
or et^oin ye, one another to do good: [such is 
app. the meaning,] but God best knowetli: (T:) 
or, accord, to ^t, purpose ye among yourselves to 
do good. (TA.) And in the same [xxviii. 10], 
JJ j JjJsJ il^ OiJ^^ *^^ 0!> meaning Veriiy the 
chiefs command one another rapeeting thee, to 
slay thee : (Zj, T :) or consult together against 
thee, to slay thee: (AO^T:) or purpose against 
thee, to slay thee : (^t, T :) but the last but 
one of these explanations is better than the last 
(T.)_See also 3. ^Accord, to El-Bushtee, 
»j^^\ also signifies He gave kim permission : but 
this has not been heard from an Arab. (Ax, TA.) 

10 : see 3, in two places. 

J.*] A commaiid; an order; a bidding; an 
injunction; a decree; an ordinance; a preterit: 
(S,« Msb,* TA, ice. :) pi. j*lil: (?,Msb,&c.:) 
BO accord, to common usage ; and some writen 
of authority justify and explain it by saying that 
j^\ is [originally] 4^ j^*^; ^^ it is then changed 
to the measure ^U; [i.e., to j^l;] like i^jU^I, 
which is origioally i.J'jjjm ; and 3v^\j ii-t^, ori- 
ginally J^Ay* ; ka. ; [and then, to j^ ;] and that 
^U becomes in the pi. ^t>i; so that ^Ijl is 
the pi. of jj>*U ; others say that it has this form 
of pi. to distinguish it &om j.«l in the sense of 
Jl^ [&c.], in which sense it has fbr its pi. jy»}. 
(Msb, TA.) [But I think that j«tjt may be 
properiy and originally pi. of tjA, for tjA\ i^t, or 
the hke. MP saya that, acconl'to the f and M, 
the pi. of ^t in the sense explained in the begin- 
ning of this patagr^h is jy»\ : but he seems to 
have founded his assertion upon corrupted copies 
of those works ; for in the M, I find nothing on 
this point ; and in the T, not, as he says, j^ j*"^ 

^ji^iii J-.IJ ^_^i, but jj^i; ;:^)t i^i jii 

jy*)y >»*-lj j^'Hjt ijt^i u^>t*i, evidently meaning 
that jm\ signifies the contr, of icv', and ia also, in 
another sense, the sing, of j^t.] [Hence,] yy 
j^'^t Those who hold command or rule, and the 
learned men. (M, ^. [See Eur ir. 6S.]) And 
•otl j^\ The threatened .punishment of Qad : so 
in the ^ur x. 2d, and xi. 42, and xvl I ; in which 
last place occur the words, SjjsfiiLJi "^i JD) >•> .Jilt 
meaning The threatened punishment ordained of 
God hath, as it were, coma: so near is it, that it 
is as though it had already come : therefore desire 
not ye to hasten it. (Zj, M, TA.) And TAepur^ 
pose of Ood. (Bd and Jel in Ixv. 3 ; &c) And 
^.f^ j-'j^ The resurrection, or the time thereof, 
near. (Mgh, from a trad.) And o^ aiiw l« 
i,^t, in the ^ur xviii. 81, / did it not of my 
own judgment: (Bd:) or, of my own choice. 
(Jel.) [Hence also ^"^l, in grammar, signifies 
ITie imperative form of a verb.] __ Also A thing; 
an affair; a business; amatter; a concern: a 
state, of a person (>r tiling, or of persons or tkisigs 


Book I.] 

or affairs or circumstances ; a conditW^ > a com : 
an accident; an event: an action: syn, ^j\i,: 
(M, F, TA :) and JU, (Msb, TA,) and i)U : 
(M§b:) andij>U: (K:) and ji: (MF,TA:) 
and a thing that is said ; a saying : (TA voce 

yy, at the end of art. Jt:) pi. jyS; (S, M^K, 
&c. ;) its only pi. in the senses here explained. 

(TA.) You say, J^i;,!,^ J^ >•*' [^^ offair, 
or the like, of such a one is in a right state] : and 

<i^SXM...o ojy\ [ffis affairs are in a right state]. 

(S, A.) And dj^l Cxiw He dissipated, disorganr 
izedy disordered, unsettled, or broke up, his state 
of things, or affairs. (Af, TA in art. v**-'0 
[j^\ seems to be here used, as in many other 
instances, rather in the sense of the pi. than in that 

of the sing.]^^JL£9 ja\ [A universal, or general, 
prescript, rule, or canon]. (Msb voce IjsM, KT 
voce Oy^i «^v 

j^t a subst. from j^*>)t ja\ in the sense of jZJ^\ ; 

(S ;) or a subst. from^l as signifying j*£9 and 

j^ ; (M ;) t [-4. severe, a distressful, a grievous, 
or an afflictive, thing : or] a terrible, and foul, 
or very foul, thing : or a wonderful thing. (TA.) 

Hence, [used as an epithet, like^l/q. v.,] in the 

JSIur [xviii. 70], ijJ^I O ^^ ^ t Fm7y <A(m 
^a«< done a severe, a distressful, a grievous, or 
an afflictive, thing : (S :) or a terrible, and foul, 
or very foul, thitig : (TA :) or a wonderful 
thing : (S :) or an abominable, a foul, or an 
evil, and a wonderful, thing: (Ks, M,]^:*) or 
a terrible and an abominable thing ; signifying 
more than 1^, [which occurs after, in verse 73,] 
inasmuch as the [presumed] drowning of the per- 
sons in the ship was more abominable than the 
slaying of one person : (Zj, T :) or a crafty, 
and an abominable, or a foul, or an evil, and a 

wonderful, thing ; and derived from j»yUt j^S as 
J J ^ " 

meaning U>^- (^0 

j^\ a coll. gen. n. of which oj^\ (q. v.) is the 
aSee alsojy«U. 

n. un. 


«l : see j^\. ass \ Multiplied; or become many, 
or much, or abundant. (M,]^.) [See^t.] You 
say yA cjj t Abundant seed-produce. (Lh, M.) 
... t A man wliose beasts have multiplied, or 
become many or abundant. (M.) f A man blessed, 
or prospered, (Ibn-Buzurj, M, Kl,*) in his pro- 
perty : (M :) fem. with 5. (Ibn-Buzurj.) And 
with S, t A woman blessed to her husband [by her 
being prolific] : from the signification of 5 ' 

(M,.)tsaaf Severe; distressful; afflictive. (TA.) 
[See also^t.] 

Ija\ a single command, order, bidding, or in- 
junction : as in the sa3ring, ^Ika 6j^\ ^^^ M 
Thou hast authority to give me one command, 
order, bidding, or injunction, which shall be 
obeyed by me. (S, M,* A, Msb, "K..) You should 
not say, [in this sense,] Sj^\, with kesr. (T, 1^.) 
1^ See also 5^1. 


Zj^\ a subst. from ja\ [q. v.] ; Possession of 
command; the office, and authority, of a com* 
mander, governor, lord, prince, or king ; (M,* 
Bk. I. 

•' ^ 

Msb,!:;) as also t s^U (Mgh,M8b,E:) and 

▼ SjUt ; (L, 1^ ;) but this last is by some dis- 
allowed, and is said in the Fs and its Expositions 
to be unknown. (MF.) It is said in a trad., 

dl^ ^\ ly^\ «£U;Li ^^UiO Perhaps thy paternal 

uncWs son's possession of command hath dis- 
pleased thee. (TA.) ^ [And hence, f Increase, 
or abundance, or the like; as also other forms 
mentioned in what follows.] You say, a*.^ ^ 
djjA\ sJjsu «2X3U t Jn the face of thy property, 

[meaning such as consists in camels or the Hke, 
and also money,] thou knowest its in4;rease and 

abundance, and its expense : (S :) or ▼ ajj^S , and 
^ 4j%^\ , which latter is a dial. var. of weak 
authority, and * ^j^S, i. e., its increase and abun- 
dance : (M :) or t A^t as meaning its prosperous 
state; as also *A3jUt, and ^4jj^\ : (Ibn-Buzur) :) 

accord, to AHeyth, who reads ▼ ajj^S Ujsu, the 
meaning is, its decrease; but the correct meaning 
is, its increase, as Fr explains it. (T, TA.) It is 
said respecting anything of which one knows what 
is good in it at first sight : (Lh, M :) and means, 
on a thing's presenting itself, thou knowest its 

goodness. (T.) One says also, *.>n^jUt ^j^m,mm\ U 
t S^ow good is their multiplying, and the multi- 
plying of their offspring and of their number ! 

(M.) And t sjit A^ 'M Jji^ ^ t May God 

not make an increase to be therein. (T.) 

Zj^\ Stones : (^ :) [or a heap of stones ;] or 

it is the n. un. of ja\, which signifies stones : 
(M :) or the latter signifies stones set up in order 
that one may be directed thereby to the right way : 
(^am p. 409:) and the former also signifies a hill; 

(M, ]^ ;) and j^\ is [used as] its pi. : (M :) and 
a sign, or mark, by which anything is %nown ; 

(M,]^;) as also t JUI and 1 5^U1 ; (As,S;) and 

j^\ is [used as] its pi. in this sense also : (M :) 
or a sign, or mark, set up to show the way; 

(AA, Fr ;) as also t *Ut and t sjui : (5 :) or 
a small sign, or mark, of stones, to show the way, 

in a waterless desert; (S ;) as also ▼jU! [and 
tSjUt]; and any sign, or mark, that is prepared: 
(TA :) or a structure like a 5jlu [here app. 
meaning a tower of a mosque], upon a mmtntain, 
wide like a house or tent, and larger, of the 
height of forty times the stature of a man, made 
in the time of 'Ad and Irem ; in some instances 
its foundation being like a house, though it con- 
sists only of stones piled up, one upon another, 
cemented together with mud, appearing as though 
it were of natural formation : (ISh, T :) the pi. 
(in all the senses above. If) [or rather the coll. 

gen. n.,] isj-«t. (S, IJl.) tsaa See also Sj^l, 

jUI and ^ 5jU? A sign, mark, or token. (As, 
S, Mgh.) See also each voce cj^\, in three places. 
You say, jXl^f^ ^^jyi to sjlil ^^ It is a sign, or 
token, of what is between me and thee. (T,* TA.) 
And a poet says. 


• ^ J* *•$ 

[When the sun of day rises, it is a sign of my 
saluting thee, therefore do tkou salute], (TA.)^ 


Also A time : (As, S, El :) so I A^r explains the 
latter word, not particularizing the time as definite 
or otherwise: (M:) or a definite time : (TA:) or 
a time, or place, of promise or appointment; an 
appointed time or place ; syn, j^^y^ : (M, Mgh, 
If :) or, accord, to some, the former word is pi. 
[or rather coll. gen. n.] of the latter. (TA.) El- 
'Ajjdj says. 


,'5" • 

Wken He (meaning God) brings it, (namely my 
soul,) by his skilful ordering, and his power, 
[and it is thus brought, or it thus comes, to a set 
time, and] to the time of the end of my appointed 

period : ^ jl« jUI being as above ; the former 
word being prefixed to the latter, governing it 

m the gen. case. (IB. [In the S we find jUlj 

jy\ [an intensive epithet from oj^\]. You say, 
jSiJ^\ ^j^ y^^ iJu^^jto)l^ jy«*>) dj\ Verily he is 

^ ^ ^ ^ » 

one who strongly commands, or enjoins, good 
conduct, and who strongly forbids evil conduct. 
(S in art ^-^, and A.*) 

jf^\ One having, holding, or possessing, com- 
mand; (§;) a commander; a governor ; a lord; 
(M,* Mf b ;) a prince, or king : (M, BI :) fem. 

with 5 : (S, If :) pi. i\j^\. (M, Msb, K.) — A 
leader of the blind. (M, If.) So in the saying 
of El-A^sh^ : 

^t ^ ^\ ,^>U o^ \l\ 

* l^*^! pU»l SUUI jjuo > • 

[When the young man's guide in the countries, 
or lands, or the like, is the top of the cane, 
he obeys the leader of the blind]. (M.) ^ A 
woman's husband. (A.)^^ neighbour. (If.) 
^A person with whom one consults: (A,K:) 
any one of whom one begs counsel, or advice, 

in a case of fear. (TA.) You say, \^yti^\ jA 
JELe is the person with wJiom I consult. (A.) 

SjUt : see S^t , in thre« places : ^ and see 
also Sj^\, in three places; and^UI. 

5jUt : see S^t.^SjUNt is also used for ^.f^>^\^ 
S^UN!, i. e.'jt^^l (Mgh.) 

yi\ : see the next paragraph, in two places. 

I A man who consults every one respecting 
his case ; as also ^^t and ^ SjU) : (M :) or a 
man resembling [in stupidity] a kid: [see the latter 
part of this paragraph :] (Th, M :) or, as also 
t Ij^t (S, M, K:, &c.) and t j^| and t Ij^t, (5,) 
a man having weak judgment, (S,]f,) stupid, 
(T, M,) or weak, without judgment, (M, L,) or 
without intellect, or intelligence, (T,) who obeys 
the command of every one, (T, S,) who complies 
with what every one desires to do in all his 
affairs; (BL;) ^ stupid msji, of weak judgment, 
who says to another, Command me to execute 
thine affair. (lAth.) It is said in a trad., ^ja 

IJ43 J^W ^ ^ h^^ J^ \.^^ ^^ ^^^* ^ stupid 
man, &c., shall not eat fruit : or the meaning is] 


• s 

he who obey! a ttupid motnan thall be dtbai-rad 
from good. (I Ath.) ♦ Sj-I is applied to a wonum 
and to B man : when it is applied to a man, tin? 
S is added to give intensiveness to the significatioii 
(18h.) The following saying, ^JyIi\ tiiit lij 
1^1 % »a^l W ^^-j; :ii !^, in rhymiii^z 
prose, means [When Sirius rises in the trleiir 
twiliijht,] send not thou among them (meaiiiii;; 
the camels) a man ivitkout intelligence [in n 
great degree, nor one mho is so in a Ut» degn-i- ; 
or a woman without intelligence, nor a man Jvilh- 
out intelligence ;] to manage them. (Sh.) — 
Also, (M,K,) and ♦ S^J and t^-' ^^ *^r»'. 
(;^,) A young lamb : (M,?.:) or the first ( ^1 ) 
and the second, a young kid: (M, TA :) or liii' 
former of these tiro, a male lamb: (M,TA:) or 
a young male lamb : (S :) and the latter of tlicm, 
a female lamb : (M, TA :) or a yowny femah 
lamb. (S.M.) One Bays, t ij*l Sij J-J *3 L*. 
.meaning ITe has not a male lamb nor a femali' 
lamb : (M, TA :) or he has not anything. (T, 
?, M.) 

Sfst : see j^l , in two places. 

»j^t: Beej.«l, in six places :^and see Sj^\, 
in four places. 

■ B^t : see ij^l. 

*yu\ [Wont to command]. [Hence,] ijl^fjtjjj; 
[The soul that is wont to command] ; (A ;) the 
soul that inclines to the nature of the body, that 
commands to the indulgence of pleasures and si-n- 
sual appetites, drawing the heart downwards, so 
that it is the abode of evils, and the sourci: of 
culpable dispodtions. (KT.) [SeCy-iJ.] 

*iju>\ fern, of Jul [q. t.]._ See also jll. 

jm\ [act.partn.of «jrft.] — ,^1 and ^ ^yo Tico 
days, (S,) the last, (K,) the former being the 
sixth, and tlie latter the seventh, (M,) of the d'li/n 
called ^^LiH ^^\: (^,'M.,'^: [butsee j^:]) as 
though the former commanded men to be cautious, 
and the latter consulted them as to whether Uiey 
should set forth on a journey or stay at home : 
(S:) accord, to Az, the latter is applied as an 
epithet to the day as meaning a^ ^9i- (1'A.) 

i^j*Xi : see j>«'Jj in two places. 

\Jj«]ii, and without . : see jyM, in six places. 

jyiM and f ijj-'U are properly mentioned in ihis 
iirt. ; the measure of the former being JIjuj ; 
(^ ;) and that of the latter, ai>a3 : (TA :) not 
as J has imagined; [who writes them without ., 
and mentions them in art j^i] O^i) their i 
flures accord, to him being ,,}}ftU and 2)^U. (TA.) 
[But in all the senses here expliuned, they appenr 
to be with and without *.]^ The former signifies 
The sold : (S in art. ^«3, where it is wriitci 
without*; and M, A, ^:) because it is that 
which is woDt to command. (A.) One sav^ 
4U> ^jyMjJif ji Thy soul, or self hath k»ow> 

that. (AZ, and T in art. ^.) The inteikct 

(M :) as in the saying, t^j>«w *^j* J ff-^"' <*' 
by my inteUeet. (M in art j^, without > ; and 

TA.) You say also, ^jy^V Cwl i*, meaning ffe 
is the hnowing with respect to it. (TA in art 
^.)^The heart, (T in art ^ wiihout*, 
and M, A, ?.,) itself. (M, TA.) Hence the 
wying, ilStej ^ i^* ^ j^ ijjy*^ ij? 4^ 
[One word in my heart is better than ten in thy 

receptacle]. (T in art. j*5, and TA.) The 

pericardium. (M in art. j«3, vithout i.)^ The 
core, or blach or inner part, or clot of blood, 
(al^, M, K, or Ule, TA,) and life, and blood, 
of the Iteart : (M, jKL :) or blood, (As, 8, M, in 
art. j^, and K,) absolutely : (TA :) and Jj^O 
,^1 signifies the life-blood: (A?, S :) or the 
blood of the body ; (S in art. ^Ju :) and the life 
of the soul. (M, K.) ^ Also, as being likened 
to blood, (TA,) I Wine; and bo t |j^U ; (M, 
?:) and t^ dye: (M, TA :) and t Saf- 
fron. (As, ^.) [Hence also,] I Water. (M, 

?;.) You say, j^^U a^j» ^J U, (T, S in art. 
^, and M,) or jj*C, (A,) \Tkereis jiot in the 
njell any water. (T, S, M, A.)HBThe wezeer 
(jijj) of a king : (M,K :) because his command 
is effectual. (TA.) ^a Any one : as in the saying, 
J^U Vf U, (T in art. ^, A, K,) as also * J>4^, 
(T in art. ^«2, and ]^,) each with an augmentative 
O, and without • as well as with it, accord, to 
£r-Radee and others, (TA,) and ^ tJjM, and 

* )J^>io, (M,) and t ^^^j5, (T in art ^, M, 
TA,') or without ., (S, M, 1^, in art. ^,) 

* j^l, (M, %.,) There ie not in it (i. e. in the 
house, jl^l, M, A, TA) any one. (M, A, ^, 
and T and S in art ^.^ You say also, •^<JL^ i^ 
' ^Sj"^ 'w* i^~^ Fiiciinf regions wherein ie not 
any one. (^ in art. j^.) f ij^p (M, ^) and 
' lj>«j5 (? in art. j^) and * ^JjyM and *^^jrfG 
(M, K) also signify A man, or human being. 
(&,' M, ?..) You say, speaking of a beaulifiil 
woman, V« o— ^' ^Wj^y ■•^'j ^ ^ ^"^^ *">t 
seen a human being, or creature, more beautiful 
than the : (^ and M in art ^«J :) and C-jtj U 
4.iU ij.-»-1 ^ ^j^yi [I have not seen a man more 
beautiful than he]. (TandS inart j*J.) Accord, 
to some, they are used onlyin negative phrases; but 
accord, to others, theyare also used insuchas are affir- 
mative. (MF.),_Also ^nyfAtn^.- as in the Baying 
\jy,'3 ^1« iip Ci i^t 4ij>)t J^' [The wolf ate 
the sheep, or goat, and left not of it anything]. 
(T and 8 in art. j«3.) ^ A child, young one, or 
fietus ; syn. jJj. (M, ^.) ^ The receptacle 
(.U3) of the child, young one, or fcetus. (M in 
art. j.aj, without . ; and ^.) ^ A >lfij [in tlte 
ordinary senM; i.e. a bag, or receptacle, for 
Iravelling-provitions and for goods or utensils ^c.]. 
(M,]^.) Hence the saying, ^j^U^ j^\ -:-i\ 
Thou art best acquainted with what thou hast 
with thee; and toith thine own mind. (M.)^_ 
Also, (^,) and ^ Sj>«l^, (M, [in which the former 
is not given tn the following senses,] and ^,) or 

* Sj>*U, (8 in art ,^,) A eiver, syn. ^^J^\, (S, 
1&,-^,) for wine: ($:) and, (M, ^,) or, u'some 
say, (TA,) a aC (M,1^,TA) t» which nme it 

[Book I- 

''"'' n.)—A\BO the first, (Ttf, ?,) or » third, 

i'^,Z^aid$ in art. j^,) The chamber, or cell, 
(.^*^^, r and M in art j^, without ., and S 
and jp; and ^>ilj, M, J^,) of a monk. (M, ?,.) 
— And hence, (TA,) the first, (50 and * second, 
(M, §:,) or t third, of these three words, (T and 
S in art j^,) I The covert, or retreat, of a lion. 
(T, S, M, j;.) Whence, * ^ij^'O ^ 1.1^1 J^ 
I Such a one is a lion in his covert : (T and § in 
art. j.Ji:) a saying borrowed from 'Amr Ibn- 
Ma^ee-Kerib:- (T and 6 ibid:) or, accord, to 
some, it means, a lion in tlte greatness of his 
courage, and tn his heart. (TA.)BiBAlso (i.e. 
the first only) Play, or sport, of girls or of boys. 
(Th, M. in art. j^ without », and I^.) ^ See also 

jy^ A sign, or mark, set up to show the way 
in a waterless desert ; (K, TA ;) consisting oj 
stones piled up, one upon another: (TA :) pi. 
'jtM. (?.) [See i;.;t.]«i See also ^(j. 

«. jt. , ,t. 

SjyM, and without > : see j>«U, in eight places. 

_^A1bo The pericardium ; the integument {'^'^) 
of the heart. (Sinarl. _^: there written with- 
out . .) 

S ,L • ,t. 

iS})*^ '• ^^ J>*^> 'n f'^o places. 

j^Xa Counsel; advice: as in the saying, ^^ 
^^i !>• <^^ji >^^t i>« >>«B^ iSurA a otw is 
far from counsel, or advice : near (0 cnZumfty, 
or slander. (A.) 

j^^ Made, or appointed, commander, go- 
vernor, lord, prince, 01 king : (8, M, Ij^ :•) mode 
to have authority, power, or dominion : (T, M, 
5 :) in which latter sense it is explained by 
Kh&lid, as applied by Ibn'Mu^bil to a spear. 
(T.) _ t A cane, or spear-shaft, having a spear- 
head ajgixed to it. (?.) — t A spear-head (T, 
TA) sharpened; syn. l^i^. (T, M, ?., TA.) 
^_ Distinguished, or defined, (jjm.*,) by signs, 
or ma7-hs : (TA :) or, as some say, (TA,) marJud 
with a hot iron; syn. ^^^. (5, TA.) 

jyXt [pass, part n. of bj<\, q. t.]. „ It is said 
in a trad., (S, kc.,) at<j fj^U Ij^ jOl j^ 

ij^U I Tfte 6«( of property are a prolific fiUy 
[and a row of paim'trees, or perhaps a tall palm- 
tree, fecundated] ; (AZ, A 'Obeyd, T, 8, A, 5 }) 
as though the filly were commanded [by God] to 
be so : (A, in which the epithet Sj^U thus used 
Ib said to be tropical :) [or] Sjj«Lg is thus for the 
sake of conformity to Sj^U, and is originally 
i^'^, (S, M,«.K,) from J)T Ujif: (TA :) or it is 
a dial. var. of weak authority ; (T^ ;) though, 
accord, to AZ, it signifies made to have abundant 
offspring, from i^y«)1 JlT j.«l, meaning " God 
made the filly to have abundant offipring," a dial, 
var. of, as A 'Obeyd also asserts it to be. 

j.«U and j^U : see what next follows. 

f^^ [ Obeying, or conforming to, a eommuaid; 
&c. : see 8. „] One v^h acts according to hit 
ownoptnion; {T\)^0^!!ofiiiU>nt Auomto; 

Book I.] 

only : or who Juutes to apeak. (MO ^ See also 
j^L — Ako, and »o.\l^M, [The montk which is 

now commonly called] jijm^\ : (M^ £^ :) the 
former appellation (j^y^) is that by which the 
tribe of 'Ad called it : (Ibn-El-Kelbee :) pi. 
t «^U and »t^U [both anomalous]. (M^ Ij[.) 
[See j^.] 

jy«lj» ; (M^ ]|l ;) BO in all the copies of the K ; 

but in the L and other lexicons, ^jy^^y (^-^0 
A certain beast of the sea : or, as some say, a 
smaU beast : (M :) and a kind of mountain-goat : 
(M, 5 :) or a certain wild beast, (K, TA,) or a 
beast resembling the mountainrgoaty (M,) having 
a single branching horn in the middle of his head. 

(M, TA.) [See jyU^f the oryx.] 



Ay meaning Yesterday, or the day before 
the present day (Msb, K) by one night, (K,) and 
tropically applied to X wfiat is before that, (Msb,) 
or a short time before, (Bd in x. 25,) [used as a 
subst. and as an adv.,] is indecl., with any of the 
three vowels for its termination : (]^ :) [written 

A and ^^^mo) and ^^m^\ :] or it is an adv. n.. 

indecl., with kesr for its termination, unless made 
indeterminate, or made determinate [by tiie article 
Jt] ; and sometimes indecl. with fet-h : (£z- 
Zejjdjee, M, TA :) or, accord, to IHsh, the termi- 
nation with fet-h is a rejected form ; and that with 
damm is not mentioned by any of the gram- 

marians : (TA :) but ^jM«et J^ [Since yesterday] 

occurs, used by poetic licence : (Sb, S :) ^j^ is 
a noun of which the last letter is made movent to 
avoid the concurrence of two quiescent letters: 
and the Arabs differ respecting it : (S :) most of 
them make it indecl., with kesr for its termination, 
when it is determinate [without the article Jt] : 
but some of them make it [imperfecdy] decl. 
when it is determinate [in the same manner] : (S, 

1^ :•) [accord, to the most approved usage,] you 
say, [u»>^\ A^|j> *"^^ t/^'>W> which is more com- 
mon, and ^^m«*^), / saw him yesterday ; and] 

^jrn^S Jk«o a;^(; U [I have not seen htm since 

yesterday] ; and if you have not seen him [since 

Jit »j jjftf^ X 
the day next] before that, you say, J^t Jl« AZ»tj U 

A ^>• [I have not seen him since the day 

before yesterday] ; and if you have not seen him 
[since] two days before that, you say, Jl« Aj^tj U 
►t ^>o J^t ^>• J^t [J have not seen him since 

the day before the day before yesterday]. (ISk, 
TA.) The phrase yjm^\ aJ^iIj [JT saw him yester- 

day] has also been heard, but it is extr. (^.) 
The people of El-Hij4z make ^j^^t indecl., with 

kesr for its termination ; and the Benoo-Temeem 
do the same when it is in the accus. or gen. case ; 
but these latter make it [imperfectly] decl. when 
it is in the nom. case, saying, a^ \^ yj»^\ ^^3 
[Yesterday has gone with what happened during 
it] ; whereas the people of £1-Hijdz say, ^^S 
4^ W Lf^^f because it is [held by them to be] 
indecl. on account of its implying that it has the 
determinative article Jt [understood as prefixed 

to it], the kesreh being added to avoid the 
concurrence of two quiescent letters; while the 
Benoo-Temeem hold it to be, in the nom. case, 

a deviation from cr-**^^ ^i^d therefore imperfectly 
decl., because of its being determinate, [and so 
resembling a proper name,] and its deviation from 
the original form, like j^*^ in the like case : (IB, 
TA :) all of the Arabs, however, make it decl. 
when the article J1 is prefixed to it, (S, KI,*) 
and when it is made indeterminate, or is prefixed 
to another noun : (S :) they say, using it indeter- 

minately, L»ot y\^ j>i> J^ [Every morrow be- 


J J 

^y^^\ wJLet [/ have formed an eoopectation, or 
a distant expectation, of arriving] ; but he does 

not say, c»»ii»U until he has become near thereto ; 
for 9^ relates only to that of which the occur- 
rence, or coming to pass, is [deemed] near : and 
pii^jJt IS between Ji^*>)t and %Joi\ ; for it is some- 
times attended with fear that the thing expected 
may not come to pass, wherefore it is used in 
the sense of fear; and when the fear is strong, 
[lest the thing expected should not come to pass, 
it denotes distant expectation, and thus] it is used 

,« TT* V , , . _j-^° ^® sense of Jl*•^)1; whence the usage in the 
comes a yesterday] ; (§/ IB ;) and making irf^^^ ^^ 2uheyr ; but otherwise it is used in the 
determinate by the article Ji, they say, O^ . ^ ^i 

f^^ J et 

Lfgh ^J«-o^)^ [The yesterday was good], (IB,) and 

^jW^ ur»o*^^ i.^'^^ [The blessed yesterday has 
past]; (S;) and prefixing it to another noun, 

L^ O^ U.M.ot J^ [AU of our yesterday was 
good], (IB,) and U.M.ot ^c^iM [ Our yesterday has 
past] : (S :) [therefore,] in the following verse, 

[And verily I stood to-day, and yesterday before 
it, at thy door until the sun was almost setting], 
(thus related by lA^ in two different ways, 

ot ^ ttt I 

^j^^'^S and u^^^^j) i^ we read c^-*'^^ "^^ Jt is 

redundant, because it is implied in the word 

it ^ it 

^j0^\ ; but if we read c;M«*>Jt, the Jt is not implied 

" ^ ot 

in i^f>t^\, and therefore is prefixed to make it de- 
ft j^ 9 ^#» 

terminate. (IJ, M.) The pi. is ^j^^S and ^t-^t, 

(Zj,K,) both pis. of pane, (Zj, TA,) and ^^>«t, 

* i jt\ 
(Zj, 5> TA, [in the CK, incorrectly, i^>*t,]) 

which is a pi. of mult. (Zj, TA.) There is no 

it 41 <^' 

dim. form of ^j^^S ; like as there is none of j^ 

i ^ * #»•" 4f it ^ * m t 

and 2l».jUt and \Stf^ and ^t and ^cl« and ^t 

and t^ and ju^ and the names of the months and 

" J ^ i J 

those of the days of the week, except rjipifc It. 
(Sb, S.) 

S • . _ _ . Z it 

A , contr. to analogy, (M, TA,) and 

[which is agreeable with analogy] is allowable, 
as related by Sgh on the authority of Fr, but the 
former is the more chaste, (TA,) Of, or relating 
to, or belonging to, yesterday. (M, TA.) 

sense of %^Joi\ : (Msb :) or ^ii^t signifies the 

expectation of benefit, or advantage, fix>m some 

preceding cause or means : so says £1-Qar411ee : 

J "t 
or it is properly syn. with J«*>)t ; and in common 

conventional language, means the clinging of the 

heart to the coming to pass of a future desired event: 

so says Ibn-£1-Kemdl : or, accord, to Er-Rdghib, 

an opinion requiring the coming to pass of an 

event in which will be a cause of happiness: 

(TA :) and ▼ 4JUt, inf. n. J^U, signifies he ex- 

pected it much; and is more commonly used 
than the form without teshdeed. (Msb.) 

• I. 

2 : see 1, in two places, bbs J^U also signifies 

The inducing [one] to hope or eoopect. (KL.) 

i s 




1. AJUt, (T, S, M, &c.,) aor. '- , (T, S, M, Mf b,) 

and 7 , (so in the M accord, to the TT,) inf. n. 
• ^t 
J«t, (T, S, M, &c.,) this being the inf. n. accord. 

to IJ, [as distinguished fix>m J«t and J«t,] 

J ^ ^ 
(M,) Se hojjed it ; or hoped for it; syn. dU-j ; 

• "t 
(S,*M,* [see J.«t below,] K;) meaning, what 

was good for him ; (S ;) as also ▼ 4JUt, (T,* M, 

K,) inf. n. J^U : (S, T :) or he expected it ; 

[or had a distant, or remote, expectation of it ; 

for] it is mostly used in relation to that of which 

the occurrence, or coming to pass, is deemed 

remote ; as in the saying of Zuheyr, 
^jit"^ J i " it J j»*^ J it 

[I hope, and have a distant expectation, that her 
love may approach] : he who has determined 
upon a journey to a distant town or country says. 

6. f^tf^t J*U [He considered the thing, or 
studied it, or contemplated it, carefully, or atten^ 
tively, with investigation ;] he looked at the 
thing endeavouring to obtain a clear knowledge 

of it : (S :) or t. q. d^jjJ ; (Msb, TA ;) i. e., 
(Msb,) he looked into the thing, considered it, 
examined it, or studied it, repeatedly, (Mf b, TA,) 
in order to know it, or until lie knew it, (Msb,) 
or in order to ascertain its real case : (TA :) or 
he looked intently, or hardly, at, or towards, the 
thing : (T A :) or J*U signifies he acted, or pro- 

^ St* * 

reeded, deliberately, not hastily, syn. C%JL 3 , (T, 

M,) or he paused, or waited, syn. w%«JL3, (50 
in an affair, and in consideration ; (M, K, TA ;) 
he paused, and acted with deliberatix)n. (TA.) 

J^U A^ [meaning It requires careful, or atten- 

tive, consideration, or simply it requires con- 

sideration,] is a phrase [of frequent occurrence 

in the larger lexicons &c., used to imply doubt, 

and also to insinuate politely that the words to 

• •» <» 

which it relates are false, or wrong,] like Joj A^i 
[q. V.]. (MF in art. ^^J^.) 

• it 


• ^t 

• • 


see J.«t. 

• *t 

• i 

Jit (T, S, M, Mfb, ^) and t J^J (IJ, M, ^) 

9 it - 

and '•'vj-ot, (J^,) the first of which is an inf. n., 
accord, to IJ, (M,) and is the form commonly 
known, (TA,) Hope ; syn. V^j : (S, M, K :) or 
expectation ; [or distant, or remote, expectation; 
being] mosdy used in relation to that of which 
the occurrence, or coming to pass, is deemed 
remote : applied also to an affection of the heart 
from some good to be attained : (Msb, TA : [in 
both of which are further explanations, for which 

see 1 :]) ^ iUj, also, signifies the same as J-il, 


($, M, ^,) or J^U } (Lh, M, ^ ;) [or a manner 
of hoping or expecting; for J adds,] and it is 
like LJL. and 3^^ : (S :) and * 3^>>> ^^^ 
wise, signifies the same as ^t : (TA :) the pi, 
of J^iiand jil and ^J^lis Jut. (M,*?.,TAO 
Yon say, aJUIj Agiw v*^ \_HU labour, and hii 
hope, or expectation, mere ditappoinled, fnu- 
trated, or balked]. (A and T A in art. <,ft^ ■) And 
f AlUt J|>»t U Som far-reaching it hit hope, 
or expectation! (T,*S, M, 5:) [or Ati manner 
of hoping or expecting /] from JU'^I- (T.) ,_ 
Also, the first, jln ofyect of hope. (Jel in 
xviii. 44.) 

•LUI : see J.«t, in two places. 

J.«l act-part. n.of Ij [Boping: ot\ expecting. 
(Mfb.) [Seel.] 

^3^ One wkote beneficence may be hoped for. 

(^arp.lSS.) J^>il The eighth of the horset 

that are started togetlter in a race ; (^ ;) these 
being ten: (TA:) or the ninth thereof : (TA in 
explanation of w^C-JI :) or the seventh thereof, 
m&m p. 46.) ^ See also J^l. 

J^U pass. part, i 
pected. (Msb.) 

f 1; [Hoped: or] ex- 

1. o^', (T,S,M,&c.,) aor. ;, (T,MBb,K,) 
inf. n. j>ll (T, S, M, Msb, K) and ^t (Zj, M, 
Ij:) and ^1 (M, K) and Siil (T, S, M, K:) and 
S^\^ (T) and ^Ut (M, ^) [and app. SSul, for 
it is said in the S that this is syn. with O^'J 
and ijrft, an instance of an inf. n. of the measure 
J«U, which is strange, (MF,) or this is a subst. 
like ^li, (M,) He mas, or became, or felt, 
tecxire, safe, or in a state of security or safely ; 
originally, fte icas, or became, quiet, or tranquil, 
in heart, or Tntnij; (M^b;) he mas, or became, 
secure, or free from, fear ; ^j^\ signifying the 
contr. ofS^, (S,M,S:,) and so aUt (8) and 
^>•t'[&c.]: (M, 50 he mas, or became, OT felt, 
free from expectation of evil, or of an object of 
dislike or hatred, in the coming time ; ori^nally, 
he was, or became, easy in mind, and free from 
fear. (EI-Mun4wee, TA.) [See o-»', below.] 
You say also, *.Ju ^Jji ^\j {He is secure, 
or safe, or free from fear, for himself]. (M.) 
And ji^t j>«l, meaning ITie inhabitants of the 
country, or district, or town, mere in a state of 
security, or confidence, therein. (Msb.) The 
Terb is trans, by itself, and by means of the 
particle ^ ; as in jw.':^) ji^j ^\ and ^ ^1 
j-i'lJI, meaning Zeyd mas, or became, or felt, 
secure from, safe from, [or free from fear of,1 
the lion. (Msb.) You say also, ^ v j^ «>•* 
*>**■' [^* «"" wcMre /rom, or ^rse from fear 
of, the lying of him mho informed him}. (M.) 
And ^j^ o**i O' i>«^ li [J om not free from 
fear of its being so ; lam not sure but that it 
may he so]. (Mgh in art. J^ ; and other lexicons 
passim.) And, of a strong-made she camel, CiUal 

iX^ ^j£J o' ["SA* n«M *««« ^m, or free 
fronfear of, being weak] : (M : [in a copy of the 
S J-J-1:]) and ri^-^lj ^li*)! -^^ [She mas 
nccure from, or free from fear of, stumbling, and 
becoming jaded] : (M :) and UjUft ^>«l [^er 
stumbling mas not feared]. (So in a copy of the 
S.) And, of a highly-prized camel, ^*~^ o' O^' 
[/( wo* not feared that he mould be slaughtered, 
or Ids being slaughtered mas not feared]. (M.) 
[<lu[ sometimes means ^« was, or became, free 
fron fear, though having cause for fear, of 
him, or if ; i. e. he thought kiTnself secure, or st^e 
from kirn, or t(. (See ^ur vij. 97.)]_<u« 
(inf. n. ^1 T^) [and accord, to some copies 
of tlie ? *" iiiT] and ♦ iiil (inf. n. ^U ]^) and 
f <u«Zft ([written with the disjunctive alif -^'tT;', 
iiiid] also written sJ.^\, on the authority of Th, 
ivliich is extr., like J^\ [ice.], M) and t 
all signify the same (M,]5,TA) [ITe (nofed, 
or confided, in him ; (as also *; j>»l, q. v. ;) lie 
intrusted him nnlh, or confided to kim, power, 
aiilliority, control, or a charge; he gave kim 
chfirye over a thing or person : these meanings 
arc vaguely indicated in the M and K and TA.]. 
Vou say, AjiSt^ OV^' "^^ J^l^l XUtj [ Jf« 
people, trust, or confide, in kim, and do not fear 
hix malevolence, or misckievotuness], (T, M.) And 
I J>£. ^yi iL.1 (8, Mgh,- M|b») and ♦ *i^! 
4i^, (8, Msb,' 5,) [fie trusted, or coB/tderf, 
//till nii(A respect to such a thing; he intrusted 
him with, or confided to kim, power, autho- 
riti/, control, or a charge, over it; he gave kim 
cliarje over it;] he made him, or took him 
as, i^.K'BOf^ sf^A a thing. (Mgh.) Hence, i 
a tr«d., the ^Ji^ is said to be ,^^i* ; i. < 

(f-uif, or confide, in him. with respect to the times 
ill which he calls to prayer], and know, by 
ciilling to prayer, what they are commanded to 
do, as to praying and fasting and breaking &st. 
(TVIgb.) It is said in the ^ur [xii. II], S U 
oi-pji ,jie lIuU "^ and [UaU] with idgh&m [i. e. 
li'hnt aileth thee that tkou dost not trust, or 
confide, m us mith respect to Joseph? or, that 
tkou dost not give us charge over Joseph ?] ; (8 ;) 
meaning, why doat thou fear us for him ? (Bd ;) 
SOUK pronouncing the verb in a manner between 
titoHc of the former and the latter modes of writing 
it ; but Akh says that the latter is better : ($ :) 
some read \i^. (Bd.) You say also, ^ C>^3^ 
i^"^ [Such a one mas trusted, or confided, in ; 
&i.c. ;] when it begins a sentence, changing the 
cond • into j ; in like manner as you change 
into ^ when the first is with kesr, as in (U«Jjt; 
:d into I when the first is with fet-h, as in 
.al. (S.) The phrase iUUl ^ O^yi ™ ^ s^Ting 
of Mohammad, if it be not correctly lUUI ^jlt, 
be explained as implying the meaning of 
4JUl [He was asked to take care of a 
'h-jivdte; or lie was intrusted ndth it]. (Mgh.) 
[Vou also say, lji£/ a^\, meaning He intrusted 
kim with tuck a tking ; as, for instance, money 


" ^'^/^perty : see two exs. in the 5>ir ">■ 68-] 
^}^l (M, Mgh, 5,) or j>«l, (Msb,) inf. n. 
ii**!, (M, Mgh, M^b,) He mas, or became, 
trusted in, or confided in : (M, ^ :) or Ac mas, 
or became, trusty, trustmortky, trustful, cor0i- 
dential, or faitkful: said of a man. (Mgh.) 

2. 4^*1, inf. u. ^>}«U : see 4:_and see also 
iLLdl.^ij^l, inf. n. as above, also signifies He 
laid i>4T or c>tfl (TjS.Msb,) after finishing 
the Fdtiljah, (T,) or ,lejJI ^Jk on the occasion of 
the prayer, or supplication, (M^b.) 

4. ,j.aI is originally ,>«1l ; the second > being 
softened. (8.) You say, iief, [inf. n. oW';] 
(§, M, Msb and ♦ ill, [inf. n. ^U ;] (M, 
TA ;) meaning He rendered him secure, or safe ; 
(Mfb ;) he rendered him secure, or Jree from 
fear; (8, M, TA;) contr. of'tiW\: (TA:) so 
in AiU «iul / rendered him secure, or safe, 
from kim, or it. "(Mfb.) And of God you say, 
^t«> fej O' t>* *iW* i>«' [-H* hath rendered 
his servants secure from his wronging them]. 
(8.) And A/I j>« j>« »i\^ i>«|^ [He renderetk 
kit servants tecure from kit punishment]. (M.) 
You say also, jtf^'^\ O.^al, meaning Z gave, or 
granted, jjU^I [i. e. security or safety, or pro- 
tection or safeguard, or tlie promise or assurance 
of security or safety, or indemnity, or quarter,] 
to the captive. (Msb.) And jj^il ,j:JJ j^if 
[Such a one granted tecttrity, &c., (o the enemy], 
inf. n. as above. (T.) It is said in the ^ui ch. ix. 
[verse 12], accord, to one reading, _^ oW^ *) 
They have not the attribute of granting protection; 
meaning that when they grant protection, they do 
not fulfil their engagement to protect (T.)«ki 
ijUjt also signifies The believing [a thing, or in a 
thing, and particularly in God] ; eyn. Jf;.* n ' ; 
(T, 9, &c. ;) by common consent of the lexico- 
logists and other men of science: (T:) its primary 
meaning is the becoming true to tlie trust mith 
respect to which Ood has confided in one, by a 
firm believing with the heart; not by profesntm 
of belief mith the tongue only, without the assent 
of the heart ; for he who does not firmly believe 
with his heart is either a hypocrite or an ignorant 
person. (T, TA.) Its verb is intrans. and trans. 
(TA, from a Commentary on the Mutowwal.) 
You say, ^>»l, meaning He believed. (T.) And 
it is said to be trans, by itself, like JJu0 ; and by 
means of i^, considered as meaning t^\y^\ [ot 
acknowledgment]; and by means of J, considered 
as meaning O**!! [*"" submission]. (TA.) [Thus] 
you say, [iuT and] e^ o^\, (inf. n. J>^\^, T, ?,) 
meaning He believed it or in it, (T, M, 5,) 
namely, a thing. (T, M.) And Jb\i ^ He 
believed in God. (T.) It seems to be meant by 
what is said in the Ksh [in ii. 2], that Af ^>.^ [or 

>T] properly signifies .^J^l iZil" [He ren- 
dered kim secure from being charged mith lying, 

falsehood] ; and that the meaning he believed 

him, or in kim, is tropical; but tliis is at variance 

ith what its author says in the A ; and Es-Sa^d 

says that this latter -meaning is proper. (TA.) 

Book I.] 

The phrttse in the ^ur [ix. 61], Ov-* y ^ O^US' 
accord, to Th, means And he believeth the he- 
Ueoeri; givetk credit to titem. (M.)^Sometio)eB 
it is employed to signify The acknowledging with 
the tongue only; nnd hence, in the J^ur [Ixiii. 3], 
tjji^J^ \^ JJ^ iU^ That it beeatae they 
achnoToledged with the tongue, then dieaeknow- 
Udged with the heart. (TA.) _ Also t The 
trvtting, or eonjiding, or having- trutt or con- 
Jidence. (M, 5-) [You say, a; ,^\, meaning 
Se trutted, or cor^fided, in him, or t( : for] the 
verb of ^l^t in this sense is trans, by means of 
^, without implication ; as Bd says. (TA.) 
[And it is also tc&ns. by itself: for] you say, 
Z^U»« j>^^ ^1 ,jm\ U, meaning % S.e trutted 
not thai he mouid Jind eompaniont; (M,*^,* 
TA ;) said of one who has formed the intention 
of journeying : or the meaning is >t& U [i. e. 
he hardly, or tearcely, found jcc. ; or he wot not 
near to finding kc.]. (M, ^..) See also <u«1. __ 
Also The manifetting humility or tuhmittion, and 
the accepting the Law, (Zj, T,* ^,) and that 
Khich the Prophet hat laid or done, and the firm 
believing thereof with the heart; {Zj,T, M;) 
without which firm belief, the manifesting of 
humility or submisdon, and the accepting that 
which the Prophet has said or done, is termed 
jt*i-A, for which one's blood is to be spared. (T.) 
[In this sense, it is trans, by means of J, accord, 
to some, 08 shown above ; or by means of >^, for, 
accord, to Fei,] you say, kDly <,::>, inf. n. as 
above, meaning / tubmitted, or retigned, myielf 
to Qod. (Msb.) [There are numerous other 
explanations which it is needless to give, differing 
according to different persuasions. .— See also 
oC^I below.] 

8 : see 1, in five places. 

10. (liuImI He asked, or demanded, of him 
^^U'^I [i. e. tecurity or tafety, or protection or 
tafeguard, or the promise or atmranee of security 
or tafety, or indemnity, or quarter]. (T,* M?b, 
TA.) __ See also ZJ. — «^'t ,>*IliI Me entered 
within the pale of hit i^Ul [or protection, or tafe- 
guard]. (S,MBb.) 

^1 [an inf. n. of ,>«t : as a simple subsl. it 
signifies Security, or safety : (see ^>«l :) or] 
tecurity as mctimng freedom Jrom fear ; contr. 
of Syi. ; (S, M, ^ ;) as also t |>ll (Zj, M, ?:) 
and t^^l (M,?) and tlUt (S,*M,K) [and 
t Siil (see j>.i)] and ♦ o^' an*l ♦ 1>J, (M, ?,) 
which last is an inf. n. of ^>*l [like the rest], 
(MF,) or a subst. like IjU ; (M ;) and * ^Ut is 

ayn. with O**'* (9i) '*•>''> of these signifying 
tecurity, or tafety, nad freedom Jrom fear : (PS:) 
or qjA signifies freedom from expectation of 
evil, or of an object of dislike or hatred, in the 
coming time; originally, eateofmind, and free- 
dom from fear. (El-Mun^wee, TA.) You say, 
j^l ^ Csil [Thou art in a state of tecurity], 

(T, M,) M O^, LA<™ '*«'] ; wd ' 9'-' ^ 
ngnifies the same'; (T ;) and so V Of > ^^• 0^-) 
And Cbu t M, in the ^ui [m. 148], means 

Security (U«l) [and slumber], (S.) t ^'Jt\ also 
signifies Protection, or tafeguard : and [very 
frequently] a promite, or an assurance, of tecurity 
or tafety; indemnity; or quarter: in Pers. elij 
and j\^^ : (KL:) syn. Jl. (5 in art. Jt.) You 
say, 1 4JU\ ^ J^> [He entered within the pale 
of his protection, OT safeguard], (§, Msb.) [And 
"iOl ' O^' tj? O^ ^* '*"" "* '^ protection, or 
safeguard, of God.] And » o**"^' A^^f [/ 
(?aw, or granted, to him security or safety, or 
protection or tafeguard, or f&e promise or osfu- 
rawre o/" tecurity or tafety, or indemnity, or 
jwarfer] ; namely, a captive. (Msb.) And ..^Jib 
'o"^^' *-• [-ffe a<A«', or demanded, of him 
tecurity or tafety, or protection or safeguard. 
Sec, as in the next preceding ex.]. (M^b, TA.} 
_U«t in the ^urii. 119 means ,^t )> [Ptu- 
»eMe<i of tecurity or tafety] : (Aboo-Is-^i^, M :) 
or ^ry^^ ^y* [a place of security or safety; like 
UaU]. (Bd.)_See also ^>al.^You say also, 
iiual t>— ^' ^> ^*1 ^ iU«l, meaning ^oni (^ooi/ 
is thyreligion! s.uilthy7iaturalditpotition! (M,]^) 

j>«l: see ^>»l, 

^>«l: see ,;>«), first and last sentences. 

(>sl ; see ^>«l. _ Also, (^, [there said to be 
Uke iipi::^,]) or t ^^t, (M, [so written in a copy 
of that work,)] Asking, or demanding, or seeking, 
protection, in order to be tecure, or safe, or free 
from fear, for himtelf:{}ii.,%.\)6oaaji\A.^. (M.) 

(Lai : see ,>«t. 

■UaI : see ;>al, in two places : ^ and see also 
J^Ut. ^Also A man who trvslt, or confides, in 
every one ; (T, S, M ;) and so t llit : (S :) and 
who believes in everything that he hears ; who 
ditbelietes in nothing : (Lh, T :) or in whom men, 

people, trust, or confide, and whose malevolence, 

mischievousness, they do not fear : (T, M :) and 

ii^] signifies trutted in, or confided in; [like 
i^f^\ ;] and by rule should be (iLal, because it has 
the meaning of a pass. part. n. [like <UJd and 
.4 and iiUa) kc. (see hSi)] : (M :) or both 
signify one in whom every one truttt, or confides, 
3T with reelect to, everything. (^.) _ See 
also ,^jt*\. 

iU-al : see iLul, in two places. 

^1*1 : see ^>«1, in seven places. 

^^t, applied to a she camel, of the measure 
J^«i in the sense of the measure iUyaiu, like 
V>^* and v^^r t Trutted, or confided, in; 
(T ;) firmly, compactly, or strongly, made ; (T, 
§, M, ^ ;) tecure from, or free from fear of, 
being weak : (S, M :) also, that is tecure from, 
or free from fear of, stumbling, and becoming 
jaded: (M :) or strong, so that her becoming 
languid is not feared: (A,TA:) pi. ^>•l. (M, 
^.) [See also what next follows.] 

1^1 Trusted; trusted in; confided in; (T,* 
S,' M, Msb,* ?; ;) as also ^o'^\; (8, M,]^;) 
t o>iu (S, M, ]p) and * O^^ : (18k, T, 


K :) [fl person in whom one truttt or confides; a 
confidant ; a person intrusted with, or to whom 
is confided, power, authority, control, or a charge, 
•,ji jji* over a thing; a perton intrusted with 
an affair, or with affairt, i, e,, with the manage- 
ment, or disposal, thereof; a confidential agent, 
OT superintendent; a commissioner; acommiiiary; 
a trustee; a depositary;] a guardian: (TA :) 
trusty ; trustworthy ; trustful ; confidential ; 
faithful: (Mgh, M|b:») pi. iUil, and, accord, 
to some, f £^1, as in a trad, in which it is said, 
^jl«'9 ii^\ ^WhsI, meaning My eompaniont 
are guardians to my people : or, accord, to others, 
this is pi. of t ^>«t [app. in a sense mentioned 
below in this paragraph, so that the meaning in 
this trad, is my companions are pertoni who 
accord trust, or confidence, to my people], (TA.) 

• tjfe*l 0>*-l "^ ^ *=-"* ' 

[JKnowett thou not, Asmi (.WjI, curtailed for 
the sake of the metre), mercy on thee ! or woe to 
thee I that I have tworn an oath that I will not 
act treacheroutly to him in whom I trutt ?} i. e. 
f if>>«L« : (S :) or the meaning here is, him who 
trusU, or confides, in me; (ISk, T;) [i. e.] it is 
here syn. with ^ ly^l. (M.) [Hence also,] 
jU*)t ^ o*f'SI, (^ voce a«4-^ &c.,) or ^\, 
jl«JUI, [The perton who is intrusted, as deputy, 
with the disposal of the arrows in the game called 
j_4Jt; or] As who shuffles the arrows; ^JJt. 
-tjill^ 4>^- (^^ P- 1*^0 [Hence also,] 
J i ' 1 i' 
i^c*"^! -.3^1 [The Trusted, or Trusty, Spirit}; 

(Kur ixvi. 193 ;) applied to Gabriel, because he 
is intrusted with the revelation of God. (Bd.) 
' ij'i>\, mentioned above, and occurring in a verse 
of El-A^h&, applied to a merchant, is said by 
some to mean Possessed of religion and eTcellerue. 
(M.) t ,^>^)^ is applied, in a trad., to the o^i^f 
as meaning that men trust, or confide, in him 
with respect to the times in which he calls to 
prayer, and know by his call what they are com- 
manded to do as to praying and fiisting and 
breaking &st. (Mgh.) dJUU^t t ^^U yk 
means He is [trusty, or trustworthy, in dealing 
with others; or] free from exorbitance and deceit 
OT artifice or craft to be feared. (Msb.)^^n 
aid, or assistant; syn. fj^ [here app. meaning, 
as it otlen does, an armed attendant, or a guard] ; 
because one trusts in his strength, and is without 
fear of his being weak. (M.) — fThe strong; 
syn. i_$y- (K, TA : [in the latter of which is 
given the same reason for this signification as is 
given in the M for that of ^^; for which ^Jjf 
may be a mistranscription ; but see Oj^'O) ^ 
One who trvtU, or confidat, in another; (ISk,l^ 
K;) [as also '^>»1, of which see an ex. vocejji^;] 
so accord, to ISk in the verse cited above in tliis 
paragraph ; (T :) thus it bears two contr. signifi- 
cations. (^■) — See also ^>*l, in five places. 
^ And see tjv*^- 

^ ^ <» X 

And in the soma [xxxiii. 72] , ^^^ A^U^t 

^ O^ X 

d ^ C X «^(<' 




^Ut : see i>«t^ first sentence. ... TVu^^tneM ; 
trustworthineis ; trustfulness ; faithfulness ; fide" 
lity; (M, Mgh, KO as also ^lu\. (M, KI.) 

dbt a;ut [for 1^^ dOt a;u or a^ j^\ u t%« 

X ^^x X XX X 

faithfulness of Ood is my oath or that by which 
I smear] is composed of an inf. n. prefixed to the 
agent^ and the former is in the nom. case as an 

inchoative; the phrase being like dDt j^, as 
meaning an oath ; and the enunciatiye being sup- 
pressed^ and meant to be understood : accord, to 

l^xxxC l^^x'C xJOxx 

some^ you say, d&t 2jUt [app. for dD) 2^Ut dUjJtj 

" X 

JT adjure thee, or conjure thee, by the faithfulness 
of Ood J or the lihelj making it to be governed in 
the accus. case by the verb which is to be under- 

I itf X xCx 

stood : and some correctly say, ab) 4^UU [By the 

X X 

faithfulness of God], with the ^ which denotes 
an oath : (Mgh :) or this last is an oath accord, 
to Aboo-Haneefeh ; but Esh-Shdfi'ee does not 
reckon it as such : and it is forbidden in a trad, to 

' x^ 

swear by ^U^)t ; app. because it is not one of 
the names of God. (TA.) [Or tliese phrases may 
have been used^ in the manner of an oath, agree- 
ably with explanations here following. Jshb^ 
thing committed to the trust and care of a person ; 
a trust ; a deposite ; (Mgh^ Mfb ;) and the like : 
(Msb:) property committed to trust and care: 
(TA :) pi. oUuf. (Mgh, Msb.) It is said in the 
^ur [viii. 27], ^liut \^^^ [Nor be ye 
unfaithful to the trusts committed to you], (Mgh.) 

OMi,}^ S^xp^^ 0\ 0^\i JWJ^ ufj% Olj^l 

J X O Oj0 X X X X X X 

^^LJNI iyA«*»^ v^ [Verily we proposed, or 

offered, the trust which we have committed to 
man to the heavens and the earth and the moun- 
tains, and (accord, to explanations of Bd and 
others) they refused to take it upon themselves, or 
to accept it, and they feared it, but m>an took it 
upon himself, or accepted it : or, (accord, to 
another explanation of Bd, also given in the T, 
and in the TS. in art. J^o^, &c.,) they refused to 
be unfaithful to it, and they feared it, but m^in 
was unfaithful to it : but in explaining what this 
trust was, authors greatly difier : accord, to some,] 
2UU^)t here means obedience; so called because 
the rendering thereof is incumbent: or the obedience 
which includes that which is natural and that 
which depends upon the will : [for] it is said that 
when God created these [celestial and terrestrial] 
bodies, He created in them understanding : or it 
may here [and in some other instances] mean 
reason, or intellect : [and the faculty of volition : 
and app. conscience : these being trusts committed 
to us by God, to be feithfully employed : (see an 

• © X 

ex. voce jJ^:)] and the imposition of a task or 
duty or of tasks or duties [app. combined with 
reason or intellect, which is necessary for the 
performance thereof] : (Bd :) or it here means 
prayers and other duties for the performance of 
which there is recompense and for the neglect of 
which there is punishment : ( Jel :) or, accord, to 
I 'Ab and Sa'eed Ibn-Jubeyr, (T,) the obligatoiy 
statutes which Ood has imposed upon his servants: 
(T, ?: :♦) or, (T, ?:,) accord, to Ibn-'Omar, [the 
choice between] obedience and disobedience was 
offered to Adam, and he was informed of the 
recompense of obedience and the punishment of 


disobedience : but^ in my opinion, he says, (Ty) 
it here means the intention which one holds in the 
heart, (T,EL,) with respect to the belief which he 
professes with the to7igue, and with respect to all 
the obligatory statutes which he externally fulfils; 
(]^;) because God has confided to him power 
over it, and not manifested it to any [other] of his 
creatures, so that he who conceives in his mind, 
with respect to the acknowledgment of the unity 
of God, (T, '^,) and with respect to belief [in 
general], (T,) the like of that which he professes, 
he fulfils the ajUt [or trust], (T, K,) and he who 
conceives in his mind disbelief while he professes 
belief with the tongue is unfaithful thereto, and 
every one who is unfaithful to that which is con- 
fided to him is [termed] J««W> (T,) or J^oW 
aiU^I, and ^XqtJI/^ : (Bd :) and by oLJ'^t is 
here meant the doubting disbeliever. (T.)«». 
Also, [as being a trust committed to him by God, 

A man's] family, or household; syn. JaI. (TA.) 

ijUt : see ^Jt^\, in two places, aea Also One 
who does not write ; as though he were (4^l£> [in 
the C^ Z^ because he is]) an ^\. (^, TA.) 
[But this belongs to art. >t ; being of the measure 

« X J ^ • x» J 

^^W, like ^bji^.] ...And A sower, or culti- 
vator of land; [perhaps meaning a clown, or 

• 2x 

boor;] syn. etjj : (CBI:) or sowers, or cultivators 

^ • Sj 

of land; syn. cljj ; (KI, TA :) in one copy of the 
^ ^jj. (TA.) 

• «* 

t Secure, safe, or free from fear ; as also 
t J^t (Lh, T,» 8/ M, Mfb, ^) and t A.I. (M, 

X X 

KL) Hence, in the Kur [xcv.3], '•'o***^^ J^' ^J^^ 

" ^ X * 

[And this secure town] ; (Akh, Lh, T, S, M ;) 
meaning Mekkeh. (M.) ^j,^\ JJL^ and ▼ l'u^\ 

means A town, or country, or district, of which 
the inhabitants are in a state of security, or con- 
fidence, therein, (M^b.) It is also said in the 

ti XX X S j9tC a 

^ X p ^i^X X 6 

meaning [Verily the pious shall be in an abode] 
wherein they shall be secure from the accidents, 
or casualties, of fortune. (M.) [And hence,] 

' Ch?*'^^ ^^ ^°® ^* ^® epithets applied to God, 
(Mgh, JgL,) on the authority of El-]p!asan ; (Mgh;) 
an assertion requiring consideration : it may mean 
He who is secure with respect to the accidents, or 
casualties, of fortune : but see O^y^^f which is 
[well known as] an epithet applied to God. (TA.) 
JIJI yj^\ means WJiat is secure from being 
slaughtet'ed, of the camels, because of its being 
highly prized; by Jljt being meant ^*^\ : or, 

as some say, Xwhat is highly esteemed, of property 
of any kind; as though, if it had intellect, it 
would feel secure from being exchanged. (M.) 

You say, ^U o^T ^ ii^fcif, (K, TA, [in the 
C^ L>*^]) meaning \ I gave him of the choice, 
or best, of my property; of what was highly 

X . Ot 

esteemed thereof; (JjL, TA ;) and jJU ▼ ^>•1 ^j^, 

^^X X X 

which Az explains as meaning of the choice, or 
best, of my property. (TA: [in which is given 

a verse cited by ISk showing that ^>et, thus used, 

is not a misti*anscription for ^>«t.]) And^JUJt ^>dT 


means Steadfast in forbearance or clemency; of 

[Boos. L 

^^9^ hominy disordered in temper, and free 
J '^ self-restraint, there is no fear. (M.) .i. 

"^^ also rj^\, in three places : ...^ and see i>ot. 

See also l'voI^ in two places. 

^\ [in the CT^, erroneously, ^>si«t] and 

X X 

t J^? ; (Th, T, S, M, Mgh, Msb, K ;) both 


chaste and well known, (TA,) the latter of the 
dial, of El-Hijdz, (Msb, TA,) as some say, (TA,) 
[and this, though the less common, is the original 
form, for] the medd in the former is only to give 
fulness of sound to the fet-hah of the !, (Th, M, 
Msb, TA,) as is shown by the feet that there 
is no word in the Arabic language of the measure 
J^U ; (M^b, TA ;) and some pronounce the 
former s^^t^S, (K,) which is said by some of the 


learned to be a dial, var., (Msb,) but thifl is a 
mistake, (S, Msb,) accord, to authorities of good 
repute, and is one of old date, originating firom 
an assertion of Ahmad Ibn-Yahyk, [i. e. Th,] 
that LVhs^t is like Oe^^y ^7 which he was falsely 

X X 

supposed to mean its having the form of a pi., 
[and being consequently Oe*S] (Msb, [and part 
of this is said in the M,]) whereas he thereby 
only meant that the > is without teshdeed, like 


me ^jo 'va O^^^ 5 (^ heside that the sense 

X X ^ X ^^ Qf, 

of ^j^Ki [which is that of v>»^t, from >1,] 


would be inconsistent afler the last phrase of the 
first chapter of the Kur [where j>j^T is usually 
added] ; (M§b ;) and sometimes it is pronoimced 
with imdleh, [i. e. " ^meena,"] as is said by El- 
Wdhidee in the Beseet; (K;) but this is un- 
known in works on lexicology, and is said to be 
a mispronunciation of some of the Arabs of the 
desert of El-Yemen : (MF:) each form is indecl., 

(S,) with fet-h for its termination, like ^1 and 

xO X 

iju^, to prevent the occurrence of two quiescent 
letters together : (T, S, TA :) it is a word used 
immediately after a prayer, or supplication : (S,* 
M :) [it is best expressed, when occurring in a 
translation, by the familiar Hebrew equivalent 
Am£n :] El-Fdrisee says that it is a compound 
of a verb and a noun ; (M ;) meaning answer 
Thou m€ ; [i. e. answer Thau my prayer ;] (M, 
Mgh ;•) or O Ood, answer Thou : (Zj, T, Mfb, 
K :) or so be it : (AHdt, S, Msb, TS. :) or so do Thou, 
(K, TA,) O Lord: (TA:) it is strangely asserted 
by some of the learned, that, afler the Fdti^ak, 
[or Opening Chapter of the E[ur-4n,] it is a prayer 
which implies all that is prayed for in detail in 
the Fdtihah : so in the Towshee^i : (MF :) or 
\i 1% one of the names of Ood : (M, Msb, 5 :) 
so says El-Hasan (M, Msb) El-Baf ree : (Mfb :) 
but the assertion that it is for dDt tj [O Ood], 
and that ^»^2 J \ [answer Thou] is meant to be 
understood, is not correct accord, to the lexico- 
logists ; for, were it so, it would be with reff, 
not nasb. (T.) 

• X 

C)^\ [inf. n. of 4, q. v. .^ Used as a simple 
subst. Belief; particidarly in Ood, and in his 
word and apostles ^c: faith: trust, or con- 
fidence: &c.] ... Sometimes it means Prayer; 
syn. 5^ : as in the ?Lur [ii. 138], where it is 
said,J^i;i| je4| '-in J3> U^, (Bd, Jel,TA,) 
i. e. [Ood wiU not make to be lost] your prayer 

Book I.] 

towards Jerusalem, (Bd,* Je\,) as some explain 
it. (Bd.) ... Sometimes, also, it is used as mean- 
ing T/ie law brought by tlie Prophet (Er-Rdghib, 

^>«U A place of security or safety or freedom 
from fear; or where one feels secure. (M, TA.) 

• ^0 J 

J ^^f 

ij^yA pass. part. n. of a;^\. (T.) It is said 
in the T^vlx [iv. 96], accord, to one reading, (T, 

M,) that of Aboo-Jaafar £1-Medenee, (T,) 0%^ 
^ " ^ * 
U«^ [Thou art not granted security, or safety, 

&c. ; or] we will not grant thee security, &c. 

(T, M.) 

^^J^ [act. part. n. of 4; Rendering secure, 
' J • J 
&c.]. L>^>eJt is an epithet applied to God ; 

meaning JBLe who rendereth mankind secure from 
his wronging them : (T, S :) or He who rendereth 
his servants secure from his punishment: (M, 
lAth :) i. q. i>4vJ^ (^0 which is originally 

ryo\^\ ; [for the form JxiU is originally J^ye ;] 
the second » being softened, and changed into ^, 
and the first being changed into « : (S :) or the 
Believer of his servants (Th, M,TA) the Muslims, 
on the day of resurrection, when the nations shall 
he interrogated respecting the messages of their 
apostles : (TA :) or He who will faithfully per- 
form to his servants what He hath promised 
them : (T, TA :) or He who hath declared in his 
word the truth of his unity. (T.) ... [Also He- 
lieving, or a believer; particularly in Ood, and 
in his word and apostles ^c. : faithful : trusting, 
or confiding : &c. : see 4.] 

^y«U : see CH^^f ^^ three places. ... iSuyoU 
A woman whose like is sought after and eagerly 
retained because of her valuable qualities. (M.) 

^fAl» A cei'tain kind of food; so called in 
relation to ElrMarmoon. (TA.) 


: see 

\, in two places. 

L dxS, aor. - , inf. n. a^\, He forgot. (§, ^.) 
Hence the reading of I 'Ab, [in the Kur xii. 45,] 
A«l jjLf j^>^^ [And he remembered, or became 
reminded, after forgetting]. (S.) AHeyth is said 
to have read a^\ jji/; and accord, to AO, a^\ 

• ' • 


signifies ^j\^ [like a^\] ; but this is not correct. 
(Az, TA.)m^m,He confessed, or acknowledged: 
(^^ !l^ :) occurring in this sense in a trad, of 
£z-Zahree ; but not well known. (S.) The read- 

ing of I 'Ab, mentioned above, a^\ jjl^, is 
explained by A 'Obeyd as meaning after confes- 
sing, or acknowledging. (TA.) 

&i ^* 
6. Ut A^U He adopted a mother; (M,!l^;) 

^ '' •*^<' 

as also ^^^. (M in art. >t.) 

S^\ i. q. j^ [A mother of a human being and 
of any animal] : (M, ]^ :) the former is [said 
by some to be] the original of the latter : (S :) 
Aboo-Bekr says that the in the former is a 
radical letter: (TA:) or the former applies to a 
rational creature; and the latter, to [a rational 
and] an irrational : (K :) or, accord, to Az, the 
pL of the former applies to the rational ; and 
thai of the latter, to the irrational : (TA :) the 

former sing, sometimes applies to an irrational 
creature : (IJ, TA :) [for some further remarks 
on both of these words and their pis., see the 

latter of them:] the pi. [of the former] is Oly^l 

and [that of the latter is] oUt : (T, S :) Az says 
that the t is added in the former for the purpose 
of distinguishing between the daughters of Adam 
[to whom it is generally applied] and other animate 
beings. (TA.) 




1. cu«t, (S,* M, K, [in the Cl^, erroneously, 
wMot,]) second pers. Oyol ; (S ;) and C>^, (M, 
?:,) Hke 1^ ; (?: and O^it, (Lh, M, T^,) 

like i^> ; (B: ;) inf. n. 5^1 ; (S, M, EI ;) 
She (a woman) became a slave ; (S,* M, KI ;) as 

also Tc^U. (M8b.)aBBjy.Jt w%«t, aor. y«U, 

inf. n. *UI, The cat [mewed, or] uttered a cry ; 
(S,K:;) like orU, aor. i^, inf. n. {(^. (§.) 

2. UUt, (M, K,) inf. n. S^D, (?,) He made 

^^ ^ 

her a slave. (M, K.) 

5. cJt? : see 1. aeslit ^^j!b He took for him- 
^^{f ^ female slave ; (6, M, Msb, KI ;) as also 

8. d^ ic«3b A* He follows his (another person's) 

example; imitates him; i. q. A^^b. (TA in 
the present art.) And ^jc^JW ie»^^ [written with 
tjie disjunctive alif ^^^^t] is used for d^ j^\ 
[He made the thing to be a rule of life or condfiu:t], 
by substitution [of ^ for >], (M and K in 
art. ji\,) the doubling [of the>] being disap- 
proved. (M in that art.) 

10 : see 5. 

2u\, originally Syot, (Msb,) [but whether Sy«t 

or 5yot is disputed, as will be seen in what follows,] 
A female slave.; (M,]§L ;) a woman whose conr 

dition is that of slavery ; (T ;) contr. of cjm^ : 
(S :) [in relation to God, best rendered a Jiand- 

maid ;] dual o^^ ' (Mfb :) pi. J\, (Lth, T, S, 

M, Msb, TS., &c.,) like u^lS, (Msb,) a pi. of pauc. 

[respecting which see what follows after the other 

pis.], (Lth, T,) and *Ut [the most common form] 

(T, S, M, Mgh, Msb, b and o«^'i (T, §, M, 

Msb, K) and 0^3^^ Q^y ^^^ ^^ ^^ some copies 
of the M) and \J^yfS (J^, and so in some copies 
of the M) [the last, or last but one, accord, to 
different copies of the M, on the authority of 

Lh,] and w>ty«t, (M, Msb, K,) for which one 
may say oUt. (Ibn-Keysdn, TA.) Accord, to 
Sb (M) and Mbr (TA) it is originally 5^1, (§, 
M, T^,) because it has for a pi. jA, (S, M,) which 

is [originally y^W,] of the measure JjK3t, (Lth, 
T, 8,) like ^T, pi. of i^!, (Sb, M,) and like 
JUt^t, [pi. of ^U, which is originally i^y,] for a 

sing, of the measure IX96 has not a pi. of this 
form ; (S ;) and Mbr says that there is no noun 
of two letters but a letter has been dropped from 
it, which it indicates by its pi. or dual, or by 
a verb if it is derived therefrom : (TA :) or it is 

originally iUi : (AHeyth, T, 1^ :) AHeyth says 

that they suppressed its final radical letter, and, 
forming a pi. from it afler the manner of a^ > 

and Jji^, instead of saying >1, which they dis- 
liked as being of only two letters, they transposed 
the suppressed ^, changing it into t, and placing 
it between the \ and >. (T : [in which this 
opinion, though it does not account for the termi- 
nation of the pi. >T, is said to be preferable.]) 
One says, h^S iU\ ^l^ [The handmaid of Ood 
came to me] : and in the dual, aS)\ U«t t^»U. : 

».*• »•- 

L** J " 

andm the pL, dbt iU\ . «^»U. and dbt iitt«^t and 
dU\ otyot ; and one may also say, ^\ oUt. 
(Ibn-Keysdn, TA.) [ISd says,] J^ ^ ^T iu 
j aifc i ^\ is mentioned by lAar as said in im- 
precating evil on a man ; but I think it is J3 cy^ 
WMftt [May Ood cast a stone at him from every 
elevated plaee, or the like]. (M.) 

^y«t Of, or relating or belonging to, a female 
slave. (S.) 

a^^t dim. ofa^t; (S,Msb;) originally S^. 

1. 0'> ^o^' CAi *"*• ^^ O^^ and ijUl (8, M, 

Msb, ?:) and o^U (8, ?[) and ol (M, ?:,) ^« 
moaned; or uttered a mx>an, or moaning, or pro- 
longed voice of complaint; or «aw£, J.A.' syn. 

d^U ; (M, K ;) by reason of pain : (8, TA :) he 
complained by reason of disease or pain : (TA :) 
he uttered a cry or cries : (Msb :) said of a man. 

(8, Msb.) — J4^t oJt, aor. ^, inf. n. ^>jf, 
The bow mxide a gentle atid prolonged sound. 

(AHn, M.) aoB^^^H!-^ 5W-JI ,^ O' ^ aJ^» '^ 

means I will not do it as long as there is a star 

in the heaven : (8, M, K :) ^jt being here a dial. 

var. of ,j^. (8.) You say also, Otji)t iV O^^ 
5|Ja3 ^« /oTz^ a« thei^e is a drop in the Euphrates. 

(T, 8.) And 2U-i eOl ^ O' ^ '^^ '^ [^ wt^ 
no^ do it as long as there is rain in the heaven]. 
(8.) [It is said in the M that Lh mentions the 
last two sayings ; but it is there indicated that he 
read Zjh3 and i\^^ : and] ISk mentions the saying, 

l^^ 5W-J1 iV 0< ^ ^^^ '^^ (T, M,) and c>^ U 
^,ijj t\^\ ^J; (T;) [in the former of which, 
^j\ must be a particle (which see below) ; but it 
seems that it should rather be ^t , in this case, as 
ISd thinks ; for he says,] I know not for what 
reason ^t is here with fet-h, unless a verb be 
understood before it, as w%«j or J^^: [and he 

j^ ^ * * ^ * 

^* a $ 

adds,] Lh mentions dj\SU J-^^Jt %2A)3 ^\ U [as 
long as that mountain is in its place] : and ^1 U 
dj\SU »\ji^ [as long ae Mount Hird is in its place] : 
but he does not explain these sayings. (M.) 

^t is a pronoim, denoting the speaker, [/, masc 
and fem.,] in the language of some of the Arabs : 

they say, cJLai O^ [^ ^^9 ^^ ^^ O quiescent : 
but most of them pronounce it [t ^\] wiA fet-^ 
when conjoined with a following word ; (Mugh- 

nee, 1^ ;) saying, ciii Ji : (TA :) and [t uf] 
with \ in a case of pause : (Mughnee, 1^ :) and 


BomG pronounce it with I also when it is conjoined 
with a following word ; saying, wJUi UI ; [as we 
generally find it written in books ;] but this is of 
a bad dialect: (TA:) [this last assertion, however, 
requires consideration ; for the dial, here said to 
be bad is that of Temeem, accord, to what here 
follows :] the Basrees hold that the pronoun coo- 
sists of the r and the ^, and that the [final] I is 
redundant, because it is suppressed in a case of 
conjunction with a following word ; but the 
Koofeea hold that the pronoun is composed of ail 
the three letters, because the t is preserved in a 
case of conjunction with a following word in the 
dial, of Temeem. (Marginal note in a copy of 
the Mughnee.) [Accord, to Az,] it is best to say 
t tit in a case of pause ; and * j^l in a case of 
conjunctioD with a following word, as in -zJUi jjl 
jjli [I did that] ; but some of the Arabs say, 
J>\i .:;jj(i * Ct j and some make the ^ quiescent 
in a case of this kind, though this is rare, saying, 
jjli Sji j^jl [I »aid that} ; and l^udd'nh prolong 
the former 1, saying, a£I3 ^ ^jl. (T.) [Accord, to 
J,] t lit is a pronoun denoting the speaker alone, 
and is made to end invariably with fet-h. to dis- 
tinguish it from the particle ^Jl which renders the 
aor. manfoob ; the final t being for the purpose of 
- showing what is the vowel in a case of pause ; but 
when it occurs in the middle [or beginning] of a 
sentence, it is dropped, except in a bad dialect. 
(8.) [Accord, to ISd,] * ^^jl is a noun denoting 
the Epeaker; and in a case of pause, you add I at 
the end, [saying '01,] to denote quiescence ; (M;) 
[or] it is better to do this, though it is not always 
done : (TA ;) but it is said, on the authority of 
^tr, that there are five dial. vars. of this word; 
namely, cJUi ' jj'i ^^^ * '^'i *°^ * O'j ^"^ O'j 
and ' lut, all mentioned by IJ ; but there is some 
weakness in this : IJ says that the • in t (u| ] 
be a substitute for the I in Ul, because the latter 
is the more usual, and the former is rare ; 
or it may be added to show what is the vowel, 
like the I, and be like the « in ^\^ and 
*ei^"^- (Itf-) For the dual, as well as the pi., 
only 'i^»Z-; is used. (Az, TA.) _ It is also a 
pronoun denoting the person addressed, or spoken 
to, by assuming the form ' <Ct31 [7%du, masc] ; 
O being added to it as the sign of the person 
addressed, (S, M, Mughnee, ^,) and ^1 being 
the pronoun, (M, Mughnee, ^,) accord, to the 
general opinion ; (Mughnee, K, ;) the two be- 
coming as one; not that one is prefixed to the 
other as governing it in the gen. case : (S:) and 
so f c-^l, (S,M, Mughnee,^,) addressed to the 
female ; (S, M :) and tCi^t, (M, Mughnee, ^,) 
addressed to two; not a regular dual, for were it 
so it would be oUil; but like C^ in OC:^^ : 
(M :) and 'Jsi and » o^t, (S, Mughnee, ¥,) 
which are [respectively] the masc. and fern. pis. 
(TA.) ^ To each of these the iJ of comparison is 
sometimes prefixed ; so that you say, t lit^ ,~S\ 
{Thou art like me, or a$ I], and t .^-.H^ Ul [or 
■^■il^ O' ^ <"" ''^* 'A*«f or <** thou] ; as is 
related on the authori^ of the Arabs ; for though 
the J of comparison is not prefixed to the [affixed] 

pronoun, and you say, jj^fi» wJt but not ^j&C-j^ 
yet the separate pronoun is regarded by them as 
being in the same predicament as the noun; and 
therefore the prefixing it to the latter kind of 
pronoun is approved. (§,) It is said in the Book 
of J^, by IKh, that there is no such phrase, in 
the language of the Arabs, as ,^^ w.jl, nor as 
iX£9 Ul, except in two forged verses ; wherefore 
Sb says that the Arabs, by saying ijL« tZ-ii and 
jjL« Ut, have no need of saying ^^ cJI and 
■ii£a M\ : and the two verses are these : 

[And but for the lente ofthame, we had heen like 
them, or a$ they : and but for trial, or affiictum, 
they had been Uke ut, or as we] : and 

[If thou art like me, or <m I, verily I am like 
thee, or as tkou, in respect of her, or t(, or them: 
verily we, in respect of blame, are companionsl. 
(TA.) Az mentions his having heard some of the 
Benoo-Suleym say, ,^^\ W^, [the latter word 
being a compound of the pronoun C-il, regularly 
written separately, and the affixed pronoun ^,] 
meaning Wait thou for me in thy place. (TA.) 
^m It is also a particle : and as such, it is — Firet, 
a particle of the kind called ^j^^^it, rendering 
the aor. mansoob : (Mughnee, % :) i. e., (TA,) 
it combines with a verb [in this case] in the future 
[or aor.] tense, following it, to form an equivalent 
to an inf. n., and renden it mansoob : (^, TA :) 
you say, >>yu o' •'^j' [^ desire that thou stand, 
or that thou tcouldst stand, or that thou mayett 
stand] ; meaning ui«t^ j^jl [/ desire thy stand- 
ing}. (S.) It occurs in two places : first, in that 
of the inchoative, or in the beginning of a phrase, 
so that it is in the place of a nom. case ; as in the 
saying [in the ^Eur ii. 180],^' ^ l^jJj oh 
[And that ye fast is better for you] ; (Mughnee, 
?;) i. e. Jc^Cf [yOTir/wrtn^]. (TA.) And, 
secondly, after a word denoting a meaning which 
is not that of certainty: and thus it is in the place 
of a nom. case ; as in the saying [in tfae ^ur 

ivii. 15], J^Ji ^^' oi 13^'t *l«j^, gt J^i 

[Math not Che time that their hearts should be- 
come submissive, i. e. the time of their hearts' 
becoming submissive, yet come unto those who have 
believed?] : and in the place of an accus. case ; as 
in the saying [in the Knr x. 38], 1 JlA ^t& Uj 
^^11^ ^1 ^jii\ [And this Kur-dn is not such 
that it might be forged; i.e., >ty3l ; so in B^ 
and Jel ; and so in a marginal note to a copy of 
the Mughnee, where is added, meaning i^^^k* 
forged] : and in the place of a gen. case ; as in 
the saying [in the ^^ur Ixiii. 10], ^,31^ o' t^ Of 
■£4<j".^-**-t [Before that death come unto any 
one of you ; i. e. before death's coming unto any 
one of you]. (Mughnee,^.) Sometimes it makes 
the aor. to he of the mejzoom form, (Mughnee, 
^,) as some of the Koofees and AO have men- 
tioned, and as L^ has stated on the authority of 

[Book I. 

'^'^^JDnfiAeBenoo-Sabbfihof Pabbeb; (Mugh- 
" >J u in this verse : 

• *r*^ ^^ ^ o' Ji ly'-s ' 

[When Tve went away in the morning, the youths 
of our family, or people, said, Come ye, until that 
the chase come to us, (i. e. until the coming of the 
chase to vs,) let vs collect firewood]. (Mughnee, 
](^.) And sometimes it is followed by an aor. of 
the marfoo^ form ; as in the saying [in the ^nr 
ii. 233], accord, to the reading of Ibn-Mo^ieysin, 
2«l^3"'^ O' ^'j' O^ [For him who desireth 
tliat he may complete the time of sucking; i. e. the 
completing thereof] ; (Mughnee, ^ ;) but this is 
anomalous, (I '.Uf p. 101, and TA,) or^t is here 
a contraction of ^1 [for «Jl] : (I 'A}f :) and in the 
saying of the poet, 

' C^'i lU^I iji* O^ o' • 

[That ye two convey, or communicate, to Asmd, 
(mercy on you ! or woe to you!) from me, salu- 
tation, and that ye inform not any one] ; but the 
Koofees assert that ^1 is here [in the beginning 
of tfae verse] a contraction of ^t, and anomalously 
conjoined with the verb; whereas the Ba^rees 
correctly say that it is ^t which renders the aor. 
mansoob, but is deprived of government by its 
being made to accord with its co-ordinota U, 
termed ^jJua«; (Mughnee;) or, as IJ says, on 
the authority of Aboo-'Alee, ^1 is here osed by 
poetic licence for UmI; and the opinion of the 
Baghd^dees [and Ba;i«ea], that it is likened to 
U, and therefore without government, is impro- 
bable, because ^1 is not conjoined with a verb in 
the present tense, but only with the preterite and 
the future. (M.) When it is suppressed, the aor. 
may be either mansoob or marfboft; but the latter 
is the better ; as in the saying in the ^nr 
[xxxix. 64], j^ftl ijijj^O Jn^\ [Other than 
6od do ye bid me worship?]. (§.) If It occnia 
immediately before a preterite, it combines with 
it to form an equivalent to an inf. u. relating to 
past ^me ; being in this case without govenunent: 
you say, w.«j ^1 ^_^^^s■\ [It pleased me that 
thou stoodest} ; meaning thy standing that is past 
pleased me ; (S :) and thus it is used in the saying 
[in the ?.ur xxviii. 82], L^ ^T j>i ol yjj 
[Were it not for that Qod conferred favour upon 
us; i. e., for Gods having conferred favour tipon 
r]. (Mughnee.) It is also conjoined with an 
imperative ; as is the phrase mentioned by 8b, 
j^ Ow •■«)' C~}i?* [/ wrote to him, Stand; i. e. 
I wrote to him the command to stand} ; which 
shows that AHei is wrong in asserting that wben- 
it is conjoined with an imperative it is ao 
explicative [in the sense of ^1], and that in this 
particular instance the ^ may be redundant, 
which it cannot here be, because, whether re- 
dundant or not, it is not put immediately before 
anything but a noun or what may be rendered by 
a Doun. (Mughnee.) ^ Secondly, it is a con- 

Book L] 

traction of o' J (Mughnee, J^ ;) and occutb after 
a verb denoting certainty, or one used in a manner 
similar to that of such a verb : (Mughnee :) so in 

the saying [in the Klur Ixxiii. 20], C)3^ O^ jt^ 

' ^ J •> 

[He knoweth that (the case will he 
this :) there will he among you some diseased; the 

affixed pronoun o, meaning ^jUJt, being under- 

stood after ^1, which therefore stands for 4^1, i. e. 
^ts at. 
^jUiS ^\] : (Mughnee, 181 :•) and in the phrase, 

\j^ ^V^ j3 ^J^ lx*^ [It lias come to my 

* vi^ 

.4 9^ 


hnowledgey or heen related to me, or heen told to 
me, or it came to my knowledge^ &c., that (the 
case is this :) such and such things have heen] ; a 

phrase of this kind, in which ^t occurs with a 
verb, not being approved without j3, unless you 
say, \S&>\ \J^ 6^ iif ^jJdi : (Lth, T :) [for] 
when the contracted ^jS has for its predicate a 
verbal proposition, of which the verb is neither 

imperfectly inflected, like ^^^ and ^^«*^, nor 
expressive of a prayer or an imprecation, it is 
separated from the verb, according to the more 

approved usage, by j^, or the prefix ^^, or \Jyap 

or a negative, as *>) &;c.y or y : (I 'Al^ pp. 100 
and 101 :) but when its predicate is a nominal 
proposition, it requires not a separation ; so that 

you say, ^13 juj ^jl w%oJU [1 hnew that (the 

cojse was this :) Zeyd was standing] ; (I 'A\ p. 100 ;) 

and frj^ ^J O^ ^x*^ *- ^^^ come to my 
knowledge, or heen related to me, or heen told to 
me, &c., that (the case is this :)• Zeyd is going, or 
coming, out, or forth] ; (TA j) except in the case 
of a negation, as in the saying in the il^ur [xi. 17], 

^^\ 4ii\ ^ ^J\y [And that (the case is this :) 
there is no deity hut Me]. (I 'A^ p. 100.) Thus 
used, it is originally triliteral, and is also what is 

termed ^jJc^m; [O^Jo^? ^ ^^ ^^^ of the exs. 

above, for instance, meaning dj\ j^, i. e. ^t j^ 
^%a ^a -- • - ^ ^* 

,jUJ!, which is equivalent to ^jUJ! O^ j^\\ 

and governs the subject in the accus. case, and 

the predicate in the nom. case: and its subject 

must be a pronoun, suppressed, [as in the exs. 

given above, where it means ^UJt, and in a verse 

cited before, commencing o|/iJ ^j\, accord, to 
Aboo^'Alee,] or expressed ; the latter, accord, to 
the more correct opinion, being allowable only by 
poetic license: and its predicate must be a pro- 
position, unless the subject is expressed, in which 
case it may be either a single word or a proposi- 
tion ; both of which kinds occur in the following 
saying [of a poet] : 


[he is speaking of persons coming as guests to 

him whom he addresses, when their provisions 

are exhausted, and the horizon is dust-coloured, 

and the north wind is blowing, (as is shown by 

the citation of the verse immediately preceding, 

in the T,) and he says, They know tliat thou art 

like rain that produces spring-herhage, arid like 

plenteous rain, and that thou, there, art the aider 

and the manager of the affairs of people] . (Mugh- 

' J a 

nee. [In the T, for ^j, I find M>)t $ and for 

Bk. I. 

%iXi1^, I there find Uji^ : but the reading in the 
Mughnee is that which is the more known.]) 
[J says,] ^^1 is sometimes a contraction of ^\, 
and does not govern [anything] : you say, ^AAJ 
p-^U. juj ^l [explained above] ; and it is said 
m the ?:ur [vu. 41], l;^\ ^ ^t \^^y^ [And 
it shall he proclaimed to tliem that (the case is 

this :) tliat is Paradise] : (S :) [here, however, 

9 1 

^j\ is regarded by some as an explicative, as will 

be seen below:] but in saying tliis, J means 

that it does not govern as to the letter; for 

virtually it does govern ; its subject being meant 

to be understood; the virtual meaning being 
ja^ »«• JJ9 jat 

ii«!*J) j^yj 4^t. (IB.) [In another place, J says,] 

" 9 1 

You may make the contracted ^^\ to govern or 

not, as you please. (S.) Aboo-Tdlib the Gram- 
marian mentions an assertion that the Arabs 
make it to govern ; as in the saying [of a poet, 
describing a beautiful bosom], 

Ml J 

0^ r 9t " 

[As though its two breasts were two small round 
hoxes] : but [the reading commonly known is 

a* i ^ 9 ^ 9 t ^ 

• o«* ♦^iJ^ o^ • 

(this latter reading is given in De Sacy's Anthol. 

Gram. Ar. p. 104 of the Ar. text ; and both are 

. . 9 1^ jat * 

given in the S ;) ^^J^ here meaning ^\£3 ; and] 

Fr says. We have not heard the Arabs use the 

contracted form and make it to govern except 

with a pronoun, in which case the desinential 

syntax is not apparent. (T.) The author of the 

Y^ says in Uie B that you say, tjuj ^;^t w%oJL^ 
JJLJaU^ [/ hnew that Zeyd wa^ indeed going 
away], with J when it is made to govern ; and 

%^ 9J 99^ 9$ J * X 

JJLkJU juj ^j\ w^^ [I knew that (the case was 

this :) Zeyd was going away], without J when it 
is made to have no government. (TA. [But in the 
latter ex. it governs the subject, which is under- 
stood, as in other exs. before given.]) [See an ex. 

in a verse ending with the phrase jS C>^3 c^^d 

voce j3, where O^ ^ ^^ 4Jl£>, meaning ^l£» 
^ ta 
^UJt, and a verb is understood after j3. And 

see also ^J\, below.] «». Thirdly, it is an expli- 

9 t 

cative, (Mughnee, J^,) meaning ^\, (S, M, and 
so in some copies of the 1^,) or [rather] used 

9 t 

in the manner of ^t ; (Mughnee, and so in'some 
copies of the 1^ ;) [meaning ^li, or v>s^^ > 
or Jyu, or O^yM ; o^ some other form of the 
verb J13 ; i. e. Saying ; &c. ;] as in the saying 
[in the Kur xxiii. 27], ^^\ *UT ^f 4jt U^^6 

[And we revealed, or spalte hy revelation, unto 
him, saying. Make thou the ark] ; (Mughnee, 

1^ ;) and [in the ?:ur vii. 41,] JJjJ o^ t^iy^ 

la^ 9^ 

2U%Jt [And it shall he proclaimed to them, heing 

said. That is Paradise] ; or in these two instances 

a ^ 9 " 
it may be regarded as what is termed ^^jjc^uo, 

by supposing the preposition [^] understood 

before it, so that in the former instance it is the 

biliteral, because it is put before the imperative, 

^ at 

and in the second it is the contraction of ^t, 

because it is put before a nominal proposition ; 
(Mughnee ;) and [in the ^ur xxxviii. 5,] JUJflut^ 

^^ \J ^ tWT (§, M, Mughnee) i. e. [And 


the chief persons of them] broke forth, or launched 
forth, with their tongues, or in speech, [saying,] 
Oo ye on, or continue ye, in your course of action 

9 t 

&c. (Mughnee.) For this usage of ^1, certain 
conditions are requisite : first, that it be preceded 
by a proposition : secondly, tliat it be followed 
by a proposition ; so that you may not say, 0ȣ>3 

<^^9t*^9<>- t 

ViJ^3 O^ 1j>fc...«p, but you must say ^t in this 
case, or must omit the explicative : thirdly, that 
the preceding proposition convey the meaning of 
J^t, as in the exs. above ; in the last of which, 
J!llaut has the meaning assigned to it above ; not 
that of walking or going away : fourthly, that there 
be not in the preceding proposition the letters of 

-i *' . 1 9 "900 t J^ J fj 

Jlyui ; so that one may not say, Jjiit ^J\ a) cJ3 ; 
or, if there be in it those letters, that the word 
which they compose shall be interpreted by 
another word; as in the saying, in the ]§Lur 

_ _-«,_ 'i^» iJ9,0 t ,t*t * a 9i^ i 9i «. 

[v. 117], 4Dt t^ju^l o< f^ ^j^\ U •^t ^ ci5 U, 
which may mean, as Z says, I have not com- 
manded them [aught save that which Tliou com- 
mandedst me, saying. Worship ye God] ; (Mugh- 
nee ;) in which instance Fr says that it is an 
explicative : (T :) fifthly, that there be not a pre- 
position immediately before it ; for if you say, 

" ^ 9 *■ 90» t 9^ J 9^ ^ 

t Jl£9 Jjiit i*)V ^) C^jlA, it is what is termed 

a ^ 9^ ' ' ,' * 
ii^jjctfuo [as we have before shown]. (Mughnee.) 

When it may be regarded as an explicative and 

9 t 9* J 9 " t 

is followed by an aor. with *>), as in ^j\ A^t Owl 

tjL^D JjU3 *>), it may be marfoo§L, [namely, the 
aor.,] on the supposition that *>) is a negative; 
or mejzoom, on the supposition that it is a pro- 
hibitive ; and in both cases ^t is an explicative ; 
[so that the meaning is, I made a sign to him, 
as though saying. Thou wilt not do such a thing, 
in the former case ; or, in the latter, JDo not thou 
such a thing ;] or mansoob, on the supposition 

that ^) is a negative and that ^t is what is termed 

a ^ 9 " . 

^jjutiM : but if *^ is wanting, it may not be 

mejzoom, but may be marfooa [if we use ^1 as 

an explicative] or mansoob [if ^t be what is 

termed a^jjua«]. (Mughnee.) «». Fourthly, it is 
redundant, as a corroborative, (Mughnee, K,) 
like whatever else is redundant : and thus it is 

in four cases : one of these, which is the most 

common, being when it occurs after \^ denoting 

time ; [and this is mentioned in the M ;] as in 

9 9*^ 9 t Sx"" 

the saying [in the ^ur xxix. 32], w>»W ^\ UJ^ 

iL^J UJLj [And when our apostles came to Lot] : 

(Mughnee :) [or,] accord, to J, (TA,) it is some- 

times a connective to U3 ; as in the saying in the 

Kur [xii. 96], je^fi^ o^ ^ l^^ ^^^ <^^ 
(like as we say, " now that,") the announcer of 
good tidings came] : and sometimes it is redun- 
dant; as in the saying in the ISlur [viii. 34],. 

Jl 40 Jj^wl^J ^ 9t 9J* ^^ , , 

M j9^S»4, •>> O^ J9^ ^3 [as though It might 
be rendered 3ut what reason have they, Ood 
should not punish them ?] : (S, TA :) but IB 
says that the connective is redundant ; and [that 
^j\ is not redundant in the latter instance, for] 
if it were redundant in this verse of the l^ur it 
would not render the [aor.] verb mansoob. (TA. 
[The author of the Mughnee, like IB, disallows 
that ijl is redundant in a case of this kind, which 
Kh asserts it to be ; and says that ^ is under- 


stood before it.]) The Becond case is when it 
occurs between y and a verb signifying swearing, 
the latter being expressed ; as in this verse ; 

[And I tmear, had me and you met, there had 
been to vm a dark day of evil] : and when that 
verb is omitted ; as in the following ex. : 

[Verily, or nom turely, by God, if thou icert 
Jre^om ; but thou art not the Jreebom nor the 
emancipated'] : bo say 9b and others : Ibn-'Oe- 
foor holds it to be a particle employed to connect 
the complement of the oath with the oath ; but 
this is rendered improbable bj the fact that it 
b in most cases omitted, and such particles are 
not. (Mughnee.) The third case, which is extr., 
is when it occurs between the J [of comparison] 
and the noun governed by it in the genitive case ; 
as in the saying, 

[And on a day thou comeat to ue nitk a beau- 
tiful face, like a doe-gazelle raiting her head 
toToardt the goodly greert-Uaved tree of the telem 
hind], accord, to the reading of him who makes 
SmI* to be governed in the genitive case [instead 
of the nccns. or the nom. ; for if we read it in 
the acGus. or the nom., ^1 is a contraction of ^t 
in the fonner case, 2*^ being its subject, and its 
predicate being suppressed ; and in the latter case, 
the meaning being 2^ V^» so that the subject 
of ^1 is suppressed]. (Mughnee.) The fourth 
caw is when it occurs after t^l ; as in the follow- 
ing ex.: 

j-u -wi 4j ^ ^ Ji^^ 

[And I leave him alone until when he is at though 
he mere a giver of a hand to be laid hold upon, 
in the fathomU** deep of the mafer immerged]. 
(Mughnee.) __ [Fifthly,] among other meaoings 
which have been assigned to it, (Mughnee,) it 
has a conditional meaning, like ^1: (Mughnee, 
]tk:) so the Koofees hold; and it seems to be 
ntoflt probably correct, for several reasons : first, 
because both these forms occur, accord, to dif- 
ferent readings, in several instances, in one 
pass£^e of the ^ur ; as in [ii. S82,] J.a3 ^1 
l«ftl,*fcl [If one of them fnNim (namely, women,] 
err] ; kc. : secondly, because [the prefix] <J 
often occurs after it ; as in a verse commencing 
with iiiijA. Wi [as cited voce Ul, accord, to some 
who hold that Ut in that verse is a compound 
of the conditional ^1 and the redundant U; end 
as in the l^ur ii. 282, where the words quoted 
above are immediately followed by UaIji^I j£>J^ 
iS/^'i^l- thirdly, because it is conjoined witb 

1^1 [which forms a part of the compound Ul] 
in this ex. ; 

[If thou remain, and if thou be going amay (Ul 
meaning oJ^ ^t, as syn. with «^Js> ^\\ may 
God guard thee (>^ being marfoof because of 
the 1^) ae long at thou doeti and ae long at thou 
leavett undone] : thus related, with kesr to the 
former ^^l [in tit] and with fet-ti to the latter 
[in Ul]. (Mughnee.) — [Sixthly,] it is a nega- 
tive, like ^1 : (Mughnee, 1^ :) so, as some say, 
in [the Kur iii. 66,] J^l li Ji. jit ^j^ o' 
[meaning accord, to them Not any one it given 
the like of that scripture mhich ye have been 
given] : but it is siud [by othen] that the mean- 
ing is, [taken with what precedes it,] And believe 
not ye that (Ov) i^y one it given the like of 
that scripture mhick ye have been given, except 
it be given to him who followeth your rehgion ; 
and that the phrase " say thou. Verily the direc* 
tion is the direction of Ood," is parenthetic. 
(Mughnee.)^ [Seventhly,] it is syn. with >l, 
(AZ, T, Mughnee, K, [in Freytag's Lex., from 
the ^, 3<3 >l, but J^ in the ^ relates to what 
there follows,]) as some say, in [the ^ur 1. 2,] 
.,«yLi jJkl«,,^V O' 'jW* J^ [Verily tliey wonder 
becaute a namer from among themtelvet hath 
come unto them] ; (Mughnee, ^ ;) and in other 
instances; but correctly, in all these instances, 
^t is what is termed ^jj^^u, and ^ denoting 
cause is understood l>efore it. (Mughnee.) [See 
also Ul and Ul.] __ [Eighthly,] it is tyn. with 
yii, accord, to some, in [the ^ur iv. last verse,] 
lyLoJ ^t _«£J <a)t i^^eti [God explatneth to you 
(the ordinances of your religion, Jel), lett ye 
tkould err, or in order that ye may not etT] 
(Mughnee,^;) and in the saying, 

[Ye became, or have become, in the condition of 
our guetti ; to ne hattened, or have hattened, 
the entertainment, lett ye should reviU at, or in 
order that ye tlwuld not revile ut] : (Mughnee ;) 
but correctly, in such a case [likewise], ^l is 
what is termed ^j,*,^^, and the original wording 
is ly.^ ^1 ItX^ [from a motive ofditUke that 
ye should err], (Mughnee, !B^,) and o' UUx 
Uj»7'i1 [from a motive of fear that ye tkould 
revile ut] : so say the Ba;recs ; some say, extra- 
vagantly, that J is meant to be understood before 

it, and "j after it. (Mughnee.) [Ninthly,] it 

occurs in the sense of ^^t ; as in Ac saying, 
-^J^ O' O^ J^' "HJ [Zeyd it more reatonable 
than he mho lies ; which is equivalent to saying, 
Zeyd it too reatonable to lie : but respecting iu 
usage in a phrase of this kind, and respecting the 
form of the nor. after it in such a case, see ^]. 
(Kail p. 78.) __ By a peculiarity of pronunciation 

[Book I. 

tertoCd ijjM, the tribe of Temeem say ,ja instead 
ofol (M.) 

^1 is used in various ways : first, as a condi- 
tional particle, (S, M, MfbfMughnee, ^,) denoting 
the happening of the second of two events in con- 
sequence of the happening of the first, (S, Msb,") 
whether the second be immediate or deferred, and 
whether the condition be affirmative or negative ; 
(Mfb;) [and as such it is followed by a mejzoom 
aor., or by a pret. having the signification of an 
aor. ;] as in the saying, [^^*il JjiAJ (j1 If thou 
da such a thing, Z miU do it; and] iUt |^^ O' 
[If thou come to me, I will come to thee] ; and 
jiZc^i i5*~V O' i^f 'A^^ conw to me, I mill 
treat thee with honour] ; (S ;) and sZJMi cJU^ O' 
[If thou do, I mill do], for which the tribe of 
feiyi say, as IJ relates on the authority of I^fr, 
cJUi -^Li o^i (M ;) and <L^ c^' 0\ W 
thou ttand, I miU ttand] ; and jl jljJl <zSm-i ^1 
Jui oj(i yjjl 1^^ ^ [If thou 'enter th^ 
haute, ar if thou enter not the houte, thou shall 
be divorced] ; (Msh;) and [in the ^ur viii. 39,] 
UiLi jj U ^ jJUy ^^^ o\ W **^ dentt, 
mhat hath already past shall be forgiven them] ; 
and [in veise 1!) of the same ch.,] juu l9>>0 ^\\ 
[But if ye return to attacking the Apostle, me 
mill return to assisting him]. (Mughnee, ^.) 
[On the diSerence between it and l>l, see the 
latter.] When either it or 1^1 is immediately 
followed by a noun in the nom. case, the said 
noun is govemed in that case by a verb neces- 
sarily suppressed, of which it is the agent ; as 
in the saying, in the ^lur [ix. 6], ^ ^t jjU 
J}j\tfJL,] t^f^j}^] ; the complete phrase heing^U 
J)j\^\ J^ji^jT J^ S^\ jjul£f [And if 
any one of the believers in a plurality of godt 
demand protection of thee, (if) he demand protec- 
tion of thee] : so accord, to the generality of the 
grammarians. (I 'Alf p. 123.) Sometimes it is 
conjoined with the negative *•), and the ignorant 
may imagine it to he the exceptive ^1 ; as in [the 
saying in the ^ur ix. 40,J ioT »j^ jii 't^'j^ •}! 
[If ye mill not aid him, certainly Ood did 
aid him] ; and [in the next preceding verse,] 
J^H^ \Xfk!3 "Jj [If ye will not go forth to mar. 
He will puniA you]. (Mughnee, K.*) It is 
sometimes used to denote one's feigning himself 
ignorant ; as when you say to one who asks, " Is 
thy child in the house t" and thou hast knowledge 
thereof, ^ Ji^\ jljjl ^ ^\L ^1 [If he be in 
the house, I mill inform thee thereof]. (Msb.) 
And to denote one's putting the knowing in the 
predicament of the ignorant, in order to incite to 
the doing or continuing an action ; as when you 
say, ;,5iw»l* ^^ C^ Oj iV '*<"* ^ *»* ">", 
obey me] ; as thoi^h yon said, " Thou knowest 
that thou art mj son, and it is inciunbent on the 
son to obey the father, and thou art not obedient; 
therefore do what thou art commanded to do." 
(Msb.) And sometimes it is divested of the con- 
ditional meaning, and becomes tyn. mith j) ; as 
in the saying, ^^Jt ^ cj^ Oji <^ [Pray 
thou though thou be mnable to ilMtd;] i. e. pray 

Book I.] 

thott mhetker thou be able to itand Or utiable to 
do to; and in the saying, Jjti oL? '•'^^.r^' 
i. e. {Treat thou Zeyd with honovr\ though he be 
litting; or, ivhether he tit or not. (Msb.) [Ul 
aa a compoand of the Gonditiooal ^1 and the 
Tedundant U, see in lui art. of which Ut is the 
heading.] ^ [Secondly,] it is a negative, (S, 
Mughnee, ^,) ^n. with U; (^;) and is put 
before a uominal proposition ; (Mnghnee, ^ ;) as 
in the saying [in the ^ur Ixvii. 20], OjyiKjTol 
j^jt jji "^l [The tii^elieverg are not in ai^ht 
tave in a deception}; (S, Mnghnee, ^;) and 
before a verbal proposition; as in [the^urix.108,] 
Iji— •Jl 1^ liijl Ol [^' desired not, or tneant 
not, aught tave that which is best]. (Mnghnee, 
I^.) The assertion of some, that the negative ^1 
does not occur except where it is followed by "^Jl , 
BB in the instances cited above, or by Oi ^th tesh- 
deed, which is syn, therewith, as, accord, to a 
reading of some of the Seven [Readers], in the 
saying [in the !(nr Ixxxvi, 4], O l^ ^^ o' 
iiC O^, !. e., LiC. 0^ i^^^ Jki U [There 
it not any soul but over it is a guardian], is 
refiited by the sayings in the $nr [s. 69 and 
Ixxii. 36], lj>vv ^UtJU ijM^f^jJA ^^\ [meaniDg, 
accord, to the Jel., Ye have no proof of this that 
ye say], and Os-*^^ ^ v<^' t^Ji' Ol i^ *"*">' 
not whether that with which ye are threatened be 
nigh]. (Mnghnee, ^*) The conditional and the 
negative both occur in the saying in the ^ur 
[xxxv. 39], »,^sn ^ .ii»f ^>« U ^^— «l O! ^Ij O^i 
[And I swear that, if they should quit their place, 
not any one should withhold them after Sim] : 
the former is conditional ; and the latter is nega^ 
tive, and is [part of] the complement of the oath 
which is denoted by the J prefixed to the former; 
the complement of the condition being necessarily 
suppressed. (Mughnee.) When it is put before 
a nominal proposition, it has no government, 
accord, to Sb and Fr ; but Ks and Mbr allow its 
governing in the manner of t^; and Sa'eed 
Ibn-Jubeyr reads, [in the Kor vii. 193,] O^J^O< 
J^VCA bllfi jil ^^ (^ Oi^^ [Those whom ye 
invoke beside Ood, or others than God, are not 
men like you] : also, the people of El-'AIiyeh 
have been heard to say, "^t ,im.\ ,>« j^^^ ^m~] ^t 
Scilall/ [Any one is not better than any other otte, 
except by means of health, or toundttett] ; and 
<^J*-^ S^i <^^ <iU> ol [I^t it not profitable to 
thee nor injurious to thee] : as an ex. of its occur- 
rence without government, which is mostly the 
case, the saying of some, ^13 f ^1, may be 
explained as ori^nally ^U Ut ^1 [J am not 
standing] ; the I of Ul being elided for no reason 
in itself, and the ^ of jjl being incorporated into 
the 1^ of Ul, and the I of this latter being elided 
in its conjunction with the following word ; but 
t«SU ^\ has also been heard. (Mughnee.) Some- 
times it occurs [as a negative] in the complement 
of an oath; you say, cJUti |j| Ailj, meaning 

iiii U [By God, 1 did not]. (§.)' [Thiixlly,] 

it !• a contraction of ^t, and is ptu before a 

nominal and before a verbal proposition. (Mugh- 
nee, ^.) In the former case, it is made to govern 
and is made to have no government: (§,*50 
[i. e.] in this case, it is allowable to make it 
govern ; contr. to the opinion of the Koofees : 
(Mughnee :) Lth says that he who uses the con- 
tracted form of ^1 uses the nom. case with it, 
except that some of the people of El-^ij^ uselhc 
accuB. case with it: (T:) thus it is said, accoi-d. 
to one reading, [in the ^ur xi. IIS,] ^|L& ,jl 
^C«l il^j Jni^^ [Verily all of tiiem, thy 
Lord wiU indeed fuUy render them the recom- 
pense of their works] : (T, Mughnee :) Fr says, 
We have not beard the Arabs use the contract<>(l 
form and malte it to govern, unless with a pronoun, 
which case the desinential syntax is not appa- 
rent ; and be adds that in the instance cited above, 
they make >^ to be governed in the accus. case 
^7 ja^i^) ^ though the phrase werej^^.^^ 
Sl^; and that ,3^ would be proper; for you 
say, j^ a<J o\ [Verily Zeyd is standing] : 
(T:) die ex. given by 8b is, Jlilj' 1^ o| 
[Verily ^ Amr is going away]. (Mughnee.) But 
[most] frequently made to have no govern- 
ment; as in the saying [in the l^ur xlili. 34 
accord, to one reading], cUa U) .^> J,^ ^1^ 
leJJJI «Wl [And verily all that it thejumiture 
of the present life]; and, accord, to the reading 
of Hafs, [and of 'Afim and Kb, in the !^ur xx. 66, 
respecting which see ^\,] ^I^^UJ c\^ ^t 
[Verily these two are enchanters]; Sec. (Mugh- 
,) When it is put before a verbal proposition, 
it is necessarily made to have no government : 
(Mughnee, ^ :) and in most cases the verb is a 
preterite and of the kind called ~i>rlj [which 
effects a change of the grammatical form or of tfic 
meaning in a nominal proposition before which it 
is pbced] ; as in the saying [in the I^ur ii. 136], 
ijtJi) wJ\^ ^U [And verily it was a great 
matter] ; and [in the ^ur xvii. 75,] l^^l^ ^b 
jUyUe) [And verily they were near to sedudny 
thee] ; (Mughnee ;) in which last ex. AZ says, it 

US ,mI, i. e. without doubt ; and so in the 
same ch. vv. 78 and 108 : (T ;) less frequendy it 
is an aor. of a verb of this kind; as in the saying 
[in die 5ur xxri. 186], Ottjt^ O^ J>^ Oil 
[And verily we think thee to be of the number of 

liars] : and both these kinds of expressioti 
may be taken as exs. to be imitated : less fri.- 
quendy than this it is a preterite of a verb not 
of die kind termed *— lU ; as in the saying [of a 

CO ii^ Ol ^^ ^^ 

[May thy right arm, or hand, dry up, or become 
unsound! verily thou hast slain a Muslim] ; but 
thismaynot betakcnasanex.tobe imitated; contr. 
the opinion of Akb; for he allows the phra»e, 
U^ J^li O' [Verily I stood], and cJ'lJ jjJ oJ 
[Verily thou tattest]: nnd less frequently thnn 
this it is an aor. of a verb not of the kind termed 
i—Ai ; as in the saying, o'j A-Jji .ii^ ji o' 
<lL) JUt " ' t i VerUy thy soul is that which beautifies 

thee, and it is that which deforms thee] ; and this, 
by common consent, may not be taken as on ox. 
to be imitated. (Mnghnee.) Wherever you find 
Oj with J afier it, decide that it is originally ^\ ; 
(Mughnee,^;) as in the exs. above: but respecting 
this J there is a difference of opinion : see this 
letter. (Mughnee.) J says, (TA,) Jjl is some- 
times a contraction of o' t ^^^ tiiis must have ^) 
put befiM« its predicate, to compensate for what is 
elided, of the doubled letter; as in the saying in 
the ^ur [Ixzxvi. 4, accord, to him who reads O 
instead oi\^], iiU. \^Q^jLj[^ [Verily 
every soul hath over U a guardian] ; and in the 
saying, iJ^-^ J^ 0\[Verihf Zeyd it thy brother]', 
in order that it may not be confounded with ^\ 
which is syn. with the negative U : ($, TA :) but 
IB says, J is here introduced to distinguisb 
between negation and affirmation, and this ^\ has 
neither subject nor predicate ; so J's saying that 
the J is put before its predicate is without mean- 
ing : and this J is sometimes introduced with the 
objective complement of a verb ; as in Oy;^ o' 
lj>j^ [Verity I ttruck, or beat, Zeyd] ; and with 
the agent; as in j.jji^^ o' [Verily Zeyd stood], 
(TA.) When the contracted ^\ governs, this ^) 
is not necessary ; so you may say, _^U t jjj ,j\ 
[Verily Zeyd isitandir^]; because in this case 
it cannot be confounded with die negative; for 
the negative does not render the subject man^oob 
and (he predicate marfoof : and when it does not 
govern, if the meaning is apparent, the ^ is not 
needed ; as in 

[And we are pertont who refuse to submit to 
injury, of the family of Mdlik : and verily the 
&mily oi Mdlik are generous in respect of their 
origins] ; s^\& being here for oJI^. (I 'A^ 
S.) __ [Fourthly,] it is redundant, (§, Mugh- 
nee, ^,) occurring with U ; as in the saying, 
*ii -^9*^ O' ^ [Zeyd does not stand] ; (S ;) and 
the saying [of a poet], 

iij£5 cJl i^ <z.^\ ol Li • 

[Thou didst not a thing which thou diilikest]. 
(Mughnee, IJ : in the C^^ «^i.) It is mostly 
thus used after the negative U, when put before a 
verbal proportion ; as above ; or before a nominal 
proposition ; as in the saying, 

[And our habit is not coivardice ; but our destintet 
and the good fortune ofothert caused our being 
defeated] : and in this case it prevents the govern- 
ment of U, as in this verse : but in the saying, 

Wii>3toi v^ aiiii^ 

J>JI J^\ ofii Ui^ % 

[Sons of Ohuddneh, ye are not indeed gold, nor 
r, or pure tilver, but ye are pottery], accord, 
to htm who relates it thus, saying ^a> and Ib,^, 
in the accus. case, it is explained as a negative, 
corroborative of U : (Hughnee :) and accord, to J, 


(TA,) the negatives U and ^t are sometimeB 
tbuB combined for corroboration ; as in the saying 
of the riijiz, (EI-Aghlab El-'Ijlee, TA,) 

• ijui ijs iL Jifcl • ijlil '^ U-tj Oj U 

[We have not indeed fwn a king who ka» made 
a hoitiie incursion poueuing more tntme 
theep, or ffoalg, and eamelt, than he] ; ($, TA;) 
but IB says that o' '" '^^'^ redundant, not 
negative. (TA.) Sometimee it is redundant after 
the conjunct noun U ; as in the saying, 

[Man hopes for that which he mill not tee; fo 
calamities intervene as obstacles in the way to 
what M nearest thereof]. (Mugfance.) And afUr 
the U termed S^jj,^; (Mnghnee,) [i. e.,] i 
the adverbial U [which is of the kind termed 
i^j,k.a4] ; (TA ;) as in the saying ((^ Ka^ loot 
El-^urey'ee, cited by Sb, TA), 

^ J!>; -^ ij^ L>pt Ji^ 

[And hope thou that the youth is destined Jo 
good as long as thou hast seen him not ceasing 
to increase in good with age]. (Mughnee.) And 
after the inceptive *^t ; as in the saying, 

• (^ iy' ^ ^^ o\ 4 

l_Now he journeyed on, or during, that my night, 
and I passed the night xn an evil state, broken 
in spirit by grief, being fearful that the distance 
to which he was going with Qhadoob (a woman 
so named) would become for]. (Mughnee.) And 
t>efore the meddch denoting disapproval : [for] 
Sb heard a man, on its being said to him, " Wilt 
thou go forth if the desert become plentiful 
in herbage ?" reply, 4^1 Ull {What, I, indeed?] 
disapproving that he should think otherwise than 
that. (Mughnee. [See also art. ,jil.])-_|;Fifth- 
ly,] it is syn. with Ji : so it is said to be in the 
saying [in the i^ur Ixxsvii. 9], j^Jjl ■C-mj ^1 
{Admonition hath profited], (T, Mughnee, l^,) 
by IAar(T)and by ^Jr: (Mnghnee:) and Abu- 
1-' Abbas relates that the Arabs say, ji^j >IS ^\ 
meaning jjj >U jj {Zeyd Itas stood] ; and he 
adds, that Kb states his having heard them say so, 
and having tliought that it expressed a condition, 
but that be asked them, and they answered that 
they meant jjj >IJ ji, and not juj >I5 U. (T.) 
[So too, accord, to the K, in all the exs. cited in 
the next sentence as from the Mughnee ; but this 
is evidently a mistake, occa«oned by an accidental 
omission.} _ [Sixthly,] it is asserted also by the 
Koofees, that it is tyn, with \\ , in the following 
ers. :^ in the l^nt [v. 62], >ii. oj -il* ^y^i 
i^fgL*^ {And fear ye God, because ye are be- 
lievers : and so, accord, to AZ, as is said in the 
T, in a similar instance in the ]^ur it. 278 : and 
in the same, iv. 62] : and [in the ^ur xlviii. 37,] 

,2»i*t StT iU oj -*!i^" j.^-UjT ^4*-j>^' [ye 

shall assuredly enter the saered mosque, because 

Godhatk miUed, in security] : and in like instances, 
when the verb therein expresses what is held sure 
to happen or to have happened : and in the saying, 

{Art thou angry because the ears of Kuteybek 
have been cut, openly, or publicly, and mast not 
angry for the slaughter of Ibn-Jfaxim ?] : (Mugh- 
nee :) but in all these instances [it is sufficient!} 
obvious that] ^\ may be otlierwise explained. 
(Mughnee, ?.)_ [Seventhly,] it is sometimes 
tyn. with IJt ; as in the "^xtt [ix. 23], I5 J^-i3 '^ 

^jLi^Nl {Take not ye your fathers and your 
brethren as friends when they love unbelief aborr 
belief] ; and in the same [xxxiii. 49], l^ye ^1^'j 
^Jji 1^-LaJ w^^ o' L-^fi^ "» bdieving womati 
when site giveth herself to the Prophet] : so says 

AZ. (T.) [Eighthly,] it is nsed for dj, 

(Mughnee and ?., voce Ut ,) distinct from W 
which is a compound of the conditional ^1 and 
the redundant U. (Mughnee ibid.) [See an ex, 
in a verse cited voce Ut in the present work, 
commencing with the words jiftl^l aZJui.] 

^t : see ^1, in four places. 

^1 is one of the particles which annul the 
quality of the inchoative; and is originally ^h 
therefore Sb has not mentioned it among those 
particles [as distinct from ,^1, from which, how- 
ever, it is distinguished in meaning] : (I 'A\ 
p. 00 :) it is a corroborative particle ; (I 'A]f, 
Mughnee;) a particle governing the subject in 
the accus. case and the predicate in the nom. case, 
(8, I 'A^, Mughnee, K,) combining with what 
follows it to form an equivalent to an inf. n., (^,) 
[for,] accord, to the most correct opinion, it is 
a conjunct particle, which, together with its two 
objects of government, is explained by means of 
an inf. n. (Mughnee.) If the predicate is derived, 
the inf. n. by means of which it is explained is 
of the same radical tetters ; so that the implied 
meaning o{ i}UpS3 iW 1^^^ {It has come to my 
knatcUdge, or been related to me, or been told 
to me, or it came to my knowledge, &c., that thou 
goest away], or JIX^U ^t [that thoit art going 
away], is J:ii<J'^I ^^^ [or rather Jii'PsJ^ thy 
going away has come fo my knowledge, &c.]; 
and hence, the implied meaning of ^ -^l ^^5^^ 
iljJI [Jt has coma to my knowledge, Six., that thou 
art in the house] is jljJI ^ Jjt^il.^1 ,^^iXi [thy 
remaining in the house has come to my knowledge, 
&c.], because the predicate is properly a word 
suppressed from ^iU-dl or j£il-.*: and if the predi- 
cate is underived, the implied meaning is ex- 
plained by the word Oi^ > *^ ^^^ ^^ implied 
meaning trf jtjj tjjk o' ^5-*^^ i^^ *<" ''<*"** '<> 
my knowledge, &c., that this is Zeyd] is ^^^Ai^^ 
\j^ 4i)Sa [his being Zeyd has come to my know- 
ledge, kc] ; for the relation of every predicate 
expressed by an underived word to its subject 
may be denoted by a word signifying " being;" | 

[Book I. 

so tliai yon say, ^'j ljj» and, if you will, IJk* 
IjyJ ijH^ ; both signifying the same. (Mugh- 
nee.) There a« cases in which either ^^l or ^\ 
may be used ; [see the latter, in twelve places:] 
other cases in which only the former may be 
used : and others in which only the latter. (I 'A^ 
p. 91.) The former only may be used when the 
implied meaning is to be explained by an inf. n. 
(I 'A^, 5.) Such is the case when it occurs in 
the place of a noun governed by a verb in the 
nom. case ; as in ^U iUt ^yt,j^j> j {It pleases 
me that thou art standing], i. e. JX^^ {thy 
standing pleases me] : or in the place of a noun 
governed by a verb in the accus. case ; aa in 
^tS iiji <£^je [I knew that thou wast standing], 
i. e. iiUtcS [thy standing] : or in the place of a 
noun governed in the gen. case by a particle; 
as in ^ti j)i\ ^^ w^^tf {I wondered that tkou 

wast standing], i. e. ^0 k>* i'^*' "^ ^ reason 
of, thy standing] : (I 'Alf p. 91 :) [and sometimes 
a preposition is understood ; as in IJt^ ajI Jx^ "j, 
for \JJb *j] ^ M 'i Inhere i* no doubt that 
it is thus, i. e. I j^ *;)fi» ^ JLi -^ There is no 
doubt of its being thus ;] and jjl most be used 
after y ; as in «Ls^' ^13 idl y [7/* that thou 
Tvert standing, I had stood, or would have stood, 
i. e. iiUl^ <i^ y, or CyU iUt^ y, accord, to 
difKrent opinions, both meaning if thy standing 
n^re a fact : see I 'A^ pp. 305 and 306]. (11.) 
Sometimes its I is changed into c ; so that you 
say, )j'ih-t jLfi sL>^ [meaning I knew that 
thou mast going aieay]. (M.)^With i) pre- 
fixed to it, it is a particle of comparison, (S,* M, 
TA,) [still] governing the subject in the accus. 
case and the predicate in the nom. case : (TA :) 
you say, j_,*s Ij^j o^ t^' '■ <" though Zeyd 
were 'Amr], meaning that Zeyd is like 'Amr ; as 
though you said, yi^^ O^l^ Ijuj ^t [verily, 
Zeyd is like 'Amr] : [it is to be accounted for by 
an ellipsis: or] the ^ is taken away from the 
middle of this proposition, and put at its com- 
mencement, and then the kesreh of ^t necessarily 
becomes changed to a fet-^ah, because ^t cannot 
be*preeeded by a prepontion, for it never occurs 
but at the commencement [of a proposition]. (IJ, 
M.) Sometimes, ijl^ denotes denial ; as in the 
Baying, Dj.*Ui Cjt^t iUl^ [As though thou wert 
our commander so that thou shouldst command 
tu], meaning thou art not our commander [that 
thou shouldst command la]. (TA.) It also de- 
notes wishing; as in the saying, ^ ^ji Jljl^ 
»ji«(.U j«l)1 w-JJ, meaning Would that I had 
poetined, or versified, so that I might do it well : 
(TA :) [an elliptical form of speech, of which the 
implied meaning seems to be, mould that I were 
as though thou sawest me that I had poetisced, 
kc. ; or the like : for] you say [also], iJl^ 1^^ 
meaning SKf j^ i,,p^ ['' '^ "^ though I lam 
thee] ; i. e. I know from what I witness of thy 
condition to-day how thy condition will be to- 
morrow; so that it is as though I saw thee in 
that condition : (^ar p. 126 : [see also v * "^^^ 

Book I.] 

the end of the paregrapL :]) [thus,} o^ ^^ ^^ 
notes knowing ; and also thinking ; [the former as 
in the saying immediately preceding, and] as when 
you say, 'Lij U Jjiib ^1 ^& [J knojv, or rather 
it appeart, at though teen, that God doet what 
He wills] i and [the latter as when you say,] 
».jW .iiJiSa [J think, or rather it leemt, that 
thott art going forth], (TA.)__[When it has 
the affixed pronoun of the first person, sing, or 
pi., you say, ^1 and ^^^t and Ul and Ujl : and 
when it has also the ^ of comparison prefixed to 
it,] you say, ,jJ» and ^^, [and lilfe and 
Ljt&,] like as you say, ^j^ and l^*^ [&c.]. 
(S.)^ As ^1 is a derivative from ^l, it is cor- 
rectly asserted by Z that Ol imports restriction, 
like ' Wl ; both of whieh occur in the saying 
in the 5ur [xii. 108], UJl ^\ ^^ ♦Cj j* 
ji^tj di\ J^i^\ \Say thou. It it only revealed to 
me that your God it only one God] ; the former 
is for the restricting of the quality to the qualified ; 
and the latter, for the reverse: (Mughnee, ^:) 
i. e. the former is for the restricting of the reve- 
lation to the declaration of the unity; and the 
latter, for the restricting of "your God" to unity; 
(Marginal note in a copy of the Mugbnee :) but 
these words of the ^ux do not imply that nothing 
save the unity was revealed to the Prophet ; for 
the restriction is Umited to the case of the discourse 
with the believers in a plurality of gods ; so that 
the meaning is, there has not been revealed to 
me [aught], respecdog the godhead, except the 
unity ; not the attribution of any associate to God. 
(Mughnee.) [C^'j however, does not always im- 
port restriction ; nor does always even t L^t : in 
each of these, U is what is termed ii\£>i i. e., 
it restricts the particle to which it is affixed from 
exercising any government ; and sometimes has 
no effect upon the signification of that particle : 
(see art. U ; and see Cj' > below, voce ^\ ;) thus, 
for instance, in the Kur viii, 28, Ol '^^^b 
iSsLij^i'^^t^ JJii\yt\ means And hnow ye that 
your poaemoM and your children are a trial; 
not tluit they are only a trial. When it has the 
jj of comparison prefixed to it, it is sometimes 
contracted ; as in tiie following ex. :] a poet says. 

[Am though, by reason of their mincing gait, they 
were walking upon tragacanthat ; and they were 
laughing to at to ditcover teeth like hailttonet] : 
WiS» being for 0^> (lAar.) — ^1 is some- 
times contracted into ^t ; (^, Mugbnee ;) and in 
this case, it governs in the manner already ex- 
plained, voce ^1. (Mughnee.) ^ It is also *yn. 
with Jal; (Sb, S, M, Mughnee, ]^;) as in the 
saying, t^ U) ijijli^ itiH ,jy^\ wol [Come thou 
to the market ; may-be thou wilt buy /or ut tome- 
thing; C^l being originally <f^t]; i. e. Mji: 
(8b, M, Mugbnee, 5 :•) and, accord, to some, 
(M, Mughnee, ^,) so in the j^ur [vi. 109], where 
it ia Mid, Ol^k "^ "^'V 'it ^^l^jt^ U> 

[And what maketh you to know ? (meaning, 
maketh you to know that they will believe when 
it Cometh ? i. e. ye do not know that : Jel :) May- 
be, lehen it Cometh, they will not believe] : (8, M, 
Mughnee, "^ :) thus accord, to this reading 
(Mughnee,^:) and Ubef here reads l^. (S.) 
tj) and ij*^ and ^\ y are all tyn. with J* and 
Jj«J J and ^1 and ^\, and ^"^ and ^"J, and 
^1 y and ^^1 j], with ^^ and ^jla). (^ voce 
Jjt].)^It is also syn. with ,^1 [Yet, or yea; 
or i' it at thou tayeit]. (M, TA.) [See also ^1 
as exemplified by a verae commencing with O^J 
and by a saying of Ibn-Ez-Zubeyr.] 

^\ is one of the particles which annul the 
quality of the inchoative, like o't "^f which it is 
the original : (1 'A^ p. 90 :) it is a corroborative 
particle, (I 'Ak, Mughnee,) corroborating the 
predicate ; (9, ^ ;) governing the subject in the 
occuB. case and the predicate in the nom. case ; 
(S, I 'A^, Mughnee, ^ ;) [and may generally be 
rendered by Verily, or certainly, or the like; 
exactly agreeing with the Greek ori, as used in 
Luke vii. 16 and in many other passages in the 
New Tesiament ; though it often seems to be 
nothing more than a sign of inception, which can 
hardly be rendered at all in English ; unless in 
pronunciation, by laying a stress upon the predi- 
cate, or upon the copula;] as in the saying, 
_^li Ijijj jjt [ Verily, or certainly, Zeyd it ttand- 
ing ; or simply, Zeyd it standing, if we lay a 
stress upon standing, or upon m], (I 'A^p p. 90.) 
But sometimes it governs both the subject and 
the predicate in the accus. case ; as in the saying, 

• o^i ^^ J^' r^ ^^ 'il 

\^\ U^U. 

[Whm the darknett of night becomet, or thall 
become, intense, then do thou come, and let thy 
tteps be light : verily our guardiant are lions] ; 
(Mughnee, K; [but in the latter, for jLwl, we 
find iy^\, so that the meaning is, when the fnt 
portion of the night becomet, or shall become, black, 
&C.;]) and as in a trad, in which it is said, 
\kijd. ij.^^^ Vv^ >«3 o! [ y^^fy 'A« bottom of 
Heli it a distance of teventy yeart of journeying] : 
(Mu^nee, ^ :) the verse, however, is explained 
by the suppoMtion that it presents a denotative of 
state [in the last word, which is equivalent to 
'■'-^ *- or the like], and tliat the predicate is sup- 
pressed, the meaning being, Ijuil _^UJJ [thou 
wilt find them lions] ; and the trad, by the sup- 
position that yi is an inf. n., and i^e^f is an 
adverbial noun, so that the meaning is, the reach- 
ing the bottom of hell is [to be accomplished in 
no less time than] in teventy yeart. (Mughnee.) 
And sometimes the inchoative [of a proposition] 
afUr it is in the nom. case, and its subject is what 
is termed oli j^^, suppressed ; as in the saying 
of Mohammad, 2^e*" >>! W^^ i^wl ^1 ,^ ^1 
^jjjJb.11 [Verily, (the ease is this;) of the men 
most severely to be pumelied, on the day qfretur- 
rection, are the makers ofimaget], originally ei\. 

i. e. i^jLUt jjt J (Mu^nee, ^ ;•) and as in the 
saying in tiie ^ur [«t. 60], o'j^U CjIJ* 0\, 
[accord, to some,] as will be seen in what follows. 
(TA.)__Of the two particles ^1 and ♦o*. >n 
certain cases only the former may be used ; and 
in certain other eases either of them may be used. 
(1 'A^ p. 91.) The former must be used when it 
occurs inceptively, (Kh, T, I 'A\ p.92, Mughnee, 
K^,) having nothing before it upon which it is syn- 
tactically dependent, (Kh, T,) with respect to the 
wording or the meaning ; (^ ;) as in ^15 I j.jj ^1 
[ Verily Zeyd U standing]. (I 'A^, ^.) It is used 
after -^jl, (I 'A^, %.,) the inceptive particle, (I 'A^:,) 
or the particle which is employed to give notice [of 
something about to be said] ; (5-;) as in ^\ "^jl 
^U l^j [Now surely Zeyd ia standing]. (I 'A\ 
K.) And when it occurs at the commencement 
of the complement of a conjunct noun ; (I 'Al^, 
5 ;•) as in ^ll ijl ^JJI iV [-^e who it ttanding 
came]; (I'AIf;) and in the ^ur [xxviii. 76], 

i^l [And, we gave him, of treaturet, that whereof 
the keyt would weigh down the company of men 
pottetied of strength]. (I 'A^,* K,* TA.) And in 
the complement of an oalh, (1 'A^, 5,) when its 
predicate has J, (1 'A^,) or whether its subject 
or its predicate has J or baa it not ; (IjL ;) as in 
j^\ti IjhJj ^1 ditt) [By Allah, verily Zeyd it 
ttanding], (I 'A^,) and ^13 Ajt : or, as some say, 
when you do not employ the ^, the particle is 
with fet-h; as in ^\3 f jLt ^1^ [I swear by 
Allah that thou art ttanding] ; mentioned by Ks 
as thus heard by him from the Arabs: (TA :) 
but respecting this case we shall have to speak 
hereafter. (I 'Ak.) And when it occurs after the 
word Jji or a derivative thereof, in repeating the 
saying to which that word relates; (Fr, T, 1 'A^,* 
^;*) as in the saying [in tlie ^ar iv. 156], 
•-g-^l UXlJ Ul ^jij [And tlieir taying, Verily 
we have tlain the MetMah]; (Fr,T;) and CJII 
j^yi tj^ J^t [/ said, Verily Zeyd it ttanding] ; 
(I'Ati) and [in the ^ur v. 115,] ^|l Jlil JIJ 
_J^ y>^ [God taid. Verily I wiU cauie it to 
descend unto you] ; accord, to the dial, of him 
who does not pronounce it with fet-h : (K :) but 
when it occurs in explaining what is said, you use 
t ^ijl ; as in the sayingi Ul^ It"^ Mi ,zJi ji 
JiU. iJLitj tJljjJ* i)Wl O' i^ ^^ '"^ '" '*^* <* 
good saying; that thy father it noble and that 
thou art intelligent] ; (Fr, T ;) or when the word 
signifying "saying" is used as meaning "think- 
ing;" as in^lS tj.ij O' Jv^' [Dott thou say 
that Zeyd is standing?], meaning (>£iJt [Dost 
thouthink?]. (1 'A^.) Also, when it occurs in a 
phrase denotative of state ; (I'AVi) [i- e.,] after 
tiie J denotative of state; (K;) as in ^l^ ajjJ 
Jui ji [J visited him, I verily having hope, or 
Ktpcctetion] ; (I'Ak;) and in tj^ jjlj jl;j :^. 
ii^lj ^Ji [Zeyd came, he verily having his hand 
apon hit head]. (?i..) And when it occurs in a 
phrase which is Uie predicate of a proper (as 


opposed to an ideal) substantive ; (I 'A^^, ?L ;*) 
as in ^15 Z\ j^jj [Zeyd, verify he is standing], 
Cl*A\f) or ^^^3 [going away]; eontr. to the 
assertion of Fr. (K.) And when it occurs before 
the J which suspends the grammatical govern- 
ment of a verb of the mind, preceding it, with 
respect to its objective complements; (I 'Alf,^;*) 

as in J^U) t^j oj ^^ [^ ^»^w ^^ ^^^^2/ 
was standing] ; (I 'Al^ ;) and in [the ISlur Ixiii. 1,] 

diJlf^ J)2\ j^Jo 4IM5 [And Ood knoweih thou 
verily art his apostle] : (1^ :) but if the J is not 
in its predicate, you say, ^ \J^y as m ^t wn«J^ 
jP^ tj4»j [/ hnefw that Zeyd was standing], 
(I 'At-) And in the like of the saying in the ?Lur 

[u. 171], JUi ^ v^y^' L»* '^^J^' Oi^'^ 0\i 
j^^ju [^nd vert7y if A«y whx) differ among themselves 

respecting the book are in an opposition rewrote 
fi'om the truth] ; because of the J [of inception] 
which occurs after it, in ^^ : (Ks, A 'Obeyd :) 
the J of inception which occurs before the predi- 
cate of ^t should properly commence the sentence; 

• XX ^ • X St 

80 that^U) Ijuj ^! [Verily Zeyd is standing] 

should properly be ^15 !jl^ ^S; but as the J 

is a corroborative and ^\ is a corroborative, they 
dislike putting two particles of the same meaning 
together, and therefore they put the J later, trans- 
ferring it to the predicate : Mbr allows its being 

^^, ^ ^. ^i; and thus it 

occurs in an unusual reading of the saying [in the 

]g:ur XXV. 22],>u£jTo^ll»y ^1 4l [But they 
ate food] ; but this is explained by the supposition 
that the J is here redundant : (I ' Al^ p. 95 :) this 
is the reading of Sa*eed Ibn-Jubeyr : others read, 

J\aM\ Jji^LLu^J '^ll [but verily they ate food]: 

and Li\ [as well as t ^v^t] is used after the exceptive 
•>)! when it is not followed by the J [of inception]. 
(TA.) Also, when it occura after whs*-; ^ ^^ 
i^U. t jL)j ij\ 3^ u^^ [Si^ t^ou where Zeyd 

X » X ' 

u sitting]. (I 'A^ p. 92, and KI.) And after 

fix , Jx J Ax X 9 JS fix •Ox X X 

^:ii. ; as m aJ^^.^ •>)^! ^:;^ j^j ^^ [Zeyd 

has fallen sick^ so that verily they have no hope 
for him] : whereas after a particle governing the 

gen. case, [i. e. a preposition,] you say, t^jj, 
(IHsh in De Sacy's Anthol. Gr. Ar. p. 76.)—- 
Either of these two forms may be used after t3t 
denoting a thing's happening suddenly, or unex- 
pectedly ; as in ^15 ! juj ^jt J3U i^^ [I went 
forth J and lo^ verily Zeyd was standing] j and 

^15 \j^j " ^\ 13 w [and loj or at that present 

' . . St 

time, Zeyd!s standing] ; in which latter case, ^1 

with its complement is [properly] an inchoative, 
and its enunciative is t3t ; the implied meaning 
being, and at tluit present time was the standing 
of Zeyd : or it may be that the enunciative is 
suppressed, and that the implied meaning is, [and 
loy or at that present time,] the standing of Zeyd 
was an event come to pass. (I 'A^^ p. ^.) Also, 
when occurring in the complement of an oath, if 
its enunciative is without J : (I 'A%: :) [see exs. 

given above :] or, as some say, only t ^t ig used 
in this case. (TA.) Also, when occurring after 
^ denoting the complement of a condition ; as in 


• x J jS ^ 

jiSU dj\5 («^0 Cj^ [Se who Cometh to me, verily 
fie sfiall be treated with honour], and j^JU * ^\ ; 


in which latter case, ^t with its complement is an 
inchoative, and the enunciative is suppressed ; the 
implied meaning being, honourable treatment of 
him shall be an event come to pass : or it may be 
an enunciative to an inchoative suppressed; the 
implied meaning being, his recompense shall be 
honourable treatment. (I 'A^ p. 94.) Also, when 
occurring aft»r an inchoative having the meaning 
of a saying, its enimciative being a saying, and 

the sayer being one; as in j^^^\ ^J\ JyUt •«». 

[The best saying is, Verily I praise God], and 

j^^m^ ^ i^^; in which latter case, ^t with its 

complement is an enunciative o( j^; the implied 
meaning being, the best saying is the praising of 
God [or my praising of God]. (I 'Al^ ubi suprit.) 

X X X X S X OaSx 

You also say, ^ gpi \\ ^t Jl^ [At thy service! 
Verily praise belongeth to Thee ! O God] ; com- 
mencing [with ^t] a new proposition : and some- 

K, St , xxx»x St 

times one says, ▼ ^t ; meaning ^ gpi \\ ^V 
[because praise belongeth to Thee]. (Msb.)... 
The cases in which ^t may not be used in the 

St * St 

place of ^j\ have been mentioned above, voce ^t. 
««. [When it has the affixed pronoun of the first 
person, sing, or pi.,] you say, ^J\ and ^\, (S,) 

X X ^^'9 *^x 9 

and U I and uTl , (TA,) like as you say ^Js:! and 

5 » s ^^ ^t s 

y^^^i^ [&c.]. (S.) ^t as a contraction of Ut ^;;! 

has been mentioned above, as occurring in the 
phrase ^U ^t, voce ^j\, q. v. .... Accord, to the 

X mI m ^ 

grammarians, (T,) \^\ is a compound of ^jl and U, 
(T, S,) which latter prevents the former's having 
any government : (T :) it imports restriction ; 

^SS . St 

like U^t, which see above, voce ^t, in three 
places : (Mughnee, ^ :) [i. e.] it imports the 
restriction of that which it precedes to that which 

• X 01 •Ox ,S 

follows it; as in JJLkJU juj \^\ [Zeyd is only 

•Ox JxOxxfi 

going away], and juj JUJsu^ U^t [Only Zeyd goes 
away] : (Bd in ii. 10 :) [in other words,] it is 
used to particularize, or specify, or distinguish a 
thing from other things : (S :) it affirms a thing 
in relation to that which is mentioned after it, and 
denies it in relation to other things ; (T, S ;) as 

in the saying in the ]^ur [ix. 60], oVij^^f l^t 
^tyUJJ [The contributions levied for pious uses 
are only, or but, for the poor] : (S :) but El- 
Amidee and AQei say that it does not import 
restriction, but only corroboration of an affinna- 
tion, because it is a compound of the corroborative 

s X 

^j\ and the redundant Lo which restrains the 
former from exercising government, and that it 
has no application to denote negation implied in 

xW X gj 

restriction, as is shown by the trad., ^J UJI l^\ 
3C(f^\ [which must mean, Verily usury is in the 
delay of payment], for usury is in other things 

X X 

beside that here mentioned, as ^JJaJtiS Vj [or profit 

X ^ 

obtained by the superior value of a thing received 
over that of a thing given], by common consent: 
(Kull p. 76 :) some say that it necessarily imports 
restriction : J says what has been cited above from 
the S : some say that it has an overt signification 
in denoting restriction, and is susceptible of the 
meaning of corroboration : some say the reverse 

[Book I. 

of thiB: El-Amidee says that if it were [properly] 
restrictive, its occurrence in another sense would 
be at variance with the original import; but to 
this it may be replied, that if it were [properly] 
corroborative, its occurrence in another sense 
would be at variance with the original import : it 
[therefore] seems that it is susceptible of both 
diese meanings, bearing one or the other accord- 
ing as this or that suits the place. (Mfb.) U3t is 
to be distinguished from ^jt with the conjunct 

X • 

[noun] U, which does not restrain it fix>m govern- 
ing [though its government with this is not appa- 
rent, and which is written separately] ; as in 

• ^4' x'O X S 

,>.«*. J jl;p U ^t meaning Verily what is with 

" * , • X ^ X Oxx X S 

thee is good, and in ^>.m». wJjk^ U ^jI meaning 

Verily thy deed is good. (I 'A^ pp. 97 and 98.) 
s , . • 

.. ^j\ is sometimes contracted into ^) ; (§, Mugb- 

9 p 

nee, ]^ ;) and in this case, it is made to govern 
and is made to have no government : (S :) it is 
seldom made to govern in this case ; often made 
to have no government : the Koofees say that it 
is not contracted; (Mughnee, K;) and that when 

• X • Jx •Ox 

one says, J^JaOoJ juj ^t [the meaning is virtually 

' ^ • • 

Verily Zeyd is going away, but] ^^^l is a negative 

and the J is syn. with ^\ ; but this assertion is 

refuted by the fact that some make it to govern 

when contracted, as in exs. cited above, voce ^t, 

X X 

q. V. (Mughnee.) ... It is also syn^ with j^ 

[Even so; yes; yea]; (Mughnee,!!^;) contr. to 

s t 
the opinion of AO. (Mughnee.) [See also ^t, 

last sentence.] Those who affirm it to have this 
meaning cite as an ex. the following verse (Mugh- 
nee, K*) of 'Obeyd-Allah Ibn-Keys-er-Rukeiydt : 

»S J 


jJ^J • !^j3 

• 0. 

[And they say, (namely, the women,) Hoariness 
hath come upon thee, and thou hast become old: 
and I say, Even so, or yes, or yea] : (Mughnee, 
El:) but this has been rebutted by the saying. 
We do not concede that the is here added to 
denote the pause, but assert that it is a pronoun, 
governed by ^) in the accus. case, and the pre- 
dicate is suppressed; the meaning being, 4j\ 

X I X • 

jUj^ [Verily it, i. e. the case, is thus]. (Mugh- 
nee.) [J says,] The meaning is, U£> ^j\^ j3 aJi 

X » i X ^ 

^>Ujf [Verily it, i. e. the case, hath been eu ye 
say] : A 'Obeyd says. This is a curtailment of 
the speech of the Arabs ; the pronoun being 
deemed sufficient because the meaning is known : 

X X 

and as to the saying of Akh, that it signifies ^^, 
he only means thereby that it may be so rendered, 
not that it is originally applied to that significa- 
tion : he says that the is here added to denote 
the pause. (S.) There is, however, a good ex. 
of ^t in the sense of ^^ in the saying of Ibn- 
Ez-Zubeyr, to him who said to him, " May God 
cui-se a she camel which carried me to thee," 


K^b3 Oj> ^* ®- Even so, or yes, or yea; and 
may God curse her rider : for the suppression of 
both the subject and the predicate is not allowable. 
(Mughnee.) And hence, accord, to Mbr, the 

saying in the JgLur [xx. 66], as thus read, ^\ 
sj\j^lJ otjjb [meaning, if so, Yes, these two are 

Book I.] 

enchanters]. (Mughnee.) [But this pKrase has 
given rise to much discussion^ related in the 
Mughnee and other works. The following is a 
brief abstract of what has been said respecting 
it by seyeral of the leading authorities.] Aboo- 
Is-^^ says that the people of £1-Medeeneh and 
£l-Koofeh read as aboye, except 'Af im, who is 
reported to have read, ^tjjb ^;;t, without tesh- 
deed, and so is Kh ; [so too is Qaff , as is said 
above, voce ^j\;] and that A A read ^jiJA r)\y 
the former word with teshdeed, and the latter in 

the accus. case : that the argument for ^t Jub ^\ y 
with teshdeed and the nom. case, [or rather what 
is identical in form with the nom. case,] is, that 
it is of the dial, of Kindneh, in which the dual 
is formed by the termination ^t in the nom. 
and accus. and gen. cases alike, as also in the 
dial, of Benu-1-Hdrith Ibn-Ka^ib : but that the 
old grammarians say that o is here suppressed; 

the meaning being, ^tjuk 4Jt: (T:) this last 

assertion, however, is weak ; for what is applied 
to the purpose of corroboration should not be 
suppressed, and the instances of its suppression 
which have been heard are deviations from general 

usage, except in the case of ^t, with fet-h, con- 
tracted into ^t : (Mughnee :) Aboo-Is-^d^ then 

adds, that some say, ^t is here syn. with j^ : 
this last opinion he holds to be the best; the 
meaning being, ^t;»>U \^ }j\jM j^ \X^\ 
these two, verily they are two enchanters : for 
this is not a case in which the J (which is the J 
of inception) can be regarded as transferred from 
its proper place, at the commencement of the 
sentence or proposition, as it is in some instances 
mentioned in the former half of this paragraph : 
but it is said in the Mughnee that this explanation 
is invalidated by the fact that the combining of 
the corroborative J and the suppression of the 
inchoative is like the combining of two things in- 
consistent, or incompatible ; as is also the opinion 
that the ^ is redundant, because the redundant J 
prefixed to the enunciative is peculiar to poetry] : 
next in point of goodness, in the opinion of Aboo- 
Is-ha]^, is, that it is of the dial, of Kindneh and 
Benu-l-^&rith Ibn-ELa^b : the reading of AA he 
does not allow, because it is at variance with the 
written text: but he approves the reading of 

'Asim and Kh. (T.) bb ^t also occurs as a 
verb : it is the third person pi. fem. of the pret. 

from ^*^l, syn. vrith ^-jCJI ; or from ^t syn. 

with ^^ : or the third person sing. masc. of the 

pret. passive from v>H*!^t, in the dial, of those 

St» A J ' St St 

who, for j|j and %.p^**>, say ^j and v»^^ likening 
these verbs to J^ts^ and 9^ : or the sing. masc. 
of the imperative from the same : or the pi. fem. 
of the imperative from t^jCi\ ; or from ^jt syn. 

with ^j3 : or the sing. fem. of the corroborated 

t^ * ^ ^ 

form of the imperative from ^t^, syn. with j^^. 




01, signifying I: see ^t, in seven places. 


• t 

dj\f signifying /: see ^t, in two places. 

• St 


^^ t. q. ^>J1 [inf. n. of ^t, but app. a simple 
snbsL, signifying A moony moaning, or prolonged 

voice of complaint ; or a saying Ah : or a corn^ 
plaint : or a cry]. (TA.) 

^\, signifying Thou : fem. cJ\ ; dual u£5( ; 

pi. masc. ^j^y, and pi. fem. ^>Ut: see ^t, in 
six places. 

% St 

see ijwl 

• » 

ijUt One mlio moans ; who utters a moaning, 
or prolonged voice of complaint; or who says 

Ah ; muchy or frequently ; as also t ^Ut and 

^d^\i (M, ]|l:) or this last signifies one who 
publishes complaint, or mahes it public, much, or 
frequently : (M :) or one who talks and grieves 
and complains much, or frequently ; and it has 
no verb derived from it: (T:) and you say, 

2jJi iU3l i^j, [in which the latter epithet is app. 
an imitative sequent to the former,] meaning an 
eloquent man. (TA.) The fem. of ^jUI is with 
5 : (M, $ :) and is said to be applied to a woman 
who moans, or says Ah, and is affected with 
compassion, for a dead husband, on seeing another 

whom she has married after the former. (MF.) 

9^ s* • s^ 

[See also 2^U^, voce O^^^*] 

X »• 


ijt, signifying /; see ^j\, in two places. 

2^ ^ St 

ijl part. n. of ^1, [Moaning ; or uttering a 

moan or moaning or a prolonged voice of com^ 
plaint ; or saying Ah ; by reason of pain : com- 
plaining by reason of disease or pain : or] utter^ 
ing a cry or cries : fem. with 5. (Msb.) [Hence,] 

you say, 2^1 ^^ ^W ai U He has not a she camel 
nor a sheep, or goat : (8, M, A, ]Bl :) or he lias 
not a she camel nor a female slave (M, ]^) that 
moans by reason of fatigue. (M.) 

ULo, occurring in a trad., (S, Mgh, ]R[, &c., 
in the first and last in art. ^U, and in the second 
in the present art.,) where it is said, J^ ^t 
jLjiS aL ^ llu alilji j^j r^\j (§, Mgh, 

•x (t ^ 

TA, &c.,) is of the measure ^LXjUU, [originally 

lili,] from o» , (S, Z in the Fdi]^, I Ath, Mgh, 
1^,) the corroborative particle ; (Z, I Ath, Mgh ;) 
like l\ 

from ^^ ; (S, EI ;) but not regularly 

derived from ^\, because a word may not be 
so derived from a particle ; or it may be said 
that this is so derived afler the particle has been 
made a noun ; (Z, I Ath ;) or neither of these 
modes of derivation is regular : (MF :) the mean- 
ing is, [Verily the longness of the prayer and 
the shortness of the oration from the pulpit are 
(together)] a proper ground for one^s saying^ 
Verily the man is a person of knowledge or in- 
telligence : (Z,* Mgh, E[ in art. ^Jio :) this is the 
proper signification : accord, to AO, the meaning 
is, a thing whereby one learns the knowledge, or 
intelligence, of the man : (Mgh :) or it means 
a thing suitable to, (S, Mgh,) and whereby one 
knows, (S,) the knowledge, or intelligence, of the 
man : (S, Mgh :) or a sign (Af , S, ]^) of the 
knowledge, or intelligence, of the man; and suit- 
able thereto : (As, S :) or an evidence thereof: 
(M :) or an indication, or a symptom, thercQf; 
everything that indicates a thing being said to 

be a) XXo : [so that t JxJ dJL^ may be well ren- 


dered a thing that occasions ontfs knowing, or 
inferring, or suspecting, such a thing; and in 
like manner, a person that occasions on^s doing 
so : or, more properly, a thing, &c., in which 
such a thing is usually known to take place, or 

have place, or be, or exist, like Ux« :] one of 
the strangest of the things said of it is, that the a 
is a substitute for the J» of H^ : (I Ath :) this 
seems to have been the opinion of Lh : ( Az, L :) 
accord, to AA, it is eyn. with a^T [a sign, &c.]. 
(TA.) Af says (S,* ?:,TA, all in art. o^) that 
the word is thus, vrith teshdeed to the q, in the 
trad, and in a verse of poetry, as these are related ; 
(S, TA ;) but correctly, in his opinion, it should 
be i^i, of the measure ix^, (S, ilg:,* TA,) 
unless it be from ^\ , as first stated above : (S, 
TA :) AZ used to say that it is 2lu, with O, 
(S, EI,* TA,) meaning a thing (lit. a place) meet. 
Jit, OT proper, or worthy or deserving, and the like; 

. *r ^^ . *" ^^ ^st 

of the measure SSmL^, [originally 3uJU,] from 4j\ 
meaning ''he overcame him vrith an argument 
or the like :" (S, 1^, TA :) but some say that 

it is of the measure iM, from ^jU meaning 
J^ii^t : see art. ^jU. (]^ in that art) You say 

also, jijiM 2jij^ yk, from ^t , He is a person ft, 
or proper, for one's saying of him, Verily he is 
good ; and in like manner, 5Ljt«, from ^c«*^, as 
meaning '' a person fit, or proper, for one's say- 
ing of him. May-be he will do good." (A, TA.) 

And )ji> oji O^ ^^ ^^ Verily it is meet, 
ft, or proper, for one*s saying of it. Verily it 
is thus ; or is worthy, or deserving, of onds say* 
ing &c. : or verUy it is a thing meet, fit, or 
proper, for one's saying &c. ; or ti a thing worthy, 
or deserving, of one's saying &c. : of the measure 

aJLsA.*, from ^1. (1^ in the present art.) And 

JtS JjuJ ^\ &^ 2\ Verily he is meet, fit, or 

^ ft 

proper, for doing that ; or is worthy, or deserving, 
of doing that : or verily he is a person meet, fit, 
or proper, for doing that ; or is a person worthy, 
or deserving, of doing that : and in like manner 
you say of two, and of more, and of a female : 

but 2LJU may be of the measure iLW [from ^U], 

i. e. a triliteral-radical word. (M.) ... You also 

say, ^)3 X^ jJLp ol3t, meaning He came to him 

at the time, or season, [or fit or proper time,] 
of that ; and at the first thereof. (M.) 


U1 (pronoun of the first person sing.): see 
art. ^J\. 

2. A^S, inf n. ^^^U, He blamed, reproved, 
reprehended, chid, or reproaclied, him : (S, M, 
A, K :) or he did so severely, or angrily : (ISk, 
T, S, M, A, ]^ :) or, with the utmost severity or 
harshness : (T, M, TA :) or he repulsed him, 
meaning a person who asked something of him, 
in the mx)st abominable manner. (M,* ^,* TA.) 

• JC 

iJt An intemodal portion, or the portion 
between any two joints, or knots, of a cane, or 
reed, and of a spear-shaft: (T:) [and] a spear. 

or lance : pi. i^>^l'l : mentioned in this art [in 
the T, and] by Ibn-El'Mukarram [in the L]. 
(TA.) [See also art. ^.] 

wJI, *z^\, C£n, ,^1, and fj^]; see ^^1, in 
art. ^;jl, 


1. [>^l| aor. - , inf. n. IjUI and ijy^, (see the 
former of these two ns. below,) It w<u, or became, 
female, feminine, or of the feminine gender. — 
And hence, <z^\, said of land (o^jl), I It kui, 
or became, suck iuu termed li^U—^Heacealeo,] 
.±Jt, said of iron, III mat, or became, toft, 
(GoliuB, from the larger of two editions of the 
lexicon entitled UUI S\3j^.} Accord, to lA^, 
softness is the primary signification. (M.) [But 
accord, to the A, the second and third of the 
meanings given above are tropical : (see li-e*' 
and the verb in the first of the senses here assigned 
to it, if not proper, is certainlj^ what is termed 
■^9j« aJLi^, i. e., conventionally regarded as 

, -t * t, 

2. dii\, inf. n. te^U, Se made it (namely, a 

noun [&c.], 8 and Msb) feminine ; (§, M, L, 
Msb;) Ae attached to it, or to tkatmhickKaesyn- 
tacticaily dependent upon it, the tign of the femi- 
nine gender. (Mab.) _ tfle, or it, renderal him 
effeminate. (KL) [See the pass, part n., below.] 
ma a) „Ut, inf. n. as above, t Se acUd gently, [or 
effeminatelyl towards him; as dso «) t ,^1;. 
C?;, TA.) And j^l ^J^ -iSi, inf. a. as above, (T, 
A,) I He acted gently in hit affair : (A :) or he 
applied himself gently to hit affair : (T :) and 
some say, e^-l ^^ ' wJU, meaning he acted 
effeminately in his affair. (T, TA.) 

4. c^T, (S, M, A, K,) inf. a. ilLl , (^,) She 
(a woman) brought forth a female, (S, A, 5.) 
or femalet. (M.) — [And hence,] \It (land, 
i^jl,) mat, or became, such at it termed <^lli*. 

6. i^U It (a noun [&c.]) wot, or became, or 

teas made, feminine. (^, L.) See also 2, in 

two places. 

^1 FsTnale; feminine; of the femaie, or 
feminine, sex, or gender ; conlr. of ^i : (T, §, 
M :) an epithet applied to anything of that sex or 
gender : (T :) I A^ asserts, that a woman is termed 
j^l from the phrase ,t^l Jii, q. v., because of 
her softness ; she being more soft than a man : 
(M, L :) [but see the observation at the end of 
the first paragraph of this art. :] the pi. is Xui ; 
(T, S, M, A, Msb, K ;) and sometimes one says 
tUI, as though it were pi. of .^01 ; (S ;) or it is 
[mdyl pi. ofilit, like aa)^ is ofjO; (T;) 
and ^Ul, (T, A, Mjb, If,) which last occurs in 
poetry. (T.) You say, iuSl^ jjlt I ji [This it a 
(male) bird and his female]: notfkSUil. (ISk, T.) 
In the ?;ur iv. 117, I 'Ab reads Ci\ [in the place 
of Lit or OOn i and Fr says that it is pi. of 

i^j, the J in ^jj^ being changed into t as in 
iiit [For c3^]. (T, L.) j^l JI^I J [A femi- 
nine woman,] metaiBa perfert woman ; {T, A,5i) 
a woman being thus termed in praise ; like as a 

man is termed ^J Ji-j- (T,A.) [The pi.] 

C)Ut also signifies i Inanimate things; (Lb, T, 
M,!^;) as trees and stones (T, ^) and wood. 
(T.) In the passt^ of the Kur mentioned above, 
t3lil is said to have this meaning : (T, M :) [or it 
there meauB females ; for] Frsays that El-L&tand 
£l-'Ozz& and the like were said by the Arabs to 
be feminine divinities. (T, TA.) _ Also t STnall 

ttart. (5.) And [the dual] oC^^' t The two 

tetticlet; syn. ^C^Ji^l; (S, ^;) or fj\^JaiJ\ 
[which is said by some to mean the tcrotum ; but 
the former is generally, though app. not always, 
meant by O^''^']- C^, Mgh, Msb.) __ And 
I The two ears: (As, T, §, M, A, Mgh, If :} because 

they are of the fem. gender. (TA.) XnA^Tke 

two tribes of Bejeekh and Kudd'ah. (J^)^ 
And ^Jii\ 0\ t The inner parts (Ci^J^?') of 

the thighs of the horse. (M,L.) And ^•^\ 

is also used to signify t Me [engine of war called] 
ijig^f - Lt ; because the latter word is [generally] of 
the feminine gender. (M.) 

.^1: see ,U^ a^jt u^jU (AA,* lA^r, 

T, 8, M, JK:,) and ♦ iuL, (TSh, T, M, K,) 
I Plain, even, or toft, land, or ground, (ISh, 
lAar, T, M, K,) that produces many plants, or 
muchherbage; {A.K,'T,1A,'^\) or that producet 
herbs, or leguminous plants, and it plain, even, 
toft; (El-Kilabee, 8 ;) or fitted for producing 
plants, or herbage ; not rugged. (ISh, T, L.) 
And i^-^l ^Ul* A. place in which the herbagi 
grows quickly, and becomes ahundant, (T, L.) 
And <i.^\ JjL^ t A country, or district, of which 
the toil is soft, and plain, or even. (I Aar, M, L.)__ 
vftJi jj jtfc t Female iron ; that which it not what 
u termed j&> : (S, M, L, 5 :) soft iron. (T and 
K. in art. Uu\.) And w.^'t tJi-' I-^ sword of 
female iron : (M, L :) or a tword that it not 
sharp, or cutting; a blunt iioord: (T,M,*L:) 
and ♦ i>ul. Jl^, and ♦ SiuL, (T, M, L, ?.,) 
mentioned by LI>, (T, L,) a blunt tword ; (j^;) 
as also f vJ3^ : (TA :) or a sword of toft iron. 

aiUI [inf. n. of iJl, q. v. :] The female, or 
feminine, nature, or quality, or gender; (M ;) 

as also tajyi. (A.) jThe quality of land 

which it termed 33e>t. (A.) ^ [t Softness of iron : 
see veil.] 

■Uyl : see the paragraph next preceding. 

w^J^ A woman bringing forth, or who brings 
forth, a female, (S, 1^,) or females. (M.) 

^jUm A woman who usually brings forth fe- 
males : (S, M, ^ :} and a man who utually begets 
female children ; for the measure ,JuLa applies 
equally to both sexes: (^:) the contr. epithet is 
jl^Xi. (TA.) ^ See also JJji, in two places. 

[Book I. 
_ i>\2.A ^jt : see »«''• ^ oUiU iJk^, and 
SjU^ : see w-eit. 

^^ [A feminine word ; a word made femi- 

nine Also,] (T,A,1^,) and t^^l, (AA,T,) 

and t iul,, (?;,) and t iJuL., (TA,) {i. q. i-ti-i, 
(AA, T, A, K,) i. e. An effeminate man ; one who 
ri-^mbles a woman (AA, T, TA) in gentleness, 
and in softness of speech, and in an affectation of 
Uuiguor of the limbs: (TA :) or a man tn the 
form, or make, of a female. C^ } * -j - t_ae-> : 

eee C*±'l i%i-'ijj y^ fa f Perftime that it used 

Inj women; tuch at ^>U. and o!>u>j> (Sh, T, L,) 
and wliat colours the clothes : (L :) ,^.^1 «j9&> 
hoing such perfumes as have no colour ; such as 
^U and jyl^ and jXl* and ajc and j^iA and 
t!ie like, which leave no mark. (T, L.) 

, inf. n. ^1 and y 

Jt and m 

•_ii, aor. ^ , mt. n. ^i ana ^^^\ and v-^Jt, 
Jle (a man, S) breathed hard, or violently, in 
luoseguence of heaviness, or oppression, experi- 
enced by him as an effect of disease, or of being 
mil of breath, (S, ^, TA,) as though he made a 
If iterated hemming in his throat, (•..^■^ *J''^,) 
and did not speak clearly, or plainly : (S, TA :) 
or Ae modi a reiterated in his throat 
(..:§> :|i), when asked for a thing, by reason of 
niggardliness: (L:) or he uttered a long, or 
vehement, sigh, or a kind of groaning sound, {jij,) 
wjien asked for a thing. (A.) You say, vJU 
aJU ^jile Me uttert a long, or vehement, sigh, or 
a kind of groaning sound, over hit property [Irom 
un Willi ngness to part with it]. (A.)^ It is s^d 
iit a trad, of Ibn-'Omar, <uk^ ~jQ J^j |^'j> 
moaning, [it is asserted, though this seems doubt- 
ful, He taw a man] raiting, or lifting, his belly 
with an effort, oppressed by its weight ; from 
a-yi in tlie last of the senses assigned to it below. 

t si • .■ 

•Jt; see *-i1, with which it is syn., and of 

which it is also pi. 
ujl : see — Jt, in two places. 

•.y I : [see 1 ;] it is also explained as signifying 
A sound like that which is termed j^, arisingfrom 
grief, or anger, or repletion of the belly, or jea- 
lousy : (L :) a sound accompanied by a reiterated 
hemming in the throat (-J^J u Cjyo) : (As :) 
\d a sound that is heard Jrom a man's inside, with 
■eatking, and a shortness of breath, or panting for 
bieath, which affects fat men; asalsof>^1. (L.) 

~Jt: see — .yi. [See also 1.] 

^Ul : see wl, 

^1 act. part. n. of 1; A man breathing hard, 

r aiolently, &c. : and a man who, wken he it asked 

for a thing, makes a reiterated hemming in kit 

throat (^..«^), by reason of n 

Book I.] 

ftlflo t *yt, and t lit, (S,?,) md tl^: (X^:) 
or f ^y1 signifieB a man icAo hangt back from, or 
^i& jAort of, doing generout deeds ; aa also «-jjt : 
(El-Ghonawee and S in art ^jl, and TA in the 
present art :) and is abo applied to a horse, 
meaning that runt, and makes a kind of groaning 
>*oi*e ; ^ji \Jy^ lit : this is the right reading 
in the !^ : in some copies ^j3 \jSy^ tj' [that 
mahet a rumbling »ound in hit heJly when he runti 
(TA :) the pL of LS\ is lit. (?, 1^.) iLiT, ap- 
plied to a female, signifies Short. (^.) 

1. <y L^-j*. (AZ, 9, M, A, Mjb, ?,) and jt^j, 
(A,) WT. '-; (Mfb, TA;) and jJl, (§, M,' A, 
Mf b, ¥») aor. = (M, M^b, TA) and i ; (M ;} 
and ^^1, aor. -; (M, §gh, ]^;) inf. n. ^1 
and Lit, (§, 5,) both of Jjl, (S,) or Jjl 
(AZ, Agit, T, M, Mfb,) also' of jJ, (AZ, 
Ag&t, Msb, TA,) but this is rare, (T, TA,) 
and JJt, (T, S, M, A, ^,) which is the more 
common, (T, TA,) and Is of ^t, (S,) or ,^1 has 
a different signification fi«m ,^1 the inf. n. of 
J^l, [see JJl below,] (AZ, A^t,) or it is a 
cobet. from 4; ^t, (M$b,) and Ijl; (M;) [but 
this also is probably a subst. ;] one says ,^1 and 
1-J1, like as one says jj^ and ijji/; (gamp.766;) 
Me mat, or became, tociable, companionable, con- 
veriahU, inclined to company or convene, friendly, 
amicable, or familiar, with him, or by meant of 
him, and to him : and [a^ i^I] he wot, or became, 
cheered, or gladdened, by hit company or converse, 
or by hit, ot itt, pretence; or cheerful, gay, or glad- 
tome : the inf n. signifying the contr. ofil^y : (T, 
9,A,^:) OTheieat,oi became, at eate,oT tranquil, 
with him : (M :) or Am heart was, or became, at eaae, 
or tranquil, with him ; roithout thrinking, or aver- 
non: (M|b :) and a^ t^U^I, (S, M, A, Mjb,) and 
^t, (A,) and a/ f ^U, signify the same, (S, 
H, M;b,) i. e., the same as ^1 (M, A, Mfb, 
TA) and ^-il (M, Mjb) and JLit: (M:) yt**^ J-it 
is likewise explained as signifying he delighted, or 
rejoiced, in tuch a one; he mat happy, or piqued, 
withhim: (lA^.TA:) [and ^LJ\, a formof fre- 
qoent occurrence, inf. n. iLJI^, which occurs in 
this art. in the TA, also ngnifies h« mat, or became, 
todable, &c., mith him ; like ^ J,j\ &c. : it is 
also said in the TA that 4^ ^^^ and ai t^| are 
ajD., meaning, app., like ^ ^(1^1 and a^ x^O, 
■nd that ^1 in this case is therefore of the 
measare ^U ; but this admits of some doubt, as 
it is stud inunediatefy alter a^I as meaning the 
contr. of Ai^jt :] and t ^\Z^\, (^, TA,) said of 
a wild animal, (TA,) signifies [he became familiar, 
or tame, or domesticated ; or] Am wildnett (a.1».^) 
departed: (5,TA:) yousay Jjuirj^t ;'^. til 
^fJ^ Jife ^>il'5 ij^i J^ [ TTAot the night 
comet, every mild animal becomes familiar tvith 
kit kind, and every human being becomes thy of 
Jut kind, i. e., of such thereof as he does not know, 
when meeting them in the dark], (A, TA, Msb 
in art i^Uij.) 

J .» t t. 

2: 4^1, iiit. a. ,_f^^, S» rend^-ed him fami- 
lliar; or tame. (KL.)^See also 4, in three 

3 : see 1, in two places. 

4. '^,(M,^,) iB{. a. ^ti\, (3,) ffe behaved 
in a tociable, friendly, or familiar, manner with 
him; [seel, in two places;] he, or it, cheered him, 
or gladdenedhim,by his company or convene, aiby 
his, or itt, pretence ; he, or it, totaled, or consoled, 
him; contr. of Ai.^^ ; (8,'^;J as also ^a-JI, 
(?,) inf. n. J-eilJ : (§, ? or Ac, or U, rendered 
him easy, at ease, or tranquil; as also ^ the latter 
verb, occurring in the following ex. : \jJl^ 

o^ifi i^ ^y^ ^)i o^^ w»Lj|jg 

aII* [He kat called them (referring to weapons) 
Ol.J ^ l because they render him at ease with hit 
adversarie*, and secure, or cause him to have 
a good opinion of his safety, and thus, cheer him, 
or solace him, by their presence]. (M ; [and 
the like is said in the A.])^He perceived it; 
syn. of the inf. n. jJljit, (TA.) __ Se tarn 
him, or it, ($, M, A,* M$b, ^,) and looked at 

Aim, or it; (M,TA:) as also tUl, inf. n. 
* i' It 

^U; (50 and t ^uJLL-I : (M :) or Ac mtb 

it so that there was no doubt or uncertainty 
it : or Ac saw it, meaning a thing by the sight 
or presence of which he was cheered, gladdened, 
solaced, or consoled; ^LjI signifying U jl^t 
A/ ^Jj : (Bd in xx. 9 :) or Ac saw it, not having 
before knomn it, or (ccn acquainted with it. 
(TA.) ^ He heard it ; namely, a sound or voice. 
l^,^^.) — HefeUit; was sensible of it ; (M,?, 
TA ;) experienced it in himself; (TA ;) namely, 

[for instance,] fright, or fear. (A, TA.) He 

knew it: (S,M, Msb, 5:) Ac wat acquainted 
nnthit: (TA:) he had certain knowledge of it ; 
mas certain of it. (M, TA.) Yon say, -Ct-Si 
Ijmij Am (S, A, TA) / Ancn; him to be charac- 
terised by ^j, (8, TA,) i. e., maturity of intel- 
lect, and rectitude of actions, and good manage- 
ment of affairs. (TA.) [See ^ur iv. 6.] And 
It is said in a prov., ,^Ujt g'^i JJ^t, i. e. After 
appearuTue [is knowledge, or certain knowledge]. 

6. *i^\S: seelt^i^j-^iOl w-^O lite falcon 
looked, raising kit /tead (M, A, JEl) and his eyes. 
(A.) '^^jJG: see 10. 

10. ^iLtfl, and *f ^^\Zj\ and A«)i : see 1. ^ 
i^lLrfl signifies also He (a wild animal) became 
lensible of the pretence or nearness of a human 
being. (^,'^.)mmHe looked; as in the phrase 
t.M-1 ij^ JA ^UrfU s^3l [Oo thou and look 
f thou see any one} ; (Fr, TA :) Ac considered, 

examined, endeavouring to obtain a clear know- 
ledge of a thing ; (5, TA;) and looked aside, or 
about, to ascertain if he could see any one t 
(TA:) Ac sought, or ashed for, knowledge, or 
nformation; he inquired: (M, TA:) and hence, 
(Bd in xxiv. 27,) Ac athed permission. (Fr, Zj, 
%., TA, and B^ ubi Bupr&.) It is said in the j^ur 

Ij^A.-Jj, [Enter ye not houses other than your 
houses'] untU ye inquire whether its inhabit* 
ants desire that ye should enter or not ; [ami 

saluU .-] (M :) or (which is essentially the same, 
M) until ye ask permission : (Fr, Zj, M, TA :) 
but Fr says that the sentence presents an inversion, 
and that the meaning is, until ye salute, and ask 
if ye thall enter or not : (TA :) I 'Ab says that 
I j «JLL-3 is a mistranscription ; and he and Ubef 
and Ibn-Mes'ood read lyiUlj, which signifies 
the same: (Az,TA:) [it is said that] ^U^l 
also signifies ke made a reiterated hemming, like 
a slight coughing ; [as a man does to notify hia 
nearness;] syn. m-ia^i and so some explain it 
in the text of the ?ur quoted above. (TA.) .^ 
AJt>-JU->l He listened to, or endeavoured or taught 
to hear, him, or t(; as also ^ ^M. (A.) [See 
the '^MT xxxiii. 53.] ^ IjL.) : see 4. 

1^1 So<nahleneit ; companionablenett ; con- 
vertableness ; incUnation to company or converse; 
friendUnett ; amicableness ; socialnesi; famili- 
arity : cheerfulness ; gaynest ; gladsomeneas : 
contr. o/iilj: (T, §,A,]^;) joy; gladness; 
happiness: (^ar p. 65*2:) or ease, or tranquil- 
lity : (M :) or ease, or tranquillity, of heart, and 
freedom from shrinking, or from aversion ; 
(Msb :) an inf. n. of 1, (S, M,) as are also ♦ Jj\ 
and ta-JI (S,^) and ♦ JJl, (M,) but this is 
rare as signifying the contr. of ii^-j : (T,TA :) 
or ^ ^1 is the inf. n. of a; ,^1 ; but ,^1 is not : 
(AZ, AHdt, Msb, TA :) di'is latter is a subst. from 
that verb [signifying as explained above] : (Mfb :) 
or only signifying converse, and companionship, 
frfamaiarily, with women; (AZ, A^dt, TA ;) 
OT amatory conversation and conduct ; orthetoiA 
of young men and young women: (Fr, TA:) 
[but of all the forms above, ,^1 is that which 
is most commonly used, at least in post-claseical 
works, as signifying the contr. of ^Vj] __ 
[Also t Delight, as meaning a cause of delight, 
or thing that gives delight.] A poet says, 

..iLji ^ ^1 uj Uii 

• JiJjt Uil]l lij&l Ji • 

[O inhabitants ofMekkeh, may ye not cease to 
be a deligkt to us : verily I have not forgotten 
you : there is in you no fault beside your saying, 
at meeting. Your sociableness, or eompaniablenest, 
&.C., hat made us feel lonely and sad; meaning, 
in your absence]. (TA in art. i,A«rJ.) [See 
tJi^-i^. But (his signification, though allowable 
as tropical, is perhaps post-classical. ] — ^l ^t : 

and oVii^l j^yl'olii! and jUlj^Jfji^: 
7 ,1 ,'« » .' 

and JiUJI ^1 ij^ iJ^ : see t^l. 

^1: see ^^t, in two places.^I^ chosen, 
select, particular, or special, friend or companuMi 
(S,¥;) M also u-il O^l, (S,?,)ort,>I J^l. 
(8o in a copy of the A.) You say, ^J^^ I Jt* ; 
(B ;) and ^1 , and iUil ^>J''; CS 1 This it 
my chosen, or particular, friend ; (§ ;) and (Ay 
cAoten, or particular, friend. (T?^.) And ^;^y^J 
i^ii J>\ ^, (?,) or o"** *w^' Ch'. C-A-O 




X Such a one is the chosen^ or particular ^ friend 
of such a one. (S, A.) One also saysi 
dUJI ovt and t ,»JLJl, (S, M,) or ^-iX ,r J oi 

«d««)t (AZy Fr, A) and tiLj?, (Ay) meaning him- 
self, (AZ, Fr,S,TA,) i. e., \How dost thou regard 
me in my companionship with thee ? (S :) or 
the meaning is, Xhow dost thou find thyself? 
(A :) or how is thyself 1 (M, TK.) was Mankind; 

(S, M, A, T^ ;) the opposite of ^jm^ ; (Mf b ;) as 

also t Jji, (Akh, S, TA,) and t ^LJl . (A, T^ ;) 
the last being a gen. n.| (Msb^) but applied to the 
male (S,* Msb) and female^ (S, Mf b, IS^,) and sing. 

and pi. : (M^b :) one is [also] termed ^ i^\ and 

tijf; (§,50 thefoHnerofwhichisa'^Ln. 

from i^t ; (M ;) [and the latter, from ^t : the 
fem. of each is with 5 :] the vulgar apply to a 
woman, instead of ▼ ^LJt , [which is the more 
approved,] ▼ 2^tJt : (S, T^ :) this latter [accord. 

to some] should not be used : (S :) but it is cor- 
rect, though rare : it is said in the K to occur 
in poetry, but supposed to be post-classical : it 
occurs, however, in classical poetry, and has been 
transmitted by several authors : (MF :) the pi. 
(of Jj!, M,TA) is J-OT; (M,K:,TA;) and 
(of the same, EL in art. ^^j or of "^^^LJl, M) 

i^UI, (M, IS. ubi supr^,) with which y^\j is syn., 
(S, M, Msb, T^j) being a contraction thereof; (Sb, 

8,M,Msb;) and (of ^ y^\f S, M, or t^l, 
8, or of t ^tJ| , Lh, §, M, Msb) ^u1, (Lh, §, 
M, Msb, T^j) like as i^\j^ is pi. of lt^j^j or 

• ^ » 

like as ^^^^j^ b pL of 0^^*^y ^^^ L^ being 
substituted for ^, (M, TA,) ailer the same man- 
ner as they say ^^U for wJtjt; (Fr, TA;) and 

y^\y (Lh, M,)in the accus. case icx^Ut, as the 

' ■ ^"^^ 

word is read in the l^Iur xxv. 51, by Bis, (TA,) 

and by Yahy^ Ibn-El-Hdrith, (K, TA,) dropping 

the ^ between the second and last radical letters, 

[for, with some others, it seems, they held the 

word to be derived from the root j^-J,] (TA,) 

and ^i^ifa\j\y (S, M, T^^ in which the S is a sub- 

stitute for one of the two y& in .^Ut, a pi. of 

^LJt ; or, accord, to Mbr, ^i^^S is pi. of |««Jt, 
[in the TA, of 2l£«Jt, which I regard as a mis- 
transcription,] and is like ^^Oj for JI^^Oj, and 
iijlji for j>»j|^; (M, TA;) and you say also 

^^fN«Jt. (TA.) i^U is masc, as in the SLur 
ii. 19, &c. ; and sometimes fem., as meaning A 
trihcy or a 5oc^y o/* m^n^ ^JL^wJ, or iUbU^ ; as in 

the phrase, mentioned by Th, ^\^\ ^iU^Wy mean- 
ing. The tribCf or portion of people (iuLi), ca9it€ 
to thee. (M, TA.) t ^jCj^\ y^ means 2%« 5on« 

of Adam. (M.) And ,^Ut |^Ut, an expression 
mentioned by Sb, means, Men in every place and 
in every state are men : a poet says, 

meaning [A country in which we wercy and 
which we used to lovcy] since the men were in- 
genuous men, and the country was a fruitful 

country. (M.) The following trad., Mi) eli^i y 

J-^ O^ Jo5 tr»^' L^ J-^' ^f Cfod complied 
wiih the prayer of men with respect to men there 
would he no men, is said to mean, that men love 
to have male children bom to them, and not 
females, and if there were no females, or if the 
females were not, men would cease to be. (TA.) 
It is related that a party of the jinn, or genii, 
came to a company of men, and asked permission 
to go in to them, whereupon the latter said to 
them. Who are ye ? and they answered, ^^ ^0 
^>%Jt [A people of the jinn], making their answer 
to accord, with common usage ; for it is customary 
for men, when it is said to them. Who are ye ? 
to answer, ^j*jJ ^J^ ^>• |-»U [Men of the sons 
of such a one]. (IJ, M, L : but in the L, for 

yjjjy in both instances, we find i^Ot.) [See also 
i^U in art. i^y.] Respecting the derivation of 
▼ ^;)tJ1, authors differ, though they agree that 
the final ^ is augmentative : the Basrees say that 
it is from i^St; (Msb;) and its measure is 
^;/j^ ; (S, Msb ;) but an addition, of ^, is 

made in its dim., [which is ^^tr^Sy] like as an 
addition is made in Ji*^j^, the dim. of J«»-j : 
(S :) [but it should be observed that s}^^^j ^^ more 
probably the dim. of J^tj :] some say that it is 
from i^lJt , signifying " perception," or " sight," 


and " knowledge," and " sensation ;" because 
man uses these faculties : (TA :) and Mohammad 
Ibn-'Arafeh El-W&sitee says that men are called 

^y^ff^S because they are seen (\jy^yiy i* e. 
03yi)j and that the jinn are called ^jaf> because 

^ ii ^9 * 

they are [ordinarily] concealed (^^yS^f^y i. e. 

[Book L 

• »l 

• • 

x 3*^9 

O^^y^y) ^o™ ^^ sight of men : (TA :) [it is 
said in the B, as cited in the TA, that the form 

^^LJt is also used for ^;)tJt ; as though it were 
a dual, meaning '^ a double associate," i. e., an 
associate with the jinn and with his own kind ; 

for It IS added, JUaJl^ Lr*^b i>^W sj^^ '•] some 

derive the word from i^yJt, signifying "motion:" 

(TA :) some (namely, the Koofees, Msb) say that 

• " • 
it is originally ^;;tt^^t , (S, Msb, TA,) of the 

measure \;)'^1, (S, Msb,) from ^;;le^) ["for- 
.»• ft * ^ ^ 

getlulness"], (Msb,) and contracted to make it 
more easy of pronunciation, because of its being so 
oflen used ; (S ;) but it is restored to its original 

in forming the dim., (S, Msb,) which is oW*e^) • 
(Mfb,TA:) this form of the dim., they say, 
shows the original form of the word which is its 
source ; (TA ;) and they adduce as an indication 

of its derivation the saying of I 'Ab, ^^^^ \^\ 

^^^»»oi^ dfi\ j^ dj^ UtJt [He (meaning the first 
^^^ ^ ft X X ft 

man) was only named ^jLJ\ because he was com- 
manded and he forgot] : (S, TA :) [in like man- 
ner,] it is said that i^Ut is originally ^^Ut ; the 
former of these, accord, to one reading, and the 
latter accord, to another, occurs in the ij^ur ii. 195; 
the latter referring to Adam, and to the words of 
the BLur in xx. 114: (TA:) but Az holds that 

* ^ » 9 ^ » JO 

^j\t^\ is of the measure oW^9 ^^ Lr*^*^^ 
and similar to l!jU<0>i^. (L, T A.*) 

«» ^ 

S^i i. q. ^\y q. V. (S, K.) aa Also i. q. ,^1, 
q. y. (Akh, S, TA.) .i. Also A nutnerous com^ 
pany of men ; (^,* TA ;) many men. (TA.) ...i 

A tribe (^j^) ^tayingy residingy dwellingy or 
abiding : (S, K :) the people of a place of alighting 
or abode : (M, T A : [but in the latter, in one 
place, said to be ^\y with kesr; though a verse 

cited in both, as an ex., shows it to be ^^t :]) the 
inhabitants of a house : ( AA, TA :) pi. (of the 
word in the first sense, of these three, TA, and in 

the second, M, TA) J^ul. (M, T A.) One with 

whom a person is sociable. (Ham p. 136.) You say 
also, v^)^ Lr^t>v* They are they with whom such 

a one is sociable (^^t v^U^ v>! J^O* (^^9 ^0 

- X ft X X 

And <C <jut> i^t yk Me is much accustomed to the 
serving of him. (Har p. 472.) 

Lj! t. y. JJl, q. V. (S, KL) 

^^^^t Of, or belonging- to y mankind; human; 

[as abo ▼ i^^^y and * jV^' >] a rel. n. fix)m 
i^t. (M.) mm^ A human being ; a man ; as also 

t ^\, (§, T^,) and t^LJl. (§, A, M|b, 1^.) See 

ft • " 

i^t, in two places, .i. [Z>pm6^ic, as opposed to 
wUd. Ex.] 3L^\^^i^ Domestic asses; asses thai 
are accustomed to the houses : commonly known as 
written with kesr to the »: but in the book of 
Aboo-Moos^ is an indication of its beinc: with 

damm to the » [2^t] : and as some relate a trad. 

' ftS ^{ 

in which it occurs, ^UJt, which is said to be of no 

account (TA.) The left side (AZ, S, M, Msb, 

]^) of an animal, (Msb,) or of a beast and of a 
man, (M,) or of anything : (AZ, S, JS. :) or the 
right side : (As, S :) [but the latter seems to be a 
mistake:] Az says that Lth has well explained 

this term and its contrary Lc^ti*-^, saying that the 

latter is the right side of every beast; and the 
former, the left side ; agreeably with those of the 
first authority in sound learning ; and [that] it is 
related of El-Mufaddal and As and AO, that all 
of them asserted the latter to be, of every animal 
except man, [the "far" side, or "off" side,] the 
side on which it is not milked nor mounted ; and 
the former, [the near side,] the side on which the 
rider mounts and the milker milks : (T A in art 
lA^-3 :) [and the like is said, as a citation from Az, 
in the Msb in art ^.A^^ ^ hut after this, in my 
copy of the Msb, there seems to be an omission ; 
for it is inmiediately added, " But Az says, This 
is not correct in my opinion :"] it is said that 
everything that is frightened declines to its right 
side; for the beast is approached to be mounted 
and milked on the left side, and, fearing thereat, 
runs away fix)m the place of fear, which is the left 
side, to the place of safety, which is the right side : 
(S,* lAmb in Msb ; both in art (jl»-3 :) [ac- 
cordingly,] Er-Rd'ee describes a beast as declining 
to the side termed ^^^yt because frightened on 
the left side : (S and Msb in art. Ji^i^^ :) and 
'Antarah alludes to one's shrinking with the side 
so termed from the whip, [which he likens to a 
cat,] because the whip of the rider is in his right 
hand : (S in art. ^.A^^ ^^^ Abu-l-'Abb&s says 
that people differ respecting these two terms when 
relating to a man : that, accord, to some, they 
mean the same in this case as in the cases of horses 

Book I.] 

and other beasts of carriage, and of ca^*'^ '• Wt 
some say, that m the case of a man, the latter term 
means the part next the s